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The Art of Cookery Continued: Chapter II: Made Dishes, Part 4

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After this, there’s one more part of the longest chapter in Hannah Glasse’s 1747 “Art of Cookery”.  In this particular section there are a few interesting aspects:  “Raspings” were used as decoration, as thickener, as a way to keep something burning to the bottom of a pan (a “buffer” layer, so to speak) – and all it was was toasted bread, scraped.  So the next time you burn a piece of toast, just think of that unique opportunity presented.  Several new terms are explained, some of which were completely new to me and difficult to track down; collops, chitterlings, swerd, Canary, chine, Rocambole and scraig … you can’t accuse them of a boring language.  And if anyone finds out what a matelote is, please let me know.

Once again, some of her recipes prove why they haven’t stood the test of time; one combines pig’s feet and eels, with craw-fish thrown in for good measure… Another is “Calf’s Head Surprise” – need I say more?

The Art of Cookery Continued: Chapter II: Made Dishes, Part 4

Veal rolls.

Take ten or twelve little thin slices of veal, lay on them some force-meat* according to your fancy, roll them up, and tie them just across the middle with coarse thread, put them on a bird-spit, rub them over with the yolks of eggs, flour them, and baste them with butter.  Half an hour will do them.  Lay them into a dish, and have ready some good gravy, with a few truffles and morels, and some mushrooms.  Garnish with lemon.

* Force-meat – a stuffing, with either meat or bread as a base.

Olives of veal the French way.

Take two pounds of veal, some marrow, two anchovies, the yolks of two hard eggs, a few mushrooms, and some oysters, a little thyme, marjoram, parsley, spinach, lemon-peel, salt, pepper, nutmeg and mace, finely beaten; take your veal caul, lay a layer of bacon and a layer of the ingredients, roll it in the veal caul, and either roast it or bake it.  An hour will do either.  When enough, cut it into slices, lay it into your dish, and pour good gravy over it.  Garnish with lemon.

Scotch collops à la Francois.

Take a leg of veal, cut it very thin, lard it with bacon, then take half a pint of ale boiling, and pour over it till the blood is out, and then pour the ale into a bason; take a few sweet-herbs chopped small, strew them over the veal and fry it in butter, flour it a little till enough, then put it into a dish and pour the butter away, toast little thin pieces of bacon and lay round, pour the ale into the stew-pan with two anchovies and a glass of white wine, then beat up the yolks of two eggs and stir in, with a little nutmeg, some pepper, and a piece of butter, shake all together till thick, and then pour it into the dish.  Garnish with lemon.

* collops – a small piece of meat, either thin slices or minced meat of either beef, lamb or venison.

To make a savoury dish of veal.

Cut large collops out of a leg of veal, spread them abroad on a dresser, hack them with the back of a knife, and dip them in the yolks of eggs; season them with cloves, mace, nutmeg and pepper, beat fine; make force-meat* with some of your veal, beef-suet, oysters chopped, sweet-herbs shred fine, and the aforesaid spice, strew all these over your collops, roll and tie them up, put them on skewers, tie them to a spit, and roast them; to the rest of your force-meat add a raw egg or two, roll them in balls and fry them, put them in your dish with your meat when roasted, and make the sauce with strong broth, an anchovy, a shallot, a little white-wine, and some spice.  Let it stew, and thicken it with a piece of butter rolled in flour, pour the sauce into the dish, lay the meat in, and garnish with lemon.

* Force-meat – a stuffing, with either meat or bread as a base.

Scotch collops* larded.

Prepare a fillet of veal, cut into thin slices, cut off the skin and fat, lard them with bacon, fry them brown, then take them out, and lay them in a dish, pour out all the butter, take a quarter of a pound of butter and met it in the pan, then strew in a handful of flour; stir it till it is brown, and pour in three pints of good gravy, a bundle of sweet-herbs, and an onion, which you must take out soon; let it boil a little, then put in the collops, let them stew half a quarter of an hour, put in some force-meat** balls fried, the yolks of two eggs, a piece of butter, and a few pickled mushrooms; stir all together, for a minute or two till it is thick; and then dish it up.  Garnish with lemon.

* collops – a small piece of meat, either thin slices or minced meat of either beef, lamb or venison.

** Force-meat – a stuffing, with either meat or bread as a base.

To do them white.

After you have cut your veal in thin slices, lard it with bacon; season it with cloves, mace, nutmeg, pepper and salt, some grated bread, and sweet-herbs.  Stew the knuckle in as little liquor as you can, a bunch of sweet-herbs, some whole pepper, a blade of mace, and four cloves; then take a pint of the broth, stew the cutlets in it, and add to it a quarter of a pint of white wine, some mushrooms, a piece of butter rolled in flour, and the yolks of two eggs; stir all together till it is thick, and then dish it up.  Garnish with lemon.

Veal blanquets.

Roast a piece of veal, cut off the skin and nervous parts, cut it into little thin bits, put some butter into a stew-pan over the fire with some chopped onions, fry them a little, then add a dust of flour, stir it together, and put in some good broth, or gravy, and a bundle of sweet-herbs:  season it with spice, make it of a good taste, and then put in your veal, the yolks of two eggs beat up with cream and grated nutmeg, some chopped parsley, a shallot, some lemon-peel grated, and a little juice of lemon.  Keep it stirring one way; when enough, dish it up.

A shoulder of veal à la Piemontoise.

Take a shoulder of veal, cut off the skin that it may hang at one end, then lard the meat with bacon and ham, and season it with pepper, salt, mact, sweet-herbs, parsley and lemon-peel; cover it again with the skin, stew it with gravy, and when it is just tender take it up; then take sorrel, some lettuce chopped small, and stew them in some butter with parsley, onions and mushrooms:  the herbs being tender put to them some of the liquor, some sweetbreads* and some bits of ham.  Let all stew together a little while, then lift up the skin, lay the stewed herbs over and under, cover it with the skin again, wet it with melted butter, strew it over with crumbs of bread, and send it to the oven to brown; serve it hot, with some good gravy in the dish.  The French stew it over with parmesan before it goes to the oven.

*Culinary names for the thymus (throat, gullet, or neck) or the pancreas (also heart, stomach, or belly) especially of the calf (ris de veau) and lamb (ris d’agneau) (although beef and pork sweetbreads are also eaten).

A calf’s head surprise.

You must bone it, but not split it, cleanse it well, fill it with a ragoo (in the form it was before) made thus:  take two sweetbreads*, each sweetbread being cut into eight pieces, an ox’s palate boiled tender and cut into little pieces, some cocks-combs, half an ounce of truffles and morels, some mushrooms, some artichoke bottoms, and asparagus tops; stew all these in half a pint of good gravy, season it with two or three blades of mace, four cloves, half a nutmeg, a very little pepper, and some salt, pound all these together, and put them into the raggo:  when it has stewed about half an hour, take the yolks of three eggs beat up with two spoonfuls of cream and two of white wine, put it to the ragoo, keep it stirring one way for fear of turning, and stir in a piece of butter rolled in flour; when it is very thick and smooth fill the head, make a force-meat** with half a pound of veal, half a pound of beef-suet, as much crumbs of bread, a few sweet-herbs, a little lemon-peel, and some pepper, salt and mace, all beat fine together in a marble mortar; mix it up with two eggs, make a few balls, (about twenty) put them into the ragoo in the head, then fasten the head with fine wooden skewers, lay the force-meat over the head, do it over with the solks of two eggs, and send it to the oven to bake.  It will take about two hours baking.  You must lay pieces of butter all over the head, and then flour it.  When it is baked enough, lay it in your dish, and have a pint of good fried gravy.  If there is any gravy in the dish the head was baked in, put it to the other gravy, and boil it up; pour it into your dish, and garnish with lemon.  You may throw some mushrooms over the head.

*Culinary names for the thymus (throat, gullet, or neck) or the pancreas (also heart, stomach, or belly) especially of the calf (ris de veau) and lamb (ris d’agneau) (although beef and pork sweetbreads are also eaten).

** Force-meat – a stuffing, with either meat or bread as a base.

Sweetbreads* of veal à la Dauphine.

Take the largest sweetbreads you can get, open them in such a manner as you can stuff in force-meat**, three will make a fine dish; make your force-meat with a large fowl or young cock, skin it, and pick off all the flesh, take half a pound of fat and lean bacon, cut these very fine and beat them in a mortar; season it with an anchovy, some nutmeg, a little lemon-peel, a very little thyme, and some parsley:  mix these up with the yolk of an egg, fill your sweetbreads and fasten them with fine wooden skewers; take the stew-pan, lay layers of bacon at the bottom of the pan, season them with pepper, salt, mace, cloves, sweet-herbs, and a large onion sliced, upon that lay thin slices of veal, and then lay on your sweetbreads; cover it close, let it stand eight or ten minutes over a slow fire, and then pour in a quart of boiling water or broth; cover it close, and let it stew two hours very softly, then take out the sweetbreads, keep them hot, strain the gravy, skim all the fat off, boil it up till there is about half a pint, put in the sweetbreads, and give them two or three minutes stew in the gravy, then lay them in the dish, and pour the gravy over them.  Garnish with lemon.

