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The Art of Cookery Continued: Chapter II: Made Dishes, Part 5/5

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This is the last section of Hannah Glasse’s longest chapter.  Aside from a few more curious ingredients, there is a gruesome passage about how to dress ruffs and reifs; it is actually a similar process to the production of foie gras, the industry of which I don’t support by eating it.  There are also some pretty mysterious instructions for a “hasty dish”, involving a chair and burning papers.  There was a linguistic surprise for me in this chapter; I would have sworn that transmorgify was a word invented by Calvin & Hobbes; but nope.  Hannah uses it!

 

Pigeons in compote with white sauce.

Let your pigeons be drawn, picked, scalded, and flayed; then put them into a stew-pan with veal sweetbreads*, cocks-combs, mushrooms, truffles, morels, pepper, salt, a pint of thin gravy, a bundle of sweet-herbs, an onion, and a blade or two of mace:  cover them close, let them stew half an hour, then take out the herbs and onion, beat up the yolks of two or three eggs, with some chopped parsley, in a quarter of a pint of cream, and a little nutmeg; mix all together, stir in one way till thick; lay the pigeons in the dish, and the sauce all over.  Garnish with lemon.

*Culinary names for the thymus (throat, gullet, or neck) or the pancreas (also heart, stomach, or belly) especially of the calf (ris de veau) and lamb (ris d’agneau) (although beef and pork sweetbreads are also eaten).

A French pupton of Pigeons.

Take savoury force-meat* rolled out like paste, put it in a butter dish, lay a layer of very thin bacon, squab** pigeons, sliced sweetbread***, asparagus-tops, mushrooms, cocks-combs, a palate boiled tender and cut into pieces, and the yolks of hard eggs; make another force-meat and lay over like a pye, bake it; and when enough turn it into a dish, and pour gravy round it.

* Force-meat – a stuffing, with either meat or bread as a base.

**Squab: A young domestic pigeon or its meat. Dark chicken meat can be substituted.

***Culinary names for the thymus (throat, gullet, or neck) or the pancreas (also heart, stomach, or belly) especially of the calf (ris de veau) and lamb (ris d’agneau) (although beef and pork sweetbreads are also eaten).

Pigeons boiled with rice.

Take six pigeons, stuff their bellies with parsley, pepper, and salt, rolled in a very little piece of butter; put them into a quart of mutton broth, with a little beaten mace, a bundle of sweet-herbs, and an onion; cover them close, and let them boil a full quarter of an hour; then take out the onion and sweet-herbs, and take a good piece of butter rolled in flour, put it in and give it a shake, season it with salt, if it wants it, then have ready half a pound of rice boiled tender in milk; when it begins to be thick (but take great care it do not burn) take the yolks of two or three eggs, beat up with two or three spoonfuls of cream and a little nutmeg, stir it together till it is quite thick, then take up the pigeons and lay them in a dish; pour the gravy to the rice, stir all together and pour over the pigeons.  Garnish with hard eggs cut into quarters.

Pigeons transmogrified.

Take your pigeons, season them with pepper and salt, take a large piece of butter, make a puff-paste*, and roll each pigeon in a piece of paste; tie them in a cloth, so that the paste do not break; boil them in a good deal of water.  They will take an hour and a half boiling; untie them carefully that they do not bread; lay them in the dish, and you may pour a little good gravy in the dish.  They will eat exceeding good and nice, and will yield sauce enough of a very agreeable relish.

* paste = Puff pastry dough, Phyllo dough

Pigeons in Fricandos.

After having trussed your pigeons with their legs in their bodies, divide them in two, and lard them with bacon; then lay them in a stew-pan with the larded side downwards, and two whole leeks cut small, two ladlefuls of mutton broth, or veal gravy; cover them close over a very slow fire, and when they are enough make your fire very brisk, to waste away what liquor remains:  when they are of a fine brown take them up, and pour out all the fat that is left in the pan; then pour in some veal gravy to loosen what sticks to the pan, and a little pepper; stir it about for two or three minutes and pour it over the pigeons.  This is a pretty little side-dish.

To roast Pigeons with farce*.

