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The Art of Cookery Continued: Chapter II: Made Dishes, Part 3

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curds and whey

Selling curds and whey

Chapter two is by far the longest chapter in Hannah Glasse’s cookery book; it shows just how much emphasis was placed on meats on the eighteenth century table.  In this section there are quite a few unusual terms, all of which I’ve added explanations for:  Force-meat and sweetbread (both meats), burnt butter, astertium and broom-buds, mushroom powder, neat and pippen, just to name a few.  So, without further ado:

To fry beef steaks.

Take rump steaks, beat them very well with a roller, fry them in half a pint of ale that is not bitter, and whilst they are frying cut a large onion small, a very little thyme, some parsley shred small, some grated nutmeg, and a little pepper and salt; roll all together in a piece of butter, and then in a little flour, put this into the stew-pan, and shake all together.  When the steaks are tender, and the sauce of a fine thickness, dish it up.

A second way to fry beef steaks.

Cut the lean by itself, and beat them well with the back of a knife, fry them in just as much butter as will moisten the pan, pour out the gravy as it runs out of the meat, turn them often, do them over a gentle fire, then fry the fat by itself and lay upon the meat, and put to the gravy a glass of red wine, half an anchovy, a little nutmeg, a little beaten pepper, and a shallot cut small; give it two or three little boils, season it with salt to your palate, pour it over the steaks, and send them to table.

Another way to do beef steaks.

Cut your steaks, half broil them, then lay them in a stew-pan, season them with pepper and salt, just cover them with gravy and a piece of butter rolled in flour.  Let them stew for half an hour, beat up the yolks of two eggs, stir all together for two or three minutes, and then serve it up.

A pretty side-dish of beef.

Roast a tender piece of beef, lay fat bacon all over it, and roll it in paper, baste it, and when it is roasted cut about two pounds in thin slices, lay them in a stew-pan, and take six large cucumbers, peel them, and chop them small, lay over them a little pepper and salt, stew them in butter for about ten minutes, then drain out the butter, and shake some flour over them; toss them up, pour in half a pint of gravy, let them stew till they are thick, and dish them up.

To dress a fillet of beef.

It is the inside of a sirloin.  You must carefully cut it all out from the bone, grate some nutmeg over it, a few crumbs of bread, a little pepper and salt, a little lemon-peel, a little thyme, some parsley shred small, and roll it up tight; tie it with a packthread, roast it, put a quart of milk and a quarter of a pound of butter into the dripping-pan, and baste it; when it is enough, take it up, untie it, leave a little skewer in it to hold it together, have a little good gravy in the dish, and some sweet sauce in a cup.  You may baste it with red wine and butter, if you like it better; or it will do very well with butter only.

Beef steaks rolled.

Take three or four beef steaks, flat them with a cleaver, and make a force-meat* thus; take a pound of veal beat fine in a mortar, the flesh of a large fowl thus cut small, half a pound of cold ham chopped small, the kidney-fat of a loin of veal chopped small, a sweetbread** cut in little pieces, an ounce of truffles and morels first stewed and then cut small, some parsley, the yolks of four eggs, a nutmeg grated, a very little thyme, a little lemon-peel cut fine, a little pepper and salt, and half a pint of cream:  mix all together, lay it on your steaks, roll them up firm, of a good size, and put a little skewer into them, put them into the stew-pan, and fry them of a nice brown; then pour all the fat quite out, and put in a pint of good fried gravy (as in “To make gravy,”  Chapter I), put one spoonful of catchup, two spoonfuls of red wine, a few mushrooms, and let them stew for a quarter of an hour.  Take up the steaks, cut them in two, lay the cut side uppermost, and pour the sauce over it.  Garnish with lemon.

Note, Before you put the force-meat into the beef, you are to stir it all together over a slow fire for eight or ten minutes.

* Force-meat – a stuffing, with either meat or bread as a base.

**Sweetbread:  Culinary names for the thymus (throat, gullet, or neck) or the pancreas (also heart, stomach, or belly) especially of the calf (ris de veau) and lamb (ris d’agneau) (although beef and pork sweetbreads are also eaten).

To stew a rump of beef.

Having boiled it till it is little more than half enough, take it up, and peel off the skin:  take salt, pepper, beaten mace, grated nutmeg, a handful of parsley, a little thyme, winter-savory, sweet-marjoram, all chopped fine and mixed, and stuff them in great hold in the fat and lean, the rest spread over it, with yolks of two eggs; save the gravy that runs out, put to it a pint of claret, and put the meat in a deep pan, pour the liquor in, cover it close, and let it bake two hours, then put it into the dish, pour the liquor over it, and sent it to table.