*Culinary names for the thymus (throat, gullet, or neck) or the pancreas (also heart, stomach, or belly) especially of the calf (ris de veau) and lamb (ris d’agneau) (although beef and pork sweetbreads are also eaten).

** Force-meat – a stuffing, with either meat or bread as a base.

Another way to dress sweetbreads.

Do not put any water or gravy into the stew-pan, but put the same veal and bacon over the sweetbreads*, and season as under directed; cover them close, put fire over as well as under, and when they are enough, take out the sweetbreads, put in a ladleful of gravy, boil it, and strain it, skim off all the fat, let it boil till it jellies, and then put in the sweetbreads to glaze:  lay essence of ham in the dish, and lay the sweetbreads upon it; or make a very rich gravy with mushrooms, truffles and morels, a glass of white wine, and two spoonfuls of catchup.  Garnish with cocks-combs forced and stewed in the gravy.

Note, You may add to the first, truffles, morels, mushrooms, cocks-combs, palates, artichoke bottoms, two spoonfuls of white wine, two of catchup, or just as you please.

N.B. There are many ways of dressing sweetbreads: you may lard them with thin slips of bacon, and roast them with what sauce you please; or you may marinate them, but them into thin slices, flour them and fry them.  Serve them up with fried parsley, and either butter or gravy.  Garnish with lemon.

*Culinary names for the thymus (throat, gullet, or neck) or the pancreas (also heart, stomach, or belly) especially of the calf (ris de veau) and lamb (ris d’agneau) (although beef and pork sweetbreads are also eaten).

Calf’s chitterlings or àndouilles.

Take some of the largest calf’s guts, cleanse them, cut them in pieces proportionable to the length of the puddings you design to make, and tie one end to these pieces; then take some bacon, with a calf’s udder and chaldron blanched, and cut into dice or slices, put them into a stew-pan and season with fine spice pounded, a bay-leaf, some salt, pepper, and shallot cut small, and about half a pint of cream; toss it up, take off the pan, and thicken your mixture with four or five yolks of eggs and some crumbs of bread, then fill up your chitterlings* with the stuffing, keep it warm, tie the other end with packthread, blanch and boil them like hog’s chitterlings, let them grow cold in their own liquor before you serve them up; boil them over a moderate fire, and serve them up pretty hot.  These sort of andouilles, or puddings, must be made in summer, when hogs are seldom killed.

* Chitterling:  Guts, bowls, tripe, entrails

To dress calf’s chitterlings curiously.

Cut a calf’s nut in slices of its length, and the thickness of a finger, together with some ham, bacon, and the white of chickens, cut after the same manner; put the whole into a stew-pan, seasoned with salt, pepper, sweet-herbs, and spice, then take the guts cleansed, cut and divide them in parcels, and fill them with your slices; then lay in the bottom of a kettle or pan some slices of bacon and veal, season them with some pepper, salt, a bay leaf, and an onion, and lay some bacon and veal over them; then put in a pint of white wine, and let it stew softly, close covered with fire over and under it, if the pot or pan will allow it; then broil the puddings on a sheet of white paper, well buttered on the inside.

To dress a ham à la Braise.

Clear the knuckle, take off the swerd*, and lay it in water to freshen; then tie it about with a string, take slices of bacon and beef, beat and season them well with spice and sweet-herbs; then lay them in the bottom of a kettle with onions, parsnips and carrots sliced, with some chives and parsley; lay in your ham the fat side uppermost, and cover it with slices of beef and over that slices of bacon, then lay on some sliced roots and herbs, the same as under it:  cover it close, and stop it close with paste, but fire both over and under it, and let it stew with a very slow fire twelve hours; put it in a pan, drudge it well with grated bread, and brown it with a hot iron; then serve it upon a clean napkin:  garnish with raw parsley.

Note, If you eat it hot, make a ragoo thus:  take a veal sweetbread**, some livers of fowls, cocks-combs, mushrooms, and truffles; toss them up in a pint of good gravy, seasoned with spice as you like, thicken it with a piece of butter rolled in flour, and a glass of red wine; then brown your ham as above, and let it stand a quarter of an hour to drain the fat out; take the liquor it was stewed in, strain it, skim all the fat off, put it to the gravy, and boil it up.  It will do as well as the essence of ham.  Sometimes you may serve it up with a ragoo of crawfish, and sometimes with carp sauce.

* Swerd = skin

*Culinary names for the thymus (throat, gullet, or neck) or the pancreas (also heart, stomach, or belly) especially of the calf (ris de veau) and lamb (ris d’agneau) (although beef and pork sweetbreads are also eaten).

To roast a ham or gammon.

Take off the swerd, or what we call the skin, or rhind, and lay it in lukewarm water for two or three hours; then lay it in a pan, pour upon it a quart of canary*, and let it steep in it for ten or twelve hours.  When you have spitted it, put some sheets of white paper over the fat side, pour the canary in which it was soaked in the dripping-pan, and baste with it all the time it is roasting; when it is roasted enough, pull off the paper, and drudge it well with crumbled bread and parsley shred fine; make the fire brisk, and brown it well.  If you eat it hot, garnish it with rasping of bread; if cold, serve it on a clean napkin, and garnish it with green parsley for a second course.

* Canary:  She is most likely referring to a type of white wine from the Canary Islands; it was made from the Malvasia wine grape, and grown historically in the Mediterranean regions, Balearic islands, and Madeira.

To stuff a chine* of pork.

Make a stuffing of the fat leaf of pork, parsley, thyme, sage, eggs, crumbs of bread; season it with pepper, salt, shallot, and nutmeg, and stuff it thick; then roast it gently, and when it is about a quarter roasted, cut the skin in slips, and make your sauce with apples, lemon-peel, two or three cloves, and a blade of mace; sweeten it with sugar, put some butter in, and have mustard in a cup.

Chine:  A cut of meat including at least part of the backbone.

Various ways of dressing a pig.

First skin your pig up to the ears whole, then make a good plumb-pudding batter, with good beef fat, fruit, eggs, milk, and flour, fill the skin, and sew it up; it will look like a pig; but you must bake it, flour it very well, and rub it all over with butter, and when it is near enough, draw it to the oven’s mouth, rub it dry, and put it in again for a few minute; lay it in the dish, and let the sauce be small gravy and butter in the dish:  cut the other part of the pig into four quarters, roast them as you do lamb, throw mint and parsley on it as it roasts; then lay them on water-cresses, and have mint-sauce in a bason.

Any one of these quarters will make a pretty side-dish:  or take one quarter and roast, cut the other in steaks, and fry them fine and brown.  Have stewed spinach in the dish, and lay the roast upon it, and the fried in the middle.  Garnish with hard eggs and Seville oranges cut into quarters, and have some butter in a cup:  or for a change, you may have good gravy in the dish, and garnish with fried parsley and lemon; or you may make a ragoo of sweetbreads*, artichoke-bottoms, truffles, morels, and good gravy, and pour over them.  Garnish with lemon.  Either of these will do for a top dish of a first course, or bottom dishes at a second course.  You may fricasey it white for a second course at top, or a side-dish.

You may take a pig, skin him, and fill him with force-meat** made thus:  take two pounds of young pork, fat and all, two pounds of veal the same, some sage, thyme, parsley, a little lemon-peel, pepper, salt, mace, cloves, and a nutmeg;: mix them, and beat them fine in a mortar, then fill the pig, and sew it up.  You may either roast or bake it.  Have nothing but good gravy in the dish.  Or you may cut it into slices, and lay the head in the middle.  Save the head whole with the skin on, and roast it by itself:  when it is enough cut it in two, and lay it in your dish:  have ready some good gravy and dried sage rubbed in it, thicken it with a piece of butter rolled in flour, take out the brains, beat them up with the gravy, and pour them into the dish.  You may add a hard egg chopped, and put into the sauce.

Note, You may make a very good pie of it, as you may see in the directions for pies, which you may either make a bottom or side-dish.

You must observe in your white fricasey that you take off the fat; or you may make a very good dish thus:  take a quarter of pig skinned, cut it into chops, season them with spice, and wash them with the yolks of eggs, butter the bottom of a dish, lay these steaks on the dish, and upon every steak lay some force-meat the thickness of half a crown, made thus:  take half a pound of veal, and of fat pork the same quantity, chop them very well together, and beat them in a mortar fine; add some sweet-herbs and sage, a little lemon-peel, nutmeg, pepper and salt, and a little beaten mace; upon this lay a layer of bacon or ham, and then a bay-leaf; take a little fine skewer and stick just in about two inches long, to hold them together, then pour a little melted butter over them, and send them to the oven to bake; when they are enough lay them in your dish, and pour good gravy over them, with mushrooms, and garnish with lemon.