Make a farce with the livers minced small, as much sweet suet or marrow, grated bread, and hard egg, an equal quantity of each; season with beaten mace, nutmeg, a little pepper, salt, and a little sweet-herbs; mix all these together with the yolk of an egg, then cut the skin of your pigeon between the legs and the body, and very carefully with your finger raise the skin from the flesh, but take care you do not break it:  then force them with this farce between the skin and flesh, then truss the legs close to keep it in; spit them and roast them, drudge them with a little flour, and baste them with a piece of butter; save the gravy which runs from them, and mix it up with a little red wine, a little of the force-meat, and some nutmeg.  Let it boil, then thicken it with a piece of butter rolled in flour, and the yolk of an egg beat up, and some minced lemon; when enough lay the pigeons in the dish and pour in the sauce.  Garnish with lemon.

*Farce: (late 14th C.), force-meat (a stuffing, with either meat or bread as a base)

To dress pigeons à la soleil.

First stew your pigeons in a very little gravy till enough, and take different sorts of flesh according to your fancy, &c. both of butcher’s meat and fowl, chop it small, season it with beaten mace, cloves, pepper, and salt, and beat it in a mortar till it is like paste; roll your pigeons in it, then roll them in the yolk of an egg, shake flour and crumbs of bread thick all over, have ready some beef dripping or hog’s lard boiling; fry them brown, and lay them in your dish.  Garnish with fried parsley.

Pigeons in a hole.

Take your pigeons, season them with beaten mace, pepper, and salt; put a little piece of butter in the belly, lay them in a dish, and pour a little batter all over them, made with a quart of milk and eggs, and four or five spoonfuls of flour.  Bake it and send it to table.  It is a good dish.

Pigeons in Pimlico.

Take the livers, with some fat and lean of ham or bacon, mushrooms, truffles, parsley, and sweet-herbs; season with beaten mace, pepper, and salt; beat all this together, with two raw eggs, put it into the bellies, roll them in a thin slice of veal, over that a thin slice of bacon, wrap them up in white paper, spit them on a small spit, and roast them.  In the mean time make for them a ragoo of truffles and mushrooms chopped small with parsley cut small, put to it half a pint of good veal gravy, thicken with a piece of butter rolled in flour.  An hour will do you pigeons; baste them, when enough lay them in your dish, take off the paper, and pour your sauce over them.  Garnish with patties, made thus: take veal and cold ham, beef-suet, an equal quantity, some mushrooms, sweet-herbs, and spice, chop them small, set them on the fire, and moisten with milk or cream; then make a little puff paste, roll it and make little patties, about an inch deep and two inches long; fill them with the above ingredients, cover them close and bake them; lay six of them round a dish.  This makes a fine dish for a first course.

To jugg pigeons.

Pull, crop, and draw pigeons, but don’t wash them; save the livers and put them in scalding water, and set them on the fire for a minute or two:  then take them out and mince them small, and bruise them with the back of a spoon; mix with them a little pepper, salt, grated nutmeg, and lemon-peel shred very fine, chopped parsley, and two yolks of eggs very hard; bruise them as you do the liver, and put as much suet as liver shaved exceeding fine, and as much grated bread; work these together with raw eggs, and roll it in fresh butter; put a piece into the crops and bellies, and sew up the necks and vents:  then dip your pigeons in water, and season them with pepper and salt as for a pie, put them in your jugg, with a piece of celery, stop them close, and set them in a kettle of cold water; first cover them close, and lay a tile on the top of the jugg, and lay them in a dish, take out the celery, put in a piece of butter rolled in flour, shake it about till it is thick, and pour it on your pigeons.  Garnish with lemon.

To stew pigeons.

Season your pigeons with pepper, salt, cloves, mace, and some sweet-herbs; wrap this seasoning up in a piece of utter, and put in their bellies; then tie up the neck and vent, and half-roast them; then put them into a stew-pan with a quart of good gravy, a little white wine, some pickled mushrooms, a few pepper-corns, three or four blades of mace, a bit of lemon-peel, a bunch of sweet-herbs, a bit of onions, and some oysters pickled; let them stew till they are enough, then thicken it up with butter and yolks of eggs.  Garnish with lemon.

Do ducks the same way.

To dress a calf’s liver in a caul.

Take off the under skins, and shred the liver very small, then take an ounce of truffles and morels chopped small, with parsley; roast two or three onions, take off their outermost coats, pound six cloves, and a dozen coriander-seeds, add them to the onions, and pound them together in a marble mortar; then take them out, and mix them with the liver, take a pint of cream, half a pint of milk, and seven or eight new-laid eggs; beat them together, boil them, but do not let them curdle, shred a pound of suet as small as you can, half melt it in a pan, and pour it into your egg and cream, then pour it into your liver, then mix all well together, season it with pepper, salt, nutmeg, and a little thyme, and let it stand till it is cold:  spread a caul over the bottom and sides of the stew-pan, and put in your hashed liver and cream all together, fold it up in the caul, in the shape of a calf’s liver, then turn it upside-down carefully, lay it in a dish that will bear the oven, and do it over with beaten egg, drudge it with grated bread, and bake it in an oven.  Serve it up hot for a first course.