Another way to stew a rump of beef.

You must cut the meat off the bone, lay it in your stew pan, cover it with water, put in a spoonful of whole pepper, two onions, a bundle of sweet herbs, some salt, and a pint of red wine; cover it close, set it over a stove or slow fire for four hours, shaking it sometimes, and turning it four or five times; make gravy as for soup, put in three quarts, keep it stirring till dinner is ready:  take ten or twelve turnips, cut them into slices the broad way, then cut them into four, flour them, and fry them brown in beef dripping.  Be sure to let your dripping boil before you put them in; then drain them well from the fat, lay the beef in your soup-dish, toast a little bread very nice and brown, cut in three corner dice, lay them into the dish, and the turnips likewise; strain in the gravy, and send it to table.  If you have the convenience of a stove, put the dish over it for five or six minutes; it gives the liquor a fine flavour of the turnips, makes the bread eat better, and is a great addition.  Season it with salt to your palate.

Portugal beef.

Take a rump of beef, cut it off the bone, cut it across, flour it, fry the thin part brown in butter, the thick end stuff with suet, boiled chesnuts, an anchovy, an onion, and a little pepper.  Stew it in a pan of strong broth, and when it is tender, lay both the fried and stewed together in your dish, cut the friend in two and lay on each side of the stewed, strain the gravy it was stewed in, put to it some pickled gerkins chopped, and boiled chestnuts, thicken it with a piece of burnt butter*, give it two or three boils up, season it with salt to your palate, and pour it over the beef.  Garnish with lemon.

* burnt butter:  Melt the butter on a gentle heat in a small saucepan until nutty brown.

To stew a rump of beef, or the briscuit, the French way.

Take a rump of beef, put it into a little pot that will hold it, cover it with water, put on the cover, let it stew an hour; but if the briscuit, two hours.  Skim it clean, then slash the meat with a knife to let out the gravy, put in a little beaten pepper, some salt, four cloves, with two or three large blades of mace beat fine, six onions sliced, and half a pint of red wine; cover it close, let it stew an hour, then put in two spoonfuls of capers or astertium-buds* pickled, or broom-buds**, chop them;  two spoonfuls of vinegar, and two of verjuice; boil fix cabbage lettuces in water, then put them in a pot, put in a pint of good gravy, let all stew together for half an hour, skim all the fat off, lay the meat into the dish, and pour the rest over it, have ready some pieces of bread cut three corner ways, and fried crisp, stick them about the meat, and garnish them.  When you put in the cabbage, put with it a good piece of butter rolled in flour.

* astertium-buds pickled:  She must mean “Nasturtium” buds, of a flowering plant; for more information, see the culinary section under “Tropaeolum” at Wikipedia.

**broom-buds:  She may be referring to either the Spartium plant, or the broom shrub, which was used raw or pickled, even though it is now known to be potentially toxic, effecting the heart and / or causing problems during pregnancy!

To stew beef gobbets.

Get any piece of beef, except the leg, cut it in pieces about the bigness of a pullet’s egg, put them in a stew-pan, cover them with water, let them stew, skim them clean, and when they have stewed an hour, take mace, cloves, and whole pepper tied in a muslin rag loose, some celery cut small, put them into the pan with some salt, turnips and carrots, pared and cut in slices, a little parsley, a bundle of sweet-herbs, and a large crust of bread.  You may put in an ounce of barley or rice, if you like it.  Cover it close, and let it stew till it is tender, take out the herbs, spices, and bread, and have ready fried a French roll cut in four.  Dish up all together, and send it to table.

Beef royal.

Take a sirloin of beef, or a large rump, bone it and beat it very well, then lard it with bacon, season it all over with salt, pepper, mace, cloves, and nutmeg, all beat fine, some lemon-peel cut small, and some sweet-herbs; in the mean time make a strong broth of the bones, take a piece of butter with a little flour, brown it, put in the beef, keep it turning often till it is brown, then strain the broth, put all together into a pot, put in a bay-leaf, a few truffles, and some ox palates cut small; cover it close, and let it stew till it is tender, take out the beef, skim off all the fat, pour in a pint of claret, some fried oysters, an anchovy, and some gerkins shred small; boil all together, put in the beef to warm, thicken your sauce with a piece of butter rolled in flour, or mushroom powder**, or burnt butter**.  Lay your meat in the dish, pour the sauce over it, and send it to table.  This may be eat either hot or cold.