*Culinary names for the thymus (throat, gullet, or neck) or the pancreas (also heart, stomach, or belly) especially of the calf (ris de veau) and lamb (ris d’agneau) (although beef and pork sweetbreads are also eaten).

** Force-meat – a stuffing, with either meat or bread as a base.

A pig in jelly.

Cut it into quarters, and lay it into your stew-pan, put in one calf’s foot and the pig’s feet, a pint of Rhenish wine*, the juice of four lemons, and one quart of water, three or four blades of mace, two or three cloves, some salt, and a very little piece of lemon-peel; stove it, or do it over a slow fire two hours; then take it up, lay the pig into the dish you intended it for, then strain the liquor, and when the jelly is cold, skim off the fat, and leave the settling at the bottom.  Warm the jelly again, and pour over the pig; then serve it up cold in the jelly.

* Rhenish wine:  Wine from the Rhine valley in Germany; it could refer to either red or white.

T dress a pig the French way.

Spit your pig, lay it down to the fire, let it roast till it is thoroughly warm, then cut it off the spit, and divide it in twenty pieces.  Set them to stew in half a pint of white wine, and a pint of strong broth, seasoned with grated nutmeg, pepper, two onions cut small, and some stripped thyme.  Let it stew an hour, then put to it half a pint of strong gravy, a piece of butter rolled in flour, some anchovies, and a spoonful of vinegar, or mushroom pickle:  when it is enough, lay it in your dish, and pour the gravy over it, then garnish with orange and lemon.

To dress a pig au pere duillet .

Cut off the head, and divide it into quarters, lard them with bacon, season them well with mace, cloves, pepper, nutmeg, and salt.  Lay a layer of fat bacon at the bottom of a kettle, lay the head in the middle, and the quarters round; then put in a bay-leaf, one racambole*, an onion sliced, lemon, carrots, parsnips, parsley, and chives; cover it again with bacon, put in a quart of broth, stew it over the fire for an hour, and then take it up, put your pig into a stew-pan or kettle, pour in a bottle of white wine, cover it close, and let it stew for an hour very softly.  If you would serve it cold, let it stand till it is cold; then drain it well, and wipe it, that it may look white, and lay it in a dish with the head in the middle, and the quarters round, then throw some green parsley all over:  or any one of the quarters is a very pretty little dish, laid on water-cresses.  If you would have it hot, whilst your pig is stewing in the wine, take the first gravy it was stewed in, and strain it, skim off all the fat, then take a sweetbread** cut into five or six slices, some truffles, morels, and mushrooms; stew all together till they are enough, thicken it with the yolks of two eggs, or a piece of butter rolled in flour, and when your pig is enough take it out, and lay it in your dish; and put the wine it was stewed in to the ragoo; then pour all over the pig, and garnish with lemon.

*Racambole:  Rocambole is an alternative name for the shallot, or sand-leek, a type of wild onion.

*Culinary names for the thymus (throat, gullet, or neck) or the pancreas (also heart, stomach, or belly) especially of the calf (ris de veau) and lamb (ris d’agneau) (although beef and pork sweetbreads are also eaten).

A pig matelote.

Gut and scald your pig, cut off the head and pettytoes, then cut your pig in four quarters, put them with the head and toes into cold water; cover the bottom of a stew-pan with slices of bacon, and place over them the said quarters, with the pettytoes and the head cut in two.  Season the whole with pepper, salt, thyme, bay-leaf, an onion, and a bottle of white wine; lay over more slices of bacon, put over it a quart of water, and let it boil.  Take two large eels, skin and gut them, anc cut them about five or six inches long; when your pig is half done, put in your eels, then boil a dozen large craw-fish, cut off the claws, and take off the shells of the tails; and when your pig and eels are enough, lay first your pig and the pettytoes round it, but don’t put in the head (it will be a pretty dish cold), then lay your eels and craw-fish over them, and take the liquor they were stewed in, skim off all the fat, then add to it half a pint of strong gravy thickened with a little piece of burnt butter, and pour over it, then garnish with craw-fish and lemon.  This will do for a first course, or remove.  Fry the brains and lay round, and all over the dish.

To dress a pig like a fat lamb.

Take a fat pig, cut off his head, slit and truss him up like a lamb; when he is slit through the middle and skinned, parboil him a little, then throw some parsley over him, and roast it and drudge it.  Let your sauce be half a pound of butter and a pint of cream, stirred all together till it is smooth; then pour it over and send it to table.

To roast a pig with the hair on.

Draw your pig very clean at vent, then take out the guts liver, and lights; cut off his feet, and truss him, prick up his belly, spit him, lay him down to the fire, but take care not to scorch him:  when the skin begins to rise up in blisters, pull off the skin, hair and all:  when you have cleared the pig of both, scorch him down to the bones, and baste him with butter and cream or half a pound of butter, and a pint of milk, put it into the dripping-pan, and keep basting it well; then throw some salt over it, and drudge it with crumbs of bread till it is half an inch or an inch thick.  When it is enough, and of a fine brown, but not scorched, take it up, lay it in your dish, and let your sauce be good gravy, thickened with butter rolled in a little flour; or else make the following sauce:  take half a pound of butter and a pint of cream, put them on the fire, and keep them stirring one way all the time; when the butter is melted, and the sauce thickened, pour it into your dish.  Don’t garnish with any thing, unless some rasping of bread; and then with your fingers figure it as you fancy.

To roast a pig with the skin on.

Let your pig be newly killed, draw him, flay him, and wipe him very dry with a cloth; then make a hard meat with a pint of cream, the yolks of six eggs, grated bread, and beef-suet, seasoned with salt, pepper, mace, nutmeg, thyme and lemon-peel:  make of this a pretty stiff pudding, stuff the belly of the pig, and sew it up; then spit it, and lay it down to roast.  Let your dripping-pan be very clean, then pour into it a pint of red wine, grate some nutmeg all over it, then throw a little salt over, a little thyme, and some lemon-peel minced; when it is enough shake a little flour over it, and baste it with butter, to have a fine froth.  Take it up and lay it in a dish, cut off the head, take the sauce which is in your dripping-pan, and thicken it with a piece of butter; then take the brains, bruise them, mix them with the sauce, rub in a little dried sage, pour it into your dish, serve it up.  Garnish with hard eggs cut into quarters, and if you have not sauce enough, add half a pint of good gravy.

Note, You must take great care no ashes fall into the dripping-pan, which may be prevented by having a good fire, which will not want any stirring.

To make a pretty dish of a breast of venison.

Take half a pound of butter, flour your venison, and fry it of a fine brown on both sides; then take it up and keep it hot covered in the dish:  take some flour, and stir it into the butter till it is quite thick and brown (but take care it don’t burn) stir in half a pound of lump-sugar beat fine, and pour in as much red wine as will make it of the thickness of a ragoo; squeeze in the juice of a lemon, give it a boil up, and pour it over the venison.  Don’t garnish the dish, but send it to table.

To boil a haunch or neck of venison.

Lay it in salt for a week, then boil it in a cloth well floured; for every pound of venison allow a quarter of an hour for the boiling.  For sauce you must boil some cauliflowers, pulled into little sprigs in milk and water, some fine white cabbage, some turnips cut into dice, with some beetroot cut into long narrow pieces, about an inch and a half long, and half an inch thick:  lay a sprig of cauliflower, and some of the turnips mashed with some cream and a little butter; let your cabbage be boiled, and then beat in a saucepan with a piece of butter and salt, lay that next the cauliflower, then the turnips, then cabbage, and so on, till the dish is full; place the beetroot here and there, just as you fancy; it looks very pretty, and is a fine dish.  Have a little butter in a cup, if wanted.

Note, A leg of mutton cut venison fashion, and dressed the same way, is a pretty dish:  or a fine neck, with the scraig* cut off.  This eats well boiled or hashed, with gravy and sweet sauce the next day.

* Scraig:  Scrag, the lean end of a neck of veal

To boil a leg of mutton like venison.

Take a leg of mutton cut venison fashion, boil it in a cloth well floured; and have three or four cauliflowers boiled, pulled into sprigs, stewed in a saucepan with butter, and a little pepper and salt; then have some spinach picked and washed clean, put it into a saucepan with a little salt, covered close, and stewed a little while; then drain the liquor, and pour in a quarter of a pint of good gravy, and good piece of butter rolled in flour, and a little pepper and salt; when stewed enough lay the spinach in the dish, the mutton in the middle, and the cauliflower over it, then pour the butter the cauliflower was stewing in over it all:  but you are to observe in stewing the cauliflower, to melt your butter nicely, as for the sauce, before the cauliflower goes in.  This is a genteel dish for a first course at bottom.