To dress a calf’s liver.

Lard it with bacon, spit it first, and roast it; serve it up with good gravy.

To roast partridges.

Let them be nicely roasted, but not too much, drudge them with a little flour, and baste them moderately; let them have a fine froth, there be good gravy-sauce in the dish, and bread-sauce in basons made thus:  take a pint of water, put in a good thick piece of bread, some whole pepper, a blade or two of mace; boil it five or six minutes till the bread is soft, then take out all the spice, and pour out all the water, only just enough to keep it moist, beat it soft with a spoon, throw in a little salt, and a good piece of fresh butter; stir it well together, set it over the fire for a minute or two, then put it into a boat.

To boil partridges.

Boil them in a good deal of water, let them boil quick, and fifteen minutes will be sufficient.  For sauce, take a quarter of a pint of cream, and a piece of fresh butter as big as a large walnut; stir it one way till it is melted, and pour it into the dish.

Or this sauce:  take a bunch of celery clean washed, cut all the white very small, wash it again very clean, put it into a sauce-pan with a blade of mace, a little beaten pepper, and a very little salt; put to it a pint of water, let it boil till the water is just wasted away, then add a quarter of a pint of cream, and a piece of butter rolled in flour; stir all together, and when it is thick and fine pour it over the birds.

Or this sauce:  take the livers and bruise them fine, some parsley chopped fine, melt a little nice fresh butter, and then add the livers and parsley to it, squeeze in a little lemon, just give it a boil, and pour over your birds.

Or this sauce:  take a quarter of a pint of cream, the yolk of an egg beat fine, a little grated nutmeg, a little beaten mace, a piece of butter as big as a nutmeg, rolled in flour, and one spoonful of white wine; stir all together one way, when fine and thick pour it over the birds.  You may add a few mushrooms.

Or this sauce:  take a few mushrooms, fresh peeled, and wash them clean, put them in a sauce-pan with a little salt, put them over a quick fire, let them boil up, then put in a quarter of a pint of cream and a little nutmeg; shake them together with a very little piece of butter rolled in flour, give it two or three shakes over the fire, three or four minutes will do; then pour it over the birds.

Or this sauce:  boil half a pound of rice very tender in beef gravy; season with pepper and salt, and pour over your birds.  These sauces do for boiled fowls; a quart of gravy will be enough, and let it boil till it is quite thick.

To dress partridges à la braise.

Take two brace*, truss the legs into the bodies, lard them, season them with beaten mace, pepper, and salt; take a stew-pan, lay slices of bacon at the bottom, then slices of beef, and then slices of veal, all cut thin, a piece of carrot, an onions cut small, a bundle of sweet-herbs, and some whole pepper:  lay the partridges with the breasts downward, lay some thin slices of beef and veal over them, and some parsley shred fine; cover them and let them stew eight or ten minutes over a very slow fire, then give your pan a shake, and pour in a pint of boiling water; cover it close, and let it stew half an hour over a little quicker fire; then take out your birds, keep them hot, pour into the pan a pint of thin gravy, let them boil till there is about half a pint, then strain it off and skim off all the fat:  in the mean time, have a veal sweetbread*** cut small, truffles and morels, cocks-combs, and fowls livers stewed in a pint of good gravy half an hour, some artichoke-bottoms and asparagus-tops, both blanched in warm water, and a few mushrooms, then add the other gravy to this, and put in your partridges to heat, if it is not thick enough, take a piece of butter rolled in flour, and toss up in it; if you will be at the expence, thicken it with veal and ham cullis**, but it will be full as good without.

* Brace:  A pair of game birds

** Cullis /Coulis:  A strong broth made of meat or fowl with other ingredients used as a base for various sauces or as a restorative for the sick.

***Culinary names for the thymus (throat, gullet, or neck) or the pancreas (also heart, stomach, or belly) especially of the calf (ris de veau) and lamb (ris d’agneau) (although beef and pork sweetbreads are also eaten).

To make partridge panes*.