* mushroom powder:  Dried mushrooms ground to a powder in a mortar, used as flavouring.  This is still used in Asian cuisine, and you might be able to find it in a good Asian supermarket or health food store in the Vegetarian section.

**burnt butter:  Melt the butter on a gentle heat in a small saucepan until nutty brown.

A tongue and udder forced.

First parboil your tongue and udder, blanch the tongue and stick it with cloves; as for the udder, you must carefully raise it, and fill it with force-meat made with veal:  first wash the inside with the yolk of an egg, then put in the force-meat*, tie the ends close and spit them, roast them, and baste them with butter when enough, have good gravy in the dish, and sweet sauce in a cup.  Note, For variety, you may lard the udder.

** Force-meat – a stuffing, with either meat or bread as a base.

To fricasey neat’s tongues.

Take neats tongues, boil them tender, peel them, cut them into thin slices, and fry them in fresh butter; then pour out the butter, put in as much gravy as you shall want for sauce, a bundle of sweet herbs, an onion, some pepper and salt, and a blade or two of mace; simmer all together half an hour, then take out your tongue, strain the gravy, put it with the tongue in the stew-pan again, beat up the yolks of two eggs with a glass of white wine, a little grated nutmeg, a piece of butter as big as a walnut rolled in flour, shake all together for four or five minutes, dish it up, and send it to table.

Neat is an Old English word for an ox, bullock or cow, from the Proto-Germanic word “nautam,” meaning a possession of value.

To force a tongue.

Boil it till it is tender; let it stand till it is cold, then cut a hole at the root end of it, take out some of the meat, chop it with as much beef suet, a few pippins*, some pepper and salt, a little mace beat, some nutmeg, a few sweet herbs, and the yolks of two eggs; chop it all together, stuff it, cover the end with a veal caul** or buttered paper, roast it, baste it with butter, and dish it up.  Have for sauce good gravy, a little melted butter, the juice of an orange or lemon, and some grated nutmeg; boil it up, and pour it into the dish.

* Pippin:  Varieties of apples grown from the seed, or “pip.”

** Caul :  The membrane.

To stew neat’s tongues whole.

Take two tongues, let them stew in water just to cover them for two hours, then peel them, put them in again with a pint of strong gravy, half a pint of white wine, a bundle of sweet-herbs, a little pepper and salt, some mace, cloves, and whole pepper tied in a muslin rag, a spoonful of capers chopped, turnips and carrots sliced, and a piece of butter rolled in flour; let all stew together very softly over a slow fire for two hours, then take out the spice and sweet-herbs, and send it to table.  You may leave out the turnips and carrots, or boil them by themselves, and lay them in a dish, just as you like.

To fricasey ox palates.

After boiling your palates very tender, (which you must do by setting them on in cold water, and letting them do softly) then blanch them and scrape them clean; take mace, nutmeg, cloves and pepper beat fine, rub them all over with those, and with crumbs of bread; have ready some butter in a stew-pan, and when it is hot put in the palates; fry them brown on both sides, then pour out the fat, and put to them some mutton or beef gravy, enough for sauce, an anchovy, a little nutmeg, a little piece of butter rolled in flour, and the juice of a lemon:  let it simmer all together for a quarter of an hour, dish it up, and garnish with lemon.

To roast ox palates.

Having boiled your palates tender, blanch them, cut them into slices about two inches long, lard half with bacon, then have ready two or three pigeons and two or three chicken-peepers, draw them, truss them, and fill them with force-meat*; let half of them be nicely larded, spit them on a bird-spit; spit them thus:  a bird, a palate, a sage-leaf, and a piece of bacon and so on, a bird, a palate, a sage-leaf, and a piece of bacon.  Take cocks-combs and lamb stones, parboiled and blanched, lard them with little bits of bacon, large oysters parboiled, and each one larded with one piece of bacon, put these on a skewer with a little piece of bacon and a sage-leaf between them, tie them on to a spit and roast them, then beat up the yolks of three eggs, some nutmeg, a little salt and crumbs of bread; baste them with these all the time they are a-roasting, and have ready two sweetbreads** each cut in two, some artichoke-bottoms cut into four and fried, and then rub the dish with shallots: lay the birds in the middle, piled upon one another, and lay the other things all separate by themselves round about in the dish.  Have ready for sauce a pint of good gravy, a quarter of a pint of red wine, an anchovy, the oyster liquor, a piece of butter rolled in flour; boil all these together and pour into the dish, with a little juice of lemon.  Garnish your dish with lemon.

* Force-meat – a stuffing, with either meat or bread as a base.