To roast tripe.

Cut your trip in two square pieces, somewhat long, have a force-meat* made of crumbs of bread, pepper, salt, nutmeg, sweet-herbs, lemon-peel, and the yolks of eggs mixt all together; spread it on the fat side of the trip, and lay the other fat side next it; then roll it as light as you can, and tie it with a packthread; spit it, roast it, and baste it with butter; when roasted lay it in your dish, and for sauce melt some butter, and add what drops from the tripe.  Boil it together, and garnish with rasping**.

* Force-meat – a stuffing, with either meat or bread as a base.

**Raspings = dried bread crumbs, scraped or “rasped” from toasted bread.

To dress poultry

To roast a turkey.

The best way to roast a turkey is to loosen the skin on the breast of the turkey, and fill it with force-meat* thus:  take a quarter of a pound of beef-suet, as many crumbs of bread, a little lemon-peel, an anchovy, some nutmeg, pepper, parsley, and a little thyme.  Chop and beat them all together, mix them with the yolk of an egg, and stuff up the breast; when you have no suet, butter will do:  or you may make your force-meat thus:  spread bread and butter thin, and grate some nutmeg over it:  when you have enough roll it up, and stuff the breast of the turkey; then roast it of a fine brown, but be sure to pin some white paper on the breast till it is near enough.  You must have good gravy in the dish, and bread sauce made thus:  take a good piece of crumb, put it into a pint of water, with a blade or two of mace, two or three cloves, and some whole pepper.  Boil it up five or six times, then with a spoon take out the spice you had before put in, and then you must pour off the water (you may boil an onion in it if you please); then beat up the bread with a good piece of butter and a little salt; or onion-sauce, made thus:  take some onions, peel them and cut them into thin slices, and boil them half an hour in milk and water; then drain the water from them and beat them up with a good piece of butter; shake a little flour in, and stir it together with a little cream, if you have it, (or milk will do); put the sauce into boats, and garnish with lemon.

Another way to make sauce:  Take half a pint of oysters, strain the liquor, and put the oysters with the liquor into a sauce-pan, with a blade or two of mace; let them just lump, then pour in a glass of white wine, let it boil once, and thicken it with a piece of butter rolled in flour.  Serve this up in a bason by itself, with good gravy in the dish, for every body don’t love oyster-sauce. This makes a pretty side-dish for supper, or a corner-dish of a table for dinner.  If you chafe it in the dish, add half a pint of gravy to it, and boil it up together.  This sauce is good either with boiled or roasted turkies or fowls; but you may leave the gravy out, adding as much butter as will do for sauce, and garnishing with lemon.

* Force-meat – a stuffing, with either meat or bread as a base.

To make mock oyster sauce, either for turkies or fowls boiled.

Force the turkies or fowls as above, and make your sauce thus:  take a quarter of a pint of water, an anchovy, a blade or two of mace, a piece of lemon-peel, and five or six whole peppercorns.  Boil these together, then strain them, add as much butter with a little flour as will do for sauce; let it boil, and lay sausages round the fowl or turkey.  Garnish with lemon.

To make mushroom sauce for white fowls of all sorts.

Take a pint of mushrooms, wash and pick them very clean, and put them into a saucepan, with a little salt, some nutmeg, a blade of mace, a pint of cream, and a good piece of butter rolled in flour.  Boil these all together, and keep stirring them; then pour your sauce into your dish, and garnish with lemon.

Mushroom sauce for white fowls boiled.

Take half a pint of cream, and a quarter of a pound of butter, stir them together one way till it is thick; then add a spoonful of mushrooms pickle, pickled mushrooms, or fresh if you have them.  Garnish only with lemon.

To make celery-sauce, either for roasted or boiled fowls, turkies, partridges, or any other game.

Take a large bunch of celery, wash and pare it very clean, cut it into little thin bits, and boil it softly in a little water till it is tender; then add a little beaten mace, some nutmeg, pepper, and salt, thickened with a good piece of butter rolled in flour; then boil it up, and pour in your dish.  You may make it with cream thus:  boil your celery as above, and add some mace, nutmeg, a piece of butter as big as a walnut rolled in flour, and half a pint of cream; boil them all together, and you may add, if you will, a glass of white wine, and a spoonful of catchup.

To make brown celery-sauce.

Stew the celery as above, then add mace, nutmeg, pepper, salt, a piece of butter rolled in flour, with a glass of red wine, a spoonful of catchup, and half a pint of good gravy; boil all these together, and pour into the dish.  Garnish with lemon.

To stew a turkey or fowl in celery-sauce.

You must judge according to the largeness of your turkey or fowl, what celery or sauce you want.  Take a large fowl, put it into a saucepan or pot, and put to it one quart of good broth or gravy, a bunch of celery washed clean and cut small, with some mace, cloves, pepper, and allspice tied loose in a muslin rag; put in an onions and a sprig of thyme; let these stew softly till they are enough, then add a piece of butter rolled in flour; take up your fowl, and pour the sauce over it.  An hour will do for a large fowl, or a small turkey; but a very large turkey will take two hours to do it softly.  If it is overdone or dry it is spoiled; but you may be a judge of that, if you look at it now and then.  Mind to take out the onion, thyme, and spice, before you send it to table.

Note, A neck of veal done this way is very good, and will take two hours doing.

To make egg sauce, proper for roasted chickens.

Melt your butter thick and fine, chop two or three hard-boiled eggs fine, put them into a bason, pour the butter over them, and have good gravy in the dish.

Shalot-sauce for roasted fowls.

Take five or six shallots peeled and cut small, put them into a saucepan, with two spoonfuls of white wine, two or water, and two of vinegar; give them a boil up, and pour them into your dish, with a little pepper and salt.  Fowls roasted and laid on watercresses is very good, without any other sauce.

Shalot-sauce for a scrag of mutton boiled.

Take two spoonfuls of the liquor the mutton is boiled in, two spoonfuls of vinegar, two or three shallots cut fine, with a little salt; put it into a saucepan, with a piece of butter as big as a walnut rolled in a little flour; stir it together, and give it a boil.  For those who love shallot, it is the prettiest sauce that can be made to a scraig* of mutton.

* Scraig:  Scrag, the lean end of a neck of veal

To dress livers with mushroom-sauce.

Take some pickled or fresh mushrooms, cut small; both if you have them; and let the livers be bruised fine, with a good deal of parsley chopped small, a spoonful or two of catchup, a glass of white wine; and as much good gravy as will make sauce enough; thicken it with a piece of butter rolled in flour.  This does either for roasted or boiled.

A pretty little sauce.

Take the liver of a fowl, bruise it with a little of the liquor, cut a little lemon-peel fine, melt some good butter, and mix the liver by degrees; give it a boil, and pour it into the dish.

To make lemon-sauce for boiled fowls.

Take a lemon, pare off the rind, then cut it into slices, and cut it small; take all the kernels out, bruise the liver with two or three spoonfuls of gravy, then melt some butter, mix it all together, give them a boil, and cut in a little lemon-peel very small.

A German way of dressing fowls.

Take a turkey or fowl, stuff the breast with what force-meat* you like, and fill the body with roasted chestnuts peeled.  Roast it, and have some more roasted chestnuts, peeled, put them in half a pint of good gravy, with a little piece of butter rolled in flour; boil these together, with some small turnips and sausages cut in slices, and fried or boiled.  Garnish with chestnuts.

Note, you may dress ducks the same way.

* Force-meat – a stuffing, with either meat or bread as a base.

To dress a turkey or fowl, to perfection.

Bone them, and make a force-meat* thus:  take the flesh of a fowl, cut it small, then take a pound of veal, beat it in a mortar, with half a pound of beef-suet, as much crumbs of bread, some mushrooms, truffles and morels cut small, a few sweet-herbs and parsley, with some nutmeg, pepper, and salt, a little mace beaten, some lemon-peel cut fine; mix all these together, with the yolks of two eggs, then fill your turkey, and roast it.  This will do for a large turkey, and so in proportion for a fowl.  Let your sauce be a good gravy, with mushrooms, truffles and morels in it: then garnish with lemon, and for variety sake you may lard your fowl or turkey.

* Force-meat – a stuffing, with either meat or bread as a base.

To stew a turkey brown.

Take your turkey, after it is nicely picked and drawn, fill the skin of the breast with force-meat*, and put an anchovy, a shallot, and a little thyme in the belly, lard the breast with bacon, then put a good piece of butter in the stew-pan, flour the turkey, and fry it just of a fine brown; then take it out, and put it into a deep stew-pan, or little pot, that will just hold it, and put in as much gravy as will barely cover it, a glass of red wine, some whole pepper, mace, two or three cloves, and a little bundle of sweet-herbs; cover it close, and stew it for an hour, then take up the turkey, and keep it hot covered by the fire, and boil the sauce to about a pint, strain it off, add the yolks of two eggs, and a piece of butter rolled in flour; stir it till it is thick, and then lay your turkey in the dish, and pour your sauce over it.  You may have ready some little French loaves, about the bigness of an egg, cut off the tops, and take out the crumb; then fry them of a fine brown, fill them with stewed oysters, lay them round the dish, and garnish with lemon.