Take two roasted partridges and the flesh of a large fowl, a little parboiled bacon, and a little marrow or sweet-suet chopped very fine, a few mushrooms and morels chopped fine, truffles, and artichoke-bottoms, season with beaten mace, pepper and a little nutmeg, salt, sweet-herbs chopped fine, and the crumb of a two-penny loaf soaked in hot gravy; mix all well together with the yolks of two eggs, make your panes on paper, or a round figure, and the thickness of an egg, at a proper distance from one another, dip the point of a knife in the yolk of an egg, in order to shape them; bread them neatly, and bake them a quarter of an hour in a quick oven:  observe that the truffles and morels be boiled tender in the gravy you soak the bread in.  Serve them up for a side-dish, or they will serve to garnish the above dish, which will be a very fine one for a first course.

Note, When you have cold fowls in the house, this make a pretty addition in an entertainment.

*Pane:  Hannah also spelled this “pain”, but I could find neither.  By her referral to paper, and direction on how it is done, I infer that it is referring to a decorative baking shape, perhaps in the shape of window panes.  If anyone is the wiser, let me know!

To roast pheasants.

Pick and draw your pheasants, and singe them, lard one with bacon, but not the other, spit them, roast them fine, and paper them all over the breast; when they are just done, flour and baste them with a little nice butter, and let them have a fine white froth; then take them up, and pour good gravy in the dish and bread-sauce in plates.

Or you may put water-cresses nicely picked and washed, and just scalded, with gravy in the dish, and lay the cresses under the pheasants.

Or you may make celery-sauce stewed tender, strained and mixed with cream, and poured into the dish.

If you have but one pheasant, take a large fine fowl about the bigness of a pheasant, pick it nicely with the head on, draw it and truss it with the head turned as you do a pheasant’s, lard the fowl all over the breast and legs with a large piece of bacon cut in little pieces; when roasted put them both in a dish, and no body will know it.  They will take an hour doing, as the fire must not be too brisk.  A Frenchman would order fish-sauce to them, but then you quite spoil your pheasants.

A stewed pheasant.

Take your pheasant and stew it in veal gravy, take artichoke-bottoms parboiled, some chestnuts roasted and blanched:  when your pheasant is enough (but it must stew till there is just enough for sauce, then skim it) put in the chestnuts and artichoke-bottoms, a little beaten mace, pepper, and salt just enough to season it, and a glass of white wine, and if you don’t think it thick enough, thicken it with a little piece of butter rolled in flour:  squeeze in a little lemon, pour the sauce over the pheasant, and have some force-meat* balls fried and put into the dish.

Note, a good fowl will do full as well, trussed with the head on like a pheasant.  You may fry sausages instead of force-meat balls.

* Force-meat – a stuffing, with either meat or bread as a base.

To dress a pheasant à la braise.

Lay a layer of beef all over your pan, then a layer of veal, a little piece of bacon, a piece of carrot, an onion stuck with cloves, a blade or two of mace, a spoonful of pepper, black and white, and a bundle of sweet-herbs; then lay in the pheasant, lay a layer of veal, and then a layer of beef to cover it, set it on the fire five or six minutes, then pour in two quarts of boiling water:  cover it close, and let it stew very softly an hour and a half, then take up your pheasant, keep it hot, and let the gravy boil till there is about a pint; then strain it off, and put it in again, and put in a veal sweet-bread, first being stewed with the pheasant, then put in some truffles and morels, some livers of fowls, artichoke-bottoms, and asparagus-tops, if you have them; let all these simmer in the gravy about five or six minutes, then add two spoonfuls of catchup, two of red wine, and a little piece of butter rolled in flour, shake all together, put in your pheasant, let them stew all together with a few mushrooms about five or six minutes more, then take up your pheasant and pour your ragoo all over, with a few force-meat* balls.  Garnish with lemon.  You may lard it, if you chuse.

* Force-meat – a stuffing, with either meat or bread as a base.

To boil a pheasant.

Take a fine pheasant, boil it in a good deal of water, keep your water boiling; half an hour will do a small one, and three quarters of an hour a large one.  Let your sauce be celery stewed and thickened with cream, and a little piece of butter rolled in flour; take up the pheasant, and pour the sauce all over.  Garnish with lemon.  Observe to stew your celery so, that the liquor will not be all wasted away before you put your cream in; if it wants salt, put in some to your palate.

To roast snipes or woodcocks.

Spit them on a small bird-spit, flour them and baste them with a piece of butter, then have ready a slice of bread toasted brown, lay it in a dish, and set it under the snipes for the trail to drop on; when they are enough, take them up and lay them on a toast; have ready for two snipes, a quarter of a pint of good beef-gravy hot, pour it into the dish, and set it over a chaffing-dish two or three minutes.  Garnish with lemon, and send them hot to table.