**Culinary names for the thymus (throat, gullet, or neck) or the pancreas (also heart, stomach, or belly) especially of the calf (ris de veau) and lamb (ris d’agneau) (although beef and pork sweetbreads are also eaten).

To dress a leg of mutton à la royale.

Having taken off all the fat, skin, and shank-bone, lard it with bacon, season it with pepper and salt, and a round piece of about three or four pounds of beef or leg of veal, lard it, have ready some hog’s lard boiling, flour your meat, and give it a colour in the lard, then take the meat out and put it into a pot, with a bundle of sweet herbs, some parsley, an onion stuck with cloves, two or three blades of mace, some whole pepper, and three quarts of water; cover it close, and let it boil very softly for two hours, mean while get ready a sweetbread* split, cut into four, and broiled, a few truffles and morels stewed in a quarter of a pint of strong gravy, a glass of red wine, a few mushrooms, two spoonfuls of catchup, and some asparagus-tops; boil all these together, then lay the mutton in the middle of the dish, cut the beef or veal into slices, make a rim round your mutton with the slices, and pour the ragoo over it; when you have taken the meat out of the pot, skim all the fat off the gravy; strain it, and add as much to the other as will fill the dish.  Garnish with lemon.

*Culinary names for the thymus (throat, gullet, or neck) or the pancreas (also heart, stomach, or belly) especially of the calf (ris de veau) and lamb (ris d’agneau) (although beef and pork sweetbreads are also eaten).

A leg of mutton à la hautgout*

Let it hang a fortnight in an airy place, then have ready some cloves of garlic, and stuff it all over, rub it with pepper and salt; roast it, have ready some good gravy and red wine in the dish, and sent it to table.

*high taste

To roast a leg of mutton with oysters.

Take a leg about two or three days killed, stuff it all over with oysters, and roast it.  Garnish with horse-raddish.

To roast a leg of mutton with cockles.

Stuff it all over with cockles, and roast it.  Garnish with horse-raddish.

A shoulder of mutton in epigram.

Roast it almost enough, then very carefully take off the skin about the thickness of a crown-piece, and the shank-bone with it at the end; then season that skin and shank-bone with pepper and salt, a little lemon-peel cut small, and a few sweet-herbs and crumbs of bread, then lay this on the gridiron, and let it be of a fine brown; in the mean time take the rest of the meat and cut it like a hash about the bigness of a shilling; have the gravy and put to it, with a few spoonfuls of strong gravy, half an onion cut fine, a little nutmeg, a little pepper and salt, a little bundle of sweet-herbs, some gerkins cut very small, a few mushrooms, two or three truffles cut small, two spoonfuls of wine, either red or white, and throw a little flour over the meat:  Let all these stew together very softly for five or six minutes, but be sure it do not boil; take out the sweet-herbs, and put the hash into the dish, lay the broiled upon it, and send it to table.

a harrico* of mutton.

Take a neck or loin of mutton, cut it into six pieces, flour it, and fry it brown on both sides in the stew-pan, then pour out all the fat; put in some turnips and carrots cut like dice, two dozen of chestnuts blanched, two or three lettuces cut small, six little round onions, a bundle of sweet-herbs, some pepper and salt, and two or three blades of mace; cover it close, and let it stew for an hour, then take off the fat and dish it up.

*From what I have been able to find, which isn’t much, it must come from the Old English word hnecca “neck, nape, back of the neck” (a fairly rare word)

To French a hind-saddle of mutton.

It is the two rumps.  Cut off the rump, and carefully lift up the skin with a knife:  begin at the broad end, but be sure you do not crack it nor take it quite off:  then take some slices of ham or bacon chopped fine, a few truffles, some young onions, some parsley, a little thyme, sweet-marjoram, winter savoury, a little lemon-peel, all chopped fine, a little mace and two or three cloves beat fine, half a nutmeg, and a little pepper and salt; mix all together, and throw over the meat where you took off the skin, then lay on the skin again, and fasten it with two fine skewers at each side, and roll it in well buttered paper.  It will take three hours doing:  then take off the paper, baste the meat, strew it all over with crumbs of bread, and when it is of a fine brown take it up.  For sauce take six large shallots, cut them very fine, put them into a saucepan with two spoonfuls of vinegar, and two of white wine; boil them for a minute or two, pour it into the dish, and garnish with horse raddish.

Another French way, called St. Menehout.