* Force-meat – a stuffing, with either meat or bread as a base.

To stew a turkey brown the nice way.

Bone it, and fill it with a force-meat* made thus:  take the flesh of a fowl, half a pound of veal, and the flesh of two pigeons, with a well-pickled or dry tongue, peel it, and chop it all together, then beat in a mortar, with the marrow of a beef bone, or a pound of the fat of a loin of veal; season it with two or three blades of mace, two or three cloves, and half a nutmeg dried at a good distance from the fire, and pounded, with a little pepper and salt:  mix all these together, fill your turkey, fry them of a fine brown, and put it into a little pot that will just hold it; lay four or five skewers at the bottom of the pot, to keep the turkey from sticking; put in a quart of good beef and veal gravy, wherein was boiled spice and sweet-herbs, cover it close, and let it stew half an hour; then put in a glass of red wine, one spoonful of catchup, a large spoonful of pickled mushrooms, and a few fresh ones, if you have them, a few truffles and morels, a piece of
butter as big as a walnut rolled in flour; cover it close, and let it stew half an hour longer; get the little French rolls ready fried, take some oysters, and strain the liquor from them, then put the oysters and liquor into a saucepan, with a blade of mace, a little white wine, and a piece of butter rolled in flour; let them stew till it is thick, then fill the loaves, lay the turkey in the dish, and pour the sauce over it.  If there is any fat on the gravy take it off, and lay the loaves on each side of the turkey.  Garnish with lemon when you have no loaves, and take oysters dipped in batter and fried.

Note, The same will do for any white fowl.

* Force-meat – a stuffing, with either meat or bread as a base.

A fowl à la braise.

Truss your fowl, with the leg turned into the belly, season it both inside and out, with beaten mace, nutmeg, pepper, and salt, lay a layer of bacon at the bottom of a deep stew-pan, then a layer of veal, and afterwards the fowl, then put in an onion, two or three cloves stuck in a little bundle of sweet-herbs, with a piece of carrot, then put at the top a layer of bacon, another of veal, and a third of beef, cover it close, and let it stand over the fire for two or three minutes, then pour in a pint of broth, or hot water; cover it close, and let it stew an hour, afterwards take up your fowl, strain the sauce, and after you have skimmed off the fat, thicken it with a little piece of butter.  You may add just what you please to the sauce.  A ragoo of sweet-herbs, cocks-combs, truffles and morels, or mushrooms, with force-meat* balls, looks very pretty, or any of the sauces above.

* Force-meat – a stuffing, with either meat or bread as a base.

To force a fowl.

Take a good fowl, pick and draw it, slit the skin down the back, and take the flesh from the bones, mince it very small, and mix it with one pound of beef-suet shred, a pint of large oysters chopped, two anchovies, a shallot, a little grated bread, and some sweet-herbs; shred all this very well, mix them together, and make it up with the yolks of eggs, then turn all these ingredients on the bones again, and draw the skin over again, then sew up the back, and either boil the fowl in a bladder an hour and a quarter, or roast it, then stew some more oysters in gravy, bruise in a little of your force-meat*, mix it up with a little fresh butter, and a very little flour; then give it a boil, lay your fowl in the dish, and pour the sauce over it, garnishing with lemon.

* Force-meat – a stuffing, with either meat or bread as a base.

To roast a fowl with chestnuts.

First take some chestnuts, roast them very carefully, so as not to burn them, take off the skin, and peel them, take about a dozen of them cut small, and bruise them in a mortar; parboil the liver of the fowl, bruise it, cut about a quarter of a pound of ham or bacon, and pound it; then mix them all together, with a good deal of parsley chopped small, a little sweet-herbs, some mace, pepper, salt, and nutmeg; mix these together and put into your fowl, and roast it.  The best way of doing it is to tie the neck, and hang it up by the legs to roast with a string, and baste it with butter.  For sauce take the rest of the chestnuts peeled and skinned, put them into some good gravy, with a little white wine, and thicken it with a piece of butter rolled in flour; then take up your fowl, lay it in the dish, and pour in the sauce.  Garnish with lemon.

Pullets à la Saint Menehout.

After having trussed the legs in the body, slit them along the back, spread them open on a table, take out the thigh bone, and beat them with a rolling pin; then season them with pepper, salt, mace, nutmeg, and sweet-herbs; after that take a pound and a half of veal, cut it into thin slices, and lay it in a stew-pan of a convenient size to stew the pullets in:  cover it and set it over a stove or slow fire, and when it begins to cleave to the pan, stir in a little flour, shake the pan about till it be a little brown, then pour in as much broth as will stew the fowls, stir in together, put in a little whole pepper, an onions, and a little piece of bacon or ham; then lay in your fowls, cover them close, and let the stew half an hour; then take them out, lay them on the gridiron to brown on the inside, then lay them before the fire to do on the outside; strew them over with the yolk of an egg, some crumbs of bread, and baste them with a little butter:  let them be of a fine brown, and boil the gravy till there is about enough for sauce, strain it, and put a few mushrooms in, and a little piece of butter rolled in flour; lay the pullets in the dish, and pour in the sauce.  Garnish with lemon.

Note, You may brown them in the oven, or fry them, which you please.

Chicken surprize.

If a small dish, one large fowl will do; roast it, and take the lean from the bone, cut it in thin slices, about an inch long, toss it up with six or seven spoonfuls of cream, and a piece of butter rolled in flour, as big as a walnut.  Boil it up and set it to cool; then cut six or seven thin slices of bacon round, place them in a petty-pan, and put some force-meat* on each side, work them up in the form of a French-roll, with a raw egg in your hand, leaving a hollow place in the middle; put in your fowl, and cover them with some of the same force-meat, rubbing them smooth with your hand and raw egg; make them of the height and bigness of a French-roll, and throw a little fine grated bread over them.  Bake them three quarters or an hour in a gentle oven, or under a baking cover, till they come to a fine brown, and place them on your mazarine, that they may not touch one another, but place them so that they may not fall flat in the baking; or you may form them on your table with a broad kitchen knife, and place them on the thing you intend to bake them on.  You may put the leg of a chicken into one of the loaves your intend for the middle.  Let your sauce be gravy thickened with butter and a little juice of lemon.  This is a pretty side-dish for a first course, summer or winter, if you can get them.

* Force-meat – a stuffing, with either meat or bread as a base.

Mutton chops in disguise.

Take as many mutton chops as you want, rub them with pepper, salt, nutmeg, and a little parsley; roll each chop in half a sheet of white paper, well buttered on the inside, and rolled on each end close.  Have some hog’s lard, or beef-dripping boiling in a stew-pan, put in the steaks, fry them of a fine brown, lay them in your dish, and garnish with fried parsley; throw some all over, have a little good gravy in a cup, but take great care you do not break the paper, nor have any fat in the dish, but let them be well drained.

Chickens roasts with force-meat* and cucumbers.

Take two chickens, dress them very neatly, bread the breast-bone, and make force-meat thus:  take the flesh of a fowl, and of two pigeons, with some slices of ham or bacon, chop them all well together, take the crumb of a penny loaf soaked in milk and boiled, then set to cool; when it is cool mix it all together, season it with beaten mace, nutmeg, pepper, and a little salt, a very little thyme, some parsley, and a little lemon-peel, with the yolks of two eggs; then fill your fowls, spit them, and tie them at both ends; after you have papered the breast, take four cucumbers, cut them in two, and lay them in salt and water two or three hours before; then dry them, and fill them with some of the force-meat (which you must take care to save) and tie them with a packthread, flour them and fry them of a fine brown; when your chickens are enough, lay them in the dish and untie your cucumbers, but take care the meat do not come out; then lay them round the chicken with the fat side downwards, and the narrow end upwards.  You must have some rich fried gravy, and pour into the dish; then garnish with lemon.

Note, One large fowl done this way, with the cucumbers laid round it, looks very pretty, and is a very good dish.

* Force-meat – a stuffing, with either meat or bread as a base.

Chickens à la braise.