Snipes in a surtout*, or woodcocks.

Take force-meat** made with veal, as much beef-suet chopped and beat in a mortar, with an equal quantity of crumbs of bread; mix in a little beaten mace, pepper and salt, come parsley, and a little sweet-herbs, mix it with the yolk of an egg, lay some of this meat round the dish, then lay in the snipes, being first drawn and half roasted.  Take care of the trail; chop it, and throw it all over the dish.

Take some good gravy, according to the bigness of your surtout, some truffles and morels, a few mushrooms, a sweetbread cut into pieces, and artichoke-bottoms cut small; let all stew together, shake them, and take the yolks of two or three eggs, according as you want them, and take the yolks of two or three eggs, according as you want them, beat them up with a spoonful or two of white wine, stir all together one way, when it is thick take it off, let it cool, and pour it into the surtout:  have the yolks of a few hard eggs put in here and there, season with beaten mace, pepper and salt, to your taste; cover it with the force-meat all over, rub the yolks of eggs all over to colour it, then send it to the oven.  Half an hour does it, and send it hot to table.

* Surtout – A surtout coat was a man’s frock coat, of the kind worn by cavalry officers over their uniforms in the 18th and early 19th centuries. It is also a French word meaning “above all” or “especially”.

** Force-meat – a stuffing, with either meat or bread as a base.

To boil snipes or woodcocks.

Boil them in good strong broth, or beef gravy made thus:  take a pound of beef, cut it into little pieces, put it into two quarts of water, an onion, a bundle of sweet-herbs, a blade or two of mace, six cloves, and some whole pepper; cover it close, let it boil till about half wasted, then strain it off, put the gravy into a sauce-pan with salt enough to season it, take the snipes and gut them clean (but take care of the guts) put them into the gravy and let them boil, cover them close, and ten minutes will boil them, if they keep boiling.  In the mean time, chop the guts and liver small, take a little of the gravy the snipes are boiling in, and stew the guts in, with a blade of mace.  Take some crumbs of bread, and have them ready fried in a little fresh butter crisp, of a fine light brown.  You must take about as much bread as the inside of the stale roll, and rub them small into a clean cloth; when they are done, let them stand ready in a plate before the fire.

When your snipes are ready, take about half a pint of the liquor they are boiled in, and add to the guts two spoonfuls of red wine, and a piece of butter about as big as a walnut, rolled in a little flour; set them on the fire, shake your sauce-pan often (but do not stir it with a spoon) till the butter is all melted, then put in the crumbs, give your sauce-pan a shake, take up your birds, lay them in the dish, and pour this sauce over them.  Garnish with lemon.

To dress ortolans.

Spit them sideways, with a bay-leaf between; baste them with butter, and have fried crumbs of bread round the dish.  Dress quails the same way.

To dress ruffs and reifs.

Photo credit:  Wikipedia, DickDaniels (http://carolinabirds.org/)

Photo credit: Wikipedia, DickDaniels (http://carolinabirds.org/)

They are Lincolnshire birds, and you may fatten them as you do chickens, with white bread, milk and sugar:  they feed fast, and will die in their fat if not killed in time:  truss them cross-legged as you do a snipe, spit them the same way, but you must gut them, and you must have gravy in the dish thickened with butter and toast under them.  Serve them up quick.

To dress larks.

Spit them on a little bird-spit, roast them; when enough, have a good many crumbs of bread fried, and throw all over them; and lay them thick round the dish.

Or they make a very pretty ragoo with fowls livers; first fry the larks and livers very nicely, then put them into some good gravy to stew; just enough for sauce, with a little red wine.  Garnish with lemon.

To dress plovers*.

To two plovers take two artichoke-bottoms boiled, some chestnuts roasted and blanched, some skirrets** boiled, cut all very small, mix with it some marrow or beef-suet, the yolks of two hard eggs, chop all together, season with pepper, salt, nutmeg, and a little sweet-herbs, fill the bodies of the plovers, lay them in a sauce-pan, put to them a pint of gravy, a glass of white wine, a blade or two of mace, some roasted chestnuts blanched, and artichoke-bottoms cut into quarters, two or three yolks of eggs, and a little juice of lemon; cover them close, and let them stew very softly an hour.  If you find the sauce is not thick enough, take a piece of butter rolled in flour, and put into the sauce, shake it around, and when it is thick take up your plovers and pour the sauce over them.  Garnish with roasted chestnuts.