Take the hind saddle of mutton, take off the skin, lard it with bacon, season it with pepper, salt, mace, cloves beat, and nutmeg, sweet-herbs, young onions, and parsley, all chopped fine; take a large oval or a large gravy-pan, lay layers of bacon, and then layers of beef all over the bottom, lay in the mutton, then lay layers of bacon on the mutton, and then a layer of beef, put in a pint of wine, and as much good gravy as will stew it, put in a bay-leaf, and two or three shallots, cover it close, put fire over and under it, if you have a close pan, and let it stand stewing for two hours; when done, take it out, strew crumbs of bread all over it, and put it into the oven to brown, strain the gravy it was stewed in, and boil it till there is just enough for sauce, lay the mutton into a dish, pour the sauce in, and serve it up.  You must brown it before a fire, if you have not an oven.

Cutlets à la Maintenon.  A very good dish.

Cut your cutlets handsomely, beat them thin with your cleaver, season them with pepper and salt, make a force-meat* with veal, beef, suet, spice and sweet-herbs, rolled in yolks of eggs, roll force-meat round each cutlet, within two inches of the top of the bone, then have as many half sheets of white paper as cutlets, roll each cutlet in a piece of paper, first buttering the paper well on the inside, dip the cutlets in melted butter and them in crumbs of bread, lay each cutlet on half a sheet of paper cross the middle of it, leaving about an inch of the bone out, then close the two ends of your paper as you do a turnover tart, and cut off the paper that is too much; broil your mutton cutlets half an hour, your veal cutlets three quarters of an hour, and then take the paper off and lay them round in the dish, with the bone outwards.  Let your sauce be good gravy thickened, and serve it up.

** Force-meat – a stuffing, with either meat or bread as a base.

To make a mutton hash.

Cut your mutton in little bits as think as you can, strew a little flour over it, have ready some gravy (enough for sauce) wherein sweet-herbs, onion, pepper and salt, have been boiled; strain it, put in your meat, with a little piece of butter rolled in flour, and a little salt, a shallot cut fine, a few capers and gerkins chopped fine, and a blade of mace:  toss all together for a minute or two, have ready some bread toasted and cut into thin sippets, lay them round the dish, and pour in your hash.  Garnish your dish with pickles and horse-raddish.

Note, Some love a glass of red wine, or walnut pickle.  You may put just what you will into a hash.  If the sippets are toasted it is better.

*Sippet is the diminutive of sop, which was usually a small piece of bread to dip into a soup or broth.

To dress a pig’s petty-toes.

Put your petty-toes into a saucepan with half a pint of water, a blade of mace, a little whole pepper, a bundle of sweet-herbs, and an onion.  Let them boil five minutes, then take out the liver, lights, and heart, mince them very fine, grate a little nutmeg over them, and shake a little flour on them; let the feet do till they are tender, then take them out and strain the liquor, put all together with a little salt, and a piece of butter as big as a walnut, shake the saucepan often, let it simmer five or six minutes, then cut some toasted sippets and lay round the dish, lay the mince-meat and sauce in the middle, and the petty-toes split round it.  You may add the juice of half a lemon, or a very little vinegar.

A second way to roast a leg of mutton with oysters.

Stuff a leg of mutton with mutton suet, salt, pepper, nutmeg, and the yolks of eggs; then roast it, stick it all over with cloves, and when it is about half done, cut off some of the under-side of the fleshy end in little bits, put these into a pipkin with a pint of oysters, liquor and all, a little salt and mace, and half a pint of hot water:  stew them till half the liquor is wasted, then put in a piece of butter rolled in flour, shake all together, and when the mutton is enough take it up; pour this sauce over it, and send it to table.

To dress a leg of mutton to eat like venison.

Take a hind-quarter of mutton, and cut the leg in the shape of a haunch of venison, save the blood of the sheep and steep it in for five or six hours, then take it out and roll it in three or four sheets of white paper well-buttered on the inside, tie it with a packthread, and roast it, basting it with good beef-dripping or butter.  It will take two hours at a good fire, for your mutton must be fat and thick.  About five or six minutes before you take it up, take off the paper, baste it with a piece of butter, and shake a little flour over it to make it have a fine froth, and then have a little good drawn gravy in a bason, and sweet-sauce in another.  Don’t garnish with any thing.

To dress mutton the Turkish way.

First cut your meat into thin slices, then wash it in vinegar, and put it into a pot or saucepan that has a close cover to it, put in some rice, whole pepper, and three or four whole onions; let all these stew together, skimming it frequently; when it is enough, take out the onions, and season it with salt to your palate, lay the mutton in the dish, and pour the rice and liquor over it.