You must take a couple of fine chicken, lard them, and season them with pepper, salt, and mace; then lay a layer of veal in the bottom of a deep stew-pan, with a slice or two of bacon, an onion cut to pieces, a piece of carrot and a layer of beef; then lay in the chickens with the breast downward, and a bundle of sweet-herbs:  after that lay a layer of beef, and put in a quart of broth or water; cover it close, let it stew very softly for an hour after it begins to simmer.  In the mean time, get ready a ragoo thus:  take a good veal sweetbread*, or two, cut them small, set them on the fire, with a very little broth or water, a few cocks-combs, truffles and morels, cut small with an ox-palate, if you have it; stew them all together till they are enough; and when your chickens are done, take them up, and keep them hot; then strain the liquor they were stewed in, skim the fat off, and pour into your ragoo, add a glass of red wine, a spoonful of catchup, and a few mushrooms; then boil all together, with a few artichoke bottoms cut in four, and asparagus-tops.  If your sauce is not thick enough, take a little piece of butter rolled in flour, and when enough lay your chickens in the dish, and pour the ragoo over them.  Garnish with lemon.

Or you may make your sauce thus:  take the gravy the fowls were stewed in, strain it, skim off the fat, have ready half a pint of oysters, with the liquor strained, put them to your gravy with a glass of white wine, a good piece of butter rolled in flour; then boil them all together, and pour over your fowls.  Garnish with lemon.

*Culinary names for the thymus (throat, gullet, or neck) or the pancreas (also heart, stomach, or belly) especially of the calf (ris de veau) and lamb (ris d’agneau) (although beef and pork sweetbreads are also eaten).

To marinate fowls.

Take a fine large fowl or turkey, raise the skin from the breast-bone with your finger, then take a veal sweetbread* and cut it small, a few oysters, a few mushrooms, an anchovy, some pepper, a little nutmeg, some lemon-peel, and a little thyme; chop all together small, and mixt with the yolk of an egg, stuff it in between the skin and the flesh, but take great care you do not break the skin, and then stuff what oysters you please into the body of the fowl.  You may lard the breast of the fowl with bacon, if you chuse it.  Paper the breast, and roast it.  Make good gravy, and garnish with lemon.  You may add a few mushrooms to the sauce.

*Culinary names for the thymus (throat, gullet, or neck) or the pancreas (also heart, stomach, or belly) especially of the calf (ris de veau) and lamb (ris d’agneau) (although beef and pork sweetbreads are also eaten).

To broil chickens.

Slit them down the back, and season them with pepper and salt, lay them on a very clear fire, and at a great distance.  Let the inside lie next the fire till it is above half done:  then turn them, and take great care the fleshy side do not burn, throw some fine raspings of bread over it, and let them be of a fine brown, but not burnt.  Let your sauce be good gravy, with mushrooms, and garnish with lemon and the livers broiled, the gizzards cut, slashed, and broiled with pepper and salt.

Or this sauce; take a handful of sorrel, dipped in boiling water, drain it, and have ready half a pint of good gravy, a shallot shred small, and some parsley boiled very green; thicken it with a piece of butter rolled in flour, and add a glass of red wine, then lay your sorrel in heaps round the fowls, and pour the sauce over them.  Garnish with lemon.

Note, You may make just what sauce you fancy.

Pulled chickens.

Take three chickens, boil them just fit for eating, but not too much; when they are boiled enough, flay all the skin off, and take the white flesh off the bones, pull it into pieces about as thick as a large quill, and half as long as your finger.  Have ready a quarter of a pint of good cream and a piece of fresh butter about as big as an egg, stir them together till the butter is all melted, and then put in your chickens with the gravy that came from them, give them two or three tosses round on the fire, put them into a dish, and send them up hot.

Note, The leg makes a very pretty dish by itself, broiled very nicely with some pepper and salt; the livers being broiled and the gizzards broiled, cut, and slashed, and lay round the legs, with good gravy-sauce in the dish.  Garnish with lemon.

A pretty way of stewing chickens.

Take two fine chickens, half boil them, then take them up in a pewter, or silver dish, if you have one; cut up your fowls, and separate all the joint-bones one from another, and then take out the breast-bones.  If there is not liquor enough from the fowls, add a few spoonfuls of water they were boiled in, put in a blade of mace, and a little salt; cover it close with another dish, set it over a stove or chaffing-dish of coals, let it stew till the chickens are enough, and then send them hot to the tale in the same dish they were stewed in.

Note, This is a very pretty dish for any sick person, or for a lying-in lady.  For change it is better than butter, and the sauce is very agreeable and pretty.

N.B. You may do rabbits, partridges, or moor-game this way.

Chickens chiringrate.

Cut off their feet, break the breast-bone flat with a rolling pin, but take care you don’t break the skin; flour them, fry them of a fine brown in butter, then drain all the fat out of the pan, but leave the chickens in.  Lay a pound of gravy-beef cut very thin over your chickens, and a piece of veal cut very thin, a little mace, two or three cloves, some whole pepper, an onion, a little bundle of sweet-herbs, and a piece of carrot, and then pour in a quart of boiling water; cover it close, let it stew for a quarter of an hour, then take out the chickens and keep them hot:  let the gravy boil till it is quite rich and good, then strain it off and put it into your pan again, with two spoonfuls of red wine and a few mushrooms; put in your chickens to heat, then take them up, lay them into your dish, and pour your sauce over them.  Garnish with lemon, and a few slices of cold ham warmed in the gravy.

Note, You may fill your chickens with force-meat*, and lard them with bacon, and add truffles, morels, and sweetbreads** cut small, but then it will be a very high dish.

* Force-meat – a stuffing, with either meat or bread as a base.

**Culinary names for the thymus (throat, gullet, or neck) or the pancreas (also heart, stomach, or belly) especially of the calf (ris de veau) and lamb (ris d’agneau) (although beef and pork sweetbreads are also eaten).

Chickens boiled with bacon and celery.

Boil two chickens very white in a pot by themselves, and a piece of ham, or good thick bacon; boil two bunches of celery tender, then cut them about two inches long, all the white part, put it into a saucepan with half a pint of cream, a piece of butter rolled in flour, and some pepper and salt; set it on the fire, and shake it often:  when it is thick and fine, lay your chickens in the dish and pour your sauce in the middle, that the celery may lie between the fowls, and garnish the dish all round with slices of ham or bacon.

Note, if you have cold ham in the house, that, cut into slices and broiled, does full as well, or better, to lay round the dish.

Chickens with tongues.  A good dish for a great deal of company.

Take six small chickens boiled very white, six hogs tongues, boiled and peeled, a cauliflower boiled very white in milk and water whole, and a good deal of spinach boiled green; then lay your cauliflower in the middle, the chickens close all round, and the tongues round them with the roots outward, and the spinach in little heaps between the tongues.  Garnish with little pieces of bacon toasted, and lay a little piece on each of the tongues.

Scotch chickens.

First wash your chickens, dry them in a clean cloth, and singe them, then cut them into quarters; put them into a stew-pan or saucepan, and just cover them with water, put in a blade or two of mace and a little bundle of parsley; cover them close, and let them stew half an hour, then chop half a handful of clean washed parsley, and throw in, and have ready six eggs, whites and all, beat fine.  Let your liquor boiled up, and pour the egg all over them as it boils; then send all together hot in a deep dish, but take out the bundle of parsley first.  You must be sure to skim them well before you put in your mace, and the broth will be fine and clear.

Note, This is also a very pretty dish for sick people, but the Scotch gentlemen are very fond of it.

To marinate chickens.

Cut two chickens into quarters, lay them in vinegar for three or four hours, with pepper, salt, a bay-leaf, and a few cloves, make a very thick batter, first with half a pint of wine and flour, then the yolks of two eggs, a little melted butter, some grated nutmeg and chopped parsley; beat all very well together, dip your fowls in the batter, and fry them in a good deal of hog’s lard, which must first boil before you put your chickens in.  Let them be of a fine brown, and lay them in your dish like a pyramid, with fried parsley all round them.  Garnish with lemon, and have some good gravy in boats or basons.

To stew chickens.

Take two chickens, cut them into quarters, wash them clean, and then put them into a saucepan; put to them a quarter of a pint of water, half a pint of red wine, some mace, pepper, a bundle of sweet-herbs, an onions, and a few raspings; cover them close, let them stew half an hour, then take a piece of butter about as big as an egg rolled in flour, put in, and cover it close for five or six minutes, shake the saucepan about, then take out the sweet-herbs and onion.  You may take the yolks of two eggs, beat and mixed with them; if you don’t like it, leave them out.  Garnish with lemon.

Ducks à la mode.

Take two fine ducks, cut them into quarters, fry them in butter a little brown, then pour out all the fat, and throw a little flour over them; and half a pint of good gravy, a quarter of a pint of red wine, two shallots, an anchovy, and a bundle of sweet-herbs; cover them close, and let them stew a quarter of an hour; take out the herbs, skim off the fat, and let your sauce be as thick as cream; send it to table, and garnish with lemon.

To dress a wild duck the best way.