Ducks are very good done this way.

Or you may roast your plovers as you do any other fowl, and have gravy-sauce in the dish.

Or boil them in good celery-sauce, either white or brown, just as you like.

The same way you may dress wigeons***.

* Plover:  A small wading bird

** Skirret:  a perennial plant sometimes grown as a root vegetable; also called Water Parsnip.

*** Wigeon:  A type of dabbling duck, also known as the Baldpate.

To dress larks, pear fashion.

You must truss the larks close, and cut off the legs, season them with salt, pepper, cloves, and mace; make a force-meat* thus:  take a veal sweetbread, as much beef suet, a few morels and mushrooms, chop all fine together, some crumbs of bread, and a few sweet-herbs, a little lemon-peel cut small, mix all together with the yolk of an egg, wrap up every lark in force-meat, and shape them like a pear, stick one leg in the top like the stalk of a pear, rub them over with the yolk of an egg and crumbs of bread, bake them in a gentle oven, serve them without sauce; or they make a good garnish to a very fine dish.

You may use veal, if you have not a sweetbread.

* Force-meat – a stuffing, with either meat or bread as a base.

To dress a hare.

As to roasting of a hare, I have given full directions in the beginning of the book.

A jugged hare.

Cut it into little pieces, lard them here and there with little slips of bacon, season them with a very little pepper and salt, put them into an earthen jugg, with a blade or two of mace, an onion stuck with cloves, and a bundle of sweet-herbs; cover the jugg or jar you do it in so close that nothing can get in, then set it in a pot of boiling water, keep the water boiling, and three hours will do it.  Then turn it out into the dish, and take out the onions and sweet-herbs, and send it to table hot.  If you don’t like it larded, leave it out.

To seare a hare.

Lard your hare and put a pudding in the belly; put it into a pot or fish-kettle, then put to it two quarts of strong drawed gravy, one of red wine, a whole lemon cut, a faggot of sweet-herbs, nutmeg, pepper, a little salt, and six cloves:  cover it close, and stew it over a very slow fire, till it is three parts done; then take it up, put it into a dish, and strew it over with crumbs of bread, a few sweet-herbs chopped fine, and baste it till it is all of a fine light brown.  In the mean time take the fat off your gravy, and thicken it with the yolk of an egg; take six eggs boiled hard and chopped small, some picked cucumbers cut very thin; mix these with the sauce, and pour it into the dish.

A fillet of mutton or neck of venison may be done the same way.

Note, You may do rabbits the same way, but it must be veal gravy, and white wine; adding mushrooms for cucumbers.

To stew a hare.

Cut it into pieces, and put it into a stew-pan, with a blade or two of mace, some whole pepper black and white, an onion stuck with cloves, an anchovy, a bundle of sweet-herbs, and a nutmeg cut to pieces, and cover it with water; cover the stew-pan close, let it stew till the hare is tender, but not too much done:  then take it up, and with a fork take out the hare into a clean pan, strain the sauce through a coarse sieve, empty all out of the pan, put in the hare again with the sauce, take a piece of butter as big as a walnut rolled in flour, and put in likewise one spoonful of catchup, and one of red wine; stew all together (with a few fresh mushrooms, or pickled ones if you have any) till it is thick and smooth; then dish it up, and send it to table.  You may cut a hare in two, and stew the fore-quarters thus, and roast the hind-quarters with a pudding in the belly.

A hare civet*.

Bone the hare, and take out all the sinews, then cut one half in thin slices, and the other half in pieces an inch thick, flour them and fry them in a little fresh butter as collops, quick, and have ready some gravy made good with the bones of the hare and beef, put a pint of it into the pan to the hare, some mustard and a little elder vinegar; cover it close, and let it do softly till it is as thick as cream, then dish it up with the head in the middle.

*Civet:  Meaning uncertain.  It is not referring to the nocturnal mammal. It could be referring to the French term civette, cream, froth or foam.

Portuguese rabbits.

I have, in the beginning of my book, given directions for boiled and roasted.  Get some rabbits, truss them chicken fashion, the head must be cut off, and the rabbit turned with the back upwards, and two of the legs stripped to the claw-end, and so trussed with two skewers.  Lard them, and roast them with what sauce you please.  If you want chickens, and they are to appear as such, they must be dressed in this manner:  but if otherwise the head must be skewered back, and come to the table on, with liver, butter, and parsley