Note, The neck or leg are the best joins to dress this way:  Put in to a leg four quarts of water, and a quarter of a pound of rice; to a neck two quarts of water, and two ounces of rice.  To every pound of meat allow a quarter of an hour, being close covered.  If you put in a blade or two of mace, and a bundle of sweet-herbs, it will be a great addition.  When it is just enough put in a piece of butter, and take care the rice don’t burn to the pot.  In all these things you should lay skewers at the bottom of the pot to lay your meat on, that it may not stick.

A shoulder of mutton with a ragoo of turnips.

Take a shoulder of mutton, get the blade-bone taken out as neat as possible, and in the place put a ragoo, done thus:  take one or two sweetbreads*, some cocks-combs, half an ounce of truffles, some mushrooms, a blade or two of mace, a little pepper and salt; stew all these in a quarter of a pint of good gravy, and thicken it with a piece of butter rolled in flour, or yolks of eggs, which you please:  let it be cold before you put it in, and fill up the place where you took the bone out just in the form it was before, and sew it up tight:  take a large deep stew-pan, or one of the round deep copper pans with two handles, lay at the bottom thin slices of bacon, then slices of veal, a bundle of parsley, thyme, and sweet-herbs, some whole pepper, a blade or two of mace, three or four cloves, a large onion, and put in just think gravy enough to cover the meat; cover it close, and let it stew two hours, then take eight or ten turnips, pare them, and cut them into what shape you please, put them into boiling water, and let them be just enough, throw them into a sieve to drain over the hot water, that they may keep warm, then take up the mutton, drain it from the fat, lay it in a dish, and keep it hot covered; strain the gravy it was stewed in, and take off all the fat, put in a little salt, a glass of red wine, two spoonfuls of catchup, and a piece of butter rolled in flour, boil together till there is just enough for sauce, then put in the turnips, give them a boil up, pour them over the meat, and sent it to table.  You may fry the turnips of a light brown, and toss them up with the sauce; but that is according to your palate.

Note, For a change you may leave out the turnips, and add a bunch of celery cut and washed clean, and stewed in a very little water, till it is quite tender, and the water almost boiled away.  Pour the gravy, as before directed, into it, and boil it up till the sauce is good:  or you may leave both these out, and add truffles, morels, fresh and pickled mushrooms, and artichoke-bottoms.

N.B. A shoulder of veal without the knuckle, first fried, and then done just as the mutton, eats very well.  Don’t garnish your mutton, but garnish your veal with lemon.

*Culinary names for the thymus (throat, gullet, or neck) or the pancreas (also heart, stomach, or belly) especially of the calf (ris de veau) and lamb (ris d’agneau) (although beef and pork sweetbreads are also eaten).

To stuff a leg or shoulder of mutton.

Take a little grated bread, some beef suet, the yolks of hard eggs, three anchovies, a bit of onion, some pepper and salt, a little thyme and winter savoury, twelve oysters, and some nutmeg grated; mix all these together, shred them very fine, work them up with raw eggs like a paste, stuff your mutton under the skin in the thickest place, or where you please, and roast it:  for sauce, take some of the oyster liquor, some claret, one anchovy, a little nutmeg, a bit of an onion, and a few oysters; stew all these together, then take out your onion, pour sauce under your mutton, and send it to table.  Garnish with horse-raddish.

Sheep rumps with rice.

Take six rumps, put them into a stew-pan with some mutton gravy, enough to fill it, stew them about half an hour, take them up and let them stand to cool, then put into the liquor a quarter of a pound of rice, an onion stuck with cloves, and a blade or two of mace; let it boil till the rice is as thick as a pudding, but take care it don’t stick to the bottom, which you must do by stirring it often:  in the mean time take a clean stew-pan, put a piece of butter into it; dip your rumps in the yolks of eggs beat, and then in crumbs of bread with a little nutmeg, lemon-peel, and a very little thyme in it, fry them in the butter of a fine brown, then take them out, lay them in a dish to drain, pour out all the fat, and toss the rice into that pan; stir it all together for a minute or two, then lay the rice into the dish, lay the rumps all round upon the rice, have ready four eggs boiled hard, cut them into quarters, lay them round the dish with friend parsley between them, and send it to table.

To make lamb and rice.

Take a neck and loin of lamb, half roast it, take it up, cut it into steaks, then take half a pound of rice, put it into a quart of good gravy, with two or three blades of mace, and a little nutmeg.  Do it over a stove or slow fire till the rice begins to be thick; then take it off, stir in a pound of butter, and when that is quite melted stir in the yolks of six eggs; first beat, then take a dish and butter it all over, take the steaks and put a little pepper and salt over them, dip them in a little melted butter, lay them into the dish, pour the gravy which comes out of them over them, and then the rice; beat the yolks of three eggs and pour all over, send it to the oven, and bake it better than half an hour.