First half roast it, then lay it in a dish, carve it, but leave the joints hanging together, throw a little pepper and salt, and squeeze the juice of a lemon over it, turn it on the breast, and press it hard with a plate, and add to its own gravy, two or three spoonfuls of gravy, cover it close with another dish, and set over a stove ten minutes, then send it to table hot in the dish it was done in, and garnish with lemon.  You may add a little red wine, and a shallot cut small, if you like, but it is apt to make the duck eat hard, unless you first heat the wine and pour it in just as it is done.

To boil a duck or rabbit with onions.

Boil your duck or rabbit in a good deal of water; be sure to skim your water, for there will always rise a scum, which if it boils down will discolour your fowls, &c.  They will take about half an hour boiling; for sauce, your onions must be peeled, and throw them into water as you peel them, then cut them into thin slices, boil them in milk and water, and skim the liquor.  Half an hour will boil them.  Throw them into a clean sieve to drain them, put them into a saucepan and chop them small, shake in a little flour, put to them two or three spoonfuls of cream, a good piece of butter, stew all together over the fire till they are thick and fine, lay the duck or rabbit in the dish, and pour the sauce all over; if a rabbit, you must cut off the head, cut it in two, and lay it on each side of the dish.

Or you may make this sauce for a change:  take one large onion, cut it small, half a handful of parsley clean washed and picked, chop it small, a lettuce cut small, a quarter of a pint of good gravy, a good piece of butter rolled in a little flour; add a little juice of lemon, a little pepper and salt, let all stew together for half an hour, then add two spoonfuls of red wine.  This sauce is most proper for a duck; lay your duck in the dish, and pour your sauce over it.

To dress a duck with green pease.

Put a deep stew-pan over the fire, with a piece of fresh butter; singe your duck and flour it, turn it in the pan two or three minutes, then pour out all the fat, but let the duck remain in the pan; put to it half a pint of good gravy, a pint of pease, two lettuces cut small, a small bundle of sweet-herbs, a little pepper and salt, cover them close, and let them stew for half an hour, now and then give the pan a shake; when they are just done, grate in a little nutmeg, and put in a very little beaten mace, and thicken it either with a piece of butter rolled in flour, or the yolk of an egg bet up with two or three spoonfuls of cream; shake it all together for three or four minutes, take out the sweet-herbs, lay the duck in the dish, and pour the sauce over it.  You may garnish with boiled mint chopped, or let it alone.

To dress a duck with cucumbers.

Take three or four cucumbers, pare them, take out the seeds, cut them into little pieces, lay them in vinegar for two or three hours before, with two large onions peeled and sliced, then do your duck as above; then take the duck out, and put in the cucumbers and onions, first drain them in a cloth, let them be a little brown, shake a little flour over them; in the mean time let your duck be stewing in the saucepan with half a pint of gravy for a quarter of an hour, then add to it the cucumbers and onions, with pepper and salt to your palate, a good piece of butter rolled in flour, and two or three spoonfuls of red wine; shake all together, and let it stew together for eight or ten minutes, then take up your duck and pour the sauce over it.

Or you may roast your duck, and make this sauce and pour over it, but then a quarter or a pint of gravy will be enough.

To dress a duck à la braise.

Take a duck, lard it with little pieces of bacon, season it inside and out with pepper and salt, lay a layer of bacon cut thin, in the bottom of a stew-pan, and then a layer of lean beef cut thin, then lay your duck with some carrot, an onions, a little bundle of sweet-herbs, a blade or two or mace, and lay a thin layer of beef over the duck; cover it close, and set it over a slow fire for eight or ten minutes, then take off the cover and shake in a little flour, give the pan a shake, pour in a pint of small broth, or boiling water; give the pan a shake or two, cover it close again, and let it stew half an hour, then take off the cover, take out the duck and keep it hot, let the sauce boil till there is about a quarter of a pint or little better, then strain it and put it into the stew-pan again, with a glass of red wine; put in your duck, shake the pan, and let it stew four or five minutes; then lay your duck in the dish and pour the sauce over it, and garnish with lemon.  If you love your duck very high, you may fill it with the following ingredients:  take a veal sweetbread* cut in eight or ten pieces, a few truffles, some oysters, a little sweet-herbs and parsley chopped fine, a little pepper, salt, and beaten mace; fill your duck with the above ingredients, tie both ends tights, and dress as above; or you may fill it with force-meat** made thus:  take a little piece of veal, take all the skin and fat off, beat in a mortar, with as much suet, and an equal quantity of crumbs of bread, a few sweet-herbs, some parsley chopped, a little lemon-peel, pepper, salt, beaten mace, and nutmeg, and mix it up with the yolk of an egg.

You may stew an ox’s palate tender, and cut it into pieces, with some artichoke bottoms cut into four, and tossed up in the sauce.  You may lard your duck or let it alone, just as you please; for my part I think it best without.

*Culinary names for the thymus (throat, gullet, or neck) or the pancreas (also heart, stomach, or belly) especially of the calf (ris de veau) and lamb (ris d’agneau) (although beef and pork sweetbreads are also eaten).

** Force-meat – a stuffing, with either meat or bread as a base.

To boil ducks the French way.

Let your ducks be larded, and half roasted, then take them off the spit, put them into a large earthen pipkin, with half a pint of red wine, and a pint of good gravy, some chestnuts, first roasted and peeled, half a pint of large oysters, the liquor strained, and the beards taken off, two or three little onions minced small, a very little stripped thyme, mace, pepper and a little ginger beat fine; cover it close, and let them stew half an hour over a slow fire, and the crust of a French roll grated when you put in your gravy and wine; when they are enough take them up, and pour the sauce over them.

To dress a goose with onions or cabbage.

Salt the goose for a week, then boil it.  It will take an hour.  You may either make onion-sauce as we do for ducks, or cabbage boiled, chopped and stewed in butter, with a little pepper and salt; lay the goose in the dish, and pour the sauce over it.  It eats very good with either.

Directions for roasting a goose.

Take sage, wash it, pick it clean, chop it small, with pepper and salt; roll them with butter, and put them into the belly; never put onion into any thing, unless you are sure every body loves it; take care that your goose be clean picked and washed.  I think the best way is to scald a goose, and then you are sure it is clean, and not so strong:  let your water be scalding hot, dip in your goose for a minute, then all the feathers will come off clean:  when it is quite clean wash it with cold water, and dry it with a cloth; roast it and baste it with butter, and when it is half done throw some flour over it, that it may have a fine brown.  Three quarters of an hour will do it at a quick fire, if it is not too large, otherwise it will require an hour.  Always have good gravy in a bason, and apple-sauce in another.

A green goose.

Never put any seasoning into it, unless desired.  You must either put good gravy, or green-sauce in the dish, made thus:  Take a handful of sorrel, beat it in a mortar, and squeeze the juice out, add to it the juice of an orange or lemon, and a little sugar, heat it in a pipkin, and pour it into your dish; but the best way is to put gravy in the dish, and green-sauce in a cup or boat.  Or made thus:  take half a pint of the juice of sorrel, a spoonful of white wine, a little grated nutmeg, a little grated bread; boil these a quarter of an hour softly, then strain it, and put it into the saucepan again, and sweeten it with a little sugar, give it a boil, and pour it into a dish or bason; some like a little piece of butter rolled in flour, and put into it.

A dry a goose.

Get a fat goose, take a handful of common salt, a quarter of an ounce of salt-petre*, a quarter of a pound of coarse sugar, mix all together, and rub your goose very well:  let it lie in this pickle a fortnight, turning and rubbing it every day, then roll it in bran, and hang it up in a chimney where wood-smoke is for a week.  If you have not that conveniency, send it to the baker’s the smoke of the over will dry it; or you may hang it in your own chimney, not too near the fire, but make a fire under it, and lay horse-dung and saw dust on it, and that will smother and smoke-dry it; when it is well dried keep it in a dry place, you may keep it two or three months or more; when you boil it put in a good deal of water, and be sure to skim it well.

Note, You may boil turnips, or cabbage boiled and stewed in butter or onion-sauce.

* Saltpeter is a nitrate compound used as a food preservative.

To dress a goose in ragoo.

Flat the breast down with a cleaver, then press it down with your hand, skin it, dip it into scalding water, let it be cold, lard it with bacon, season it well with pepper, salt, and a little beaten mace, then flour it all over, take a pound of good beef-suet cut small, put it into a deep stew-pan, let it be melted, then put in your goose, let it be brown on both sides; when it is brown put in a pint of boiling water, an onion or two, a bundle of sweet-herbs, a bay-leaf, some whole pepper, and a few cloves; cover it close, and let it stew softly till it is tender.  About half an hour will do it, if small; if a large one, three quarters of an hour.  In the mean time make a ragoo, boil some turnips almost enough, some carrots and onions quite enough; cut them all into little pieces, put them into a sauce-pan with half a pint of good beef gravy, a little pepper and salt, a piece of butter rolled in flour, and let this stew altogether a quarter of an hour.  Take the goose and drain it well, then lay it in the dish, and pour the ragoo over it.