Baked mutton chops.

Take a loin or neck of mutton, cut it into steaks, put some pepper and salt over it, butter your dish and lay in your steaks; then take a quart of milk, six eggs beat up fine, and four spoonfuls of flour; beat your flour and eggs in a little milk first, and then put the rest to it, put in a little beaten ginger, and a little salt.  Pour this over the steaks, and send it to the over; an hour and an half will bake it.

A forced leg of lamb.

Take a large leg of lamb, cut a long slit on the back side, but take great care you don’t deface the other side; then chop the meat small with marrow, half a pound of beef-suet, some oysters, an anchovy unwashed, an onion, some sweet-herbs, a little lemon peel, and some beaten mace and nutmeg; beat all these together in a mortar, stuff it up in the shape it was before, sew it up, and rub it over with the yolks of eggs beaten, spit it, flour it all lover, lay it to the fire, and baste it with butter.  An hour will roast it.  You may bake it, if you please, but then you must butter the dish, and lay the butter over it:  cut the loin into steaks, season them with pepper, salt, and nutmeg, lemon-peel cut fine, and a few sweet-herbs; fry them in fresh butter of a fine brown, then pour out all the butter, put in a quarter of a pint of white wine, shake it about, and put in half a pint of strong gravy, wherein good spice has been boiled, a quarter of a pint of oysters and the liquor, some mushrooms and a spoonful of the pickle, a piece of butter rolled in flour, and the yolk of an egg beat; stir all these together till it is thick, then lay your leg of lamb in the dish, and the loin around it; pour the sauce over it, and garnish with lemon.

To fry a loin of lamb.

Cut the loin into thin steaks, put a very little pepper and salt, and a little nutmeg on them, and fry them in fresh butter; when enough, take out the steaks, lay them in a dish before the fire to keep hot, then pour out the butter, shake a little flour over the bottom of the pan, pour in a quarter of a pint of boiling water, and put in a piece of butter; shake all together, give it a boil or two up, pour it over the steaks, and send it to table.

Note, You may do mutton the same way, and add two spoonfuls of walnut-pickle.

Another way of frying a neck or loin of lamb.

Cut into thin steaks, beat them with a rolling pin, fry them in half a pint of ale, season them with a little salt, and cover them close; when enough, take them out of the pan, lay them in a plate before the fire to keep hot, and pour all out of the pan into a bason; then put in half a pint of white wine, a few capers, the yolks of two eggs beat, with a little nutmeg and a little salt; add to this the liquor they were fried in, and keep stirring it one way all the time till it is thick, then put in the lamb, keep shaking the pan for a minute or two, lay the steaks into the dish, pour the sauce over them, and have some parsley in a plate before the fire a-crisping.  Garnish your dish with that and lemon.

To make a ragoo of lamb.

Take a fore-quarter of lamb, cut the knuckle-bone off, lard it with little thin bits of bacon, flour it, fry it of a fine brown, and then put it into an earthen pot or stew-pan; put to it a quart of broth or good gravy, a bundle of herbs, a little mace, two or three cloves, and a little whole pepper; cover it close, and let it stew pretty fast for half an hour, pour the liquor all out, strain it, keep the lamb hot in the pot till the sauce is ready.  Take half a pint of oysters, flour them, fry them brown, drain out all the fat clean that you fried them in, skim all the fat off the gravy, then pour it into the oysters, put in an anchovy, and two spoonfuls of either red or white wine; boil all together, till there is just enough for sauce, add some fresh mushrooms (if you can get them) and some pickled onions, with a spoonful of the pickle, or the juice of half a lemon.  Lay your lamb in the dish, and pour the sauce over it.  Garnish with lemon.

To stew a lamb’s, or calf’s head.