Where the onion is disliked, leave it out.  You may add cabbage boiled and chopped small.

A goose à la mode.

Take a large fine goose, pick it clean, skin it, and cut it down the back, bone it nicely, take the fat off, then take a dried tongue, boil it and peel it:  take a fowl, and do it in the same manner as the goose, season it with pepper, salt, and beaten mace, roll it round the tongue, season the goose with the same, put the tongue and fowl in the goose, and sew the goose up again in the same form it was before; put it into a little pot that will just hold it, put to it two quarts of beef-gravy, a bundle of sweet-herbs and an onion; put some slices of ham, or good bacon, between the fowl and goose; cover it close, and let it stew an hour over a good fire:  when it begins to boil let it do very softly, then take up your goose and skim off all the fat, strain it, put in a glass of red wine, two spoonfuls of catchup, a veal sweetbread* cut small, some truffles, morels, and mushrooms, a piece of butter rolled in flour, and some pepper and salt, if wanted; put in the goose again, cover it close, and let it stew half an hour longer, then take it up and pour the ragoo over it.  Garnish with lemon.

Note, This is a very fine dish.  You must mind to save the bones of the goose and fowl, and put them into the gravy when it is first set on, and it will be better if you roll some beef-marrow between the tongue and the fowl, and between the fowl and goose, it will make them mellow and eat fine.  You may add six or seven yolks of hard eggs whole in the dish, they are a pretty addition.  Take care to skim off the fat.

*Culinary names for the thymus (throat, gullet, or neck) or the pancreas (also heart, stomach, or belly) especially of the calf (ris de veau) and lamb (ris d’agneau) (although beef and pork sweetbreads are also eaten).

To stew giblets.

Let them be nicely scalded and picked, break the two pinion bones in two, cut the head in two, and cut off the nostrils; cut the liver in two, the gizzard in four, and the neck in two; slip off the skin of the neck, and make a pudding with two hard eggs chopped fine, the crumbs of a French roll steeped in hot milk two or three hours, then mix it with the hard egg, a little nutmeg, pepper, salt, and a little sage chopped fine, a very little melted butter, and stir it together; tie one end of the skin, and fill it with ingredients, tie the other end tight, and put all together in the sauce-pan, with a quart of good mutton broth, a bundle of sweet-herbs, an onion, some whole pepper, mace, two or three cloves tied up loose in a muslin rag, and a very little piece of lemon-peel; cover them close, and let them stew till quite tender, then take a small French roll toasted brown on all sides, and put it into the sauce-pan, give it a shake, and let it stew till there is just gravy enough to eat with them, then take out the onion, sweet-herbs, and spice, lay the roll in the middle, the giblets round, the pudding cut into slices and laid round, and then pour the sauce over all.

Another way.

Take the giblets clean picked and washed, the feet skinned and bill cut off, the head cut in two, the pinion bones broke into two, the liver cut in two, the gizzard cut into four, the pipe pulled out of the neck, the neck cut in two:  put them into a pipkin with half a pint of water, some whole pepper, black and white, a blade of mace, a little sprig of thyme, a small onion, a little crust of bread, then cover them close, and set them on a very slow fire.  Wood-embers is best.  Let them stew till they are quite tender, then take out the herbs and onions, and pour them into a little dish.  Season them with salt.

To roast pigeons.

Fill them with parsley clean washed and chopped, and some pepper and salt rolled in butter; fill the bellies, tie the neck-end close, so that nothing can run out, put a skewer through the legs, and have a little iron on purpose, with six hooks to it, and on each hook hang a pigeon; fasten one end of the string to the chimney, and the other end to the iron (this is what we call the poor man’s spit) flour them, baste them with butter, and turn them gently for fear of hitting the bars.  They will roast nicely, and be full of gravy.  Take care how you take them off, not to lose any of the liquor.  You may melt a very little butter, and put into the dish.  Your pigeons ought to be quite fresh, and not too much done.  This is by much the best way of doing them, for then they will swim in their own gravy, and a very little melted butter will do.

When you roast them on a spit all the gravy runs out, or if you stuff them and broil them whole you cannot save the gravy so well, though they will be very good with parsley and butter in the dish, or split and broiled with pepper and salt.

To boil pigeons.

Boil them by themselves, for fifteen minutes, then boil a handsome square piece of bacon and lay in the middle; stew some spinach to lay round, and lay the pigeons on the spinach.  Garnish your dish with parsley laid in a plate before the fire to crisp.  Or you may lay one pigeon in the middle, and the rest round, and the spinach between each pigeon, and a slice of bacon on each pigeon.  Garnish with slices of bacon and melted butter in a cup.

To à la daube pigeons.

Take a large sauce-pan, lay a layer of bacon, then a layer of veal, a layer of coarse beef, and another little layer of veal, about a pound of veal and a pound of beef cut very thin, a piece of carrot, a bundle of sweet-herbs, on onion, some black and white pepper, a blade or two of mace, four or five cloves, a little crust of bread toasted very brown.  Cover the sauce-pan close, set it over a slow fire for five or six minutes, shake in a little flour, then pour in a quart of boiling water, shake it round, cover it close, and let it stew till the gravy is quite rich and good, then strain it off and skim off all the fat.  In the mean time stuff the bellies of the pigeons with force-meat*, made thus:  take a pound of veal, a pound of beef-suet, beat both in a mortar fine, an equal quantity of crumbs of bread, some pepper, salt, nutmeg, beaten mace, a little lemon-peel cut small, some parsley cut small, and a very little thyme stripped; mix all together with the yolk of an egg, fill the pigeons, and flat the breast down, flour them and fry them in fresh butter a little brown:  then pour the fat clean out of the pan, and put to the pigeons the gravy, cover them close, and let them stew a quarter of an hour, or till you think they are quite enough; then take them up, lay them in a dish, and pour in your sauce:  on each pigeon lay a bay-leaf, and on the leaf a slice of bacon.  You may garnish with a lemon notched, or let it alone.

Note, You may leave out the stuffing, they will be very rich and good without it, and it is the best way of dressing them for a fine made dish.

* Force-meat – a stuffing, with either meat or bread as a base.

Pigeons au poir.

Make a good force-meat* as above, cut off the feet quite, stuff them in the shape of a pear, roll them in the yolk of an egg, and then in crumbs of bread, stick the leg at the top, and butter a dish to lay them in; then send them to an oven to bake, but do not let them touch each other.  When they are enough, lay them in a dish, and pour in good gravy thickened with the yolk of an egg, or butter rolled in flour:  do not pour your gravy over the pigeon.  You may garnish with lemon.  It is a pretty genteel dish:  or, for change, lay one pigeon in the middle, the rest round, and stewed spinach between; poached eggs on the spinach.  Garnish with notched lemon and orange cut into quarters, and have melted butter in boats.

* Force-meat – a stuffing, with either meat or bread as a base.

Pigeons stoved.

Take a small cabbage lettuce, just cut out the heart and make a force-meat* as before, only chop the heart of the cabbage and mix with it; then you must fill up the place, and tie it across with a packthread; fry it of a light brown in fresh butter, pour out all the fat, lay the pigeons round, flat them with your hand, season them a little with pepper, salt, and beaten mace (take great care not to put too much salt), pour in half a pint of Rhennish** wine, cover it close, and let it stew about five or six minutes; then put in half a pint of good gravy, cover them close, and let them stew half an hour.  Take a good piece of butter rolled in flour, shake it in:  when it is fine and thick take it up, untie it, lay the lettuce in the middle, and the pigeons round:  squeeze in a little lemon juice, and pour the sauce all over them.  Stew a little lettuce, and cut it into pieces for garnish with pickled red cabbage.

Note, Or for change, you may stuff your pigeons with the same force-meat, and cut two cabbage lettuces into quarters, and stew as above:  so lay the lettuce between each pigeon, and one in the middle, with the lettuce round it, and pour the sauce all over them.

* Force-meat – a stuffing, with either meat or bread as a base.

** Rhenish wine:  Wine from the Rhine valley in Germany; it could refer to either red or white.

Pigeons surtout.

Force your pigeons as above, then lay a slice of bacon on the breast, and a slice of veal beat with the back of a knife, and seasoned with mace, pepper, and salt, tie it on with a small packthread, or two little fine skewers is better; spit them on a fine bird spit, roast them and baste with a piece of butter, then with the yolk of an egg, and then baste them again with crumbs of bread, a little nutmeg and sweet-herbs; when enough lay them in your dish, have good gravy ready, with truffles, morels, and mushrooms, to pour into your dish.  Garnish with lemon.

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About Trinity

A melancholic pragmatist with a wide streak of mischief and an active imagination that turns into novels.

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