First wash it, and pick it very clean, lay it in water for an hour, take out the brains, and with a sharp penknife carefully take out the bones and the tongue, but be careful you do not bread the meat; then take out the two eyes, and take two pounds of veal and two pounds of beef-suet, a very little thyme, a good piece of lemon-peel minced, a nutmeg grated, and two anchovies: chop all very well together, grate two stale rolls, and mix all together with the yolks of four eggs:  save enough of this meat to make about twenty balls, take half a pint of fresh mushrooms clean peeled and washed, or pickled cockles; mix all these together, but first stew your oysters, and put to it two quarts of gravy, with a blade or two of mace.  It will be proper to tie the head with packthread, cover it close, and let it stew two hours:  in the mean time beat up the brains with some lemon-peel cut fine, a little parsley chopped, half a nutmeg grated, and the yolk of an egg; have some dripping boiling, fry half the brains in little cakes, and fry the balls, keep them both hot by the fire; take half an ounce of truffles and morels, then strain the gravy the head was stewed in, put the truffles and morels to it with the liquor, and a few mushrooms; boil all together, then put in the rest of the brains that are not fried, stew them together for a minute or two, pour it over the head, and lay the fried brains and balls around it.  Garnish with lemon.  You may fry about twelve oysters.

To dress veal à la Bourgoise.

Cut pretty thick slices of veal, lard them with bacon, and season them with pepper, salt, beaten mace, cloves, nutmeg, and chopped parsley, then take the stew-pan and cover the bottom with slices of fat bacon, lay the veal upon them, cover it, and set it over a very slow fire for eight or ten minutes, just to be hot and no more, then brisk up your fire and brown your veal on both sides, then shake some flour over it and brown it; pour in a quart of good broth or gravy, cover it close, and let it stew gently till it is enough; when enough, take out the slices of bacon, and skim all the fat off clean, and beat up the yolks of three eggs with some of the gravy; mix all together, and keep it stirring one way till it is smooth and thick, then take it up, lay your meat in the dish, and pour the sauce over it.  Garnish with lemon.

A disguised leg of veal and bacon.

Lard your veal all over with slips of bacon and a little lemon-peel, and boil it with a piece of bacon:  when enough, take it up, cut the bacon into slices, and have ready some dried sage and pepper rubbed fine, rub it over the bacon, lay the veal in the dish and the bacon round it, strew it all over with fried parsley, and have green sauce in cups, made thus:  take two handfuls of sorrel, pound it in a mortar, and squeeze out the juice, put it into a sauce-pan with some melted butter, a little sugar, and the juice of lemon.  Or you may make it thus:  beat two handfuls of sorrel in a mortar, with two pippins* quartered, squeeze the juice out, with the juice of a lemon or vinegar, and sweeten it with sugar.

* Pippin:  Varieties of apples grown from the seed, or “pip.”

A pillaw of veal.

Take a neck or breast of veal, half roast it, then cut it into six pieces, season it with pepper, salt, and nutmeg:  take a pound of rice, put to it a quart of broth, some mace, and a little salt, do it over a stove or very slow fire till it is thick, but butter the bottom of the dish or pan you do it in:  beat up the yolks of six eggs and stir into it, then take a little round deep dish, butter it, lay some of the rice at the bottom, then lay the veal on a round heap, and cover it all over with rice, wash it over with the yolks of eggs, and bake it an hour and a half, then open the top and pour in a pint of rich good gravy.  Garnish with a Seville orange cut in quarters, and send it to table hot.

Bombarded veal.

You must get a fillet of veal, cut out of it five lean pieces as thick as your hand, round them up a little, then lard them very thick on the round side with little narrow thin pieces of bacon, and lard five sheeps tongues being first boiled and blanched), lard them here and there with very little bits of lemon-peel, and make a well-seasoned force-meat* of veal, bacon, ham, beef-suet, and an anchovy beat well; make another tender force-meat of veal, beef-suet, mushrooms, spinach, parsley, thyme, sweet-marjoram, winter savory, and green onions.  Season with pepper, salt, and mace; beat it well, make a round ball of the other force-meat and stuff in the middle of this, roll it up in a veal caul, and bake it; what is left, tie up like a Bologna sausage, and boil it, but first rub the caul with the yolk of an egg; put the larded veal into a stew-pan with some good gravy, and when it is enough skim off the fat, put in some truffles and morels, and some mushrooms.  Your force-meat being baked enough, lay it in the middle, the veal round it, and the tongues fried, and laid in between, the boiled cup into slices, and fried, and throw all over.  Pour on them the sauce.  You may add artichoke-bottoms, sweetbreads**, and cocks-combs, if you please.  Garnish with lemon.

* Force-meat – a stuffing, with either meat or bread as a base.

**Culinary names for the thymus (throat, gullet, or neck) or the pancreas (also heart, stomach, or belly) especially of the calf (ris de veau) and lamb (ris d’agneau) (although beef and pork sweetbreads are also eaten).

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About Trinity

A melancholic pragmatist with a wide streak of mischief and an active imagination that turns into novels.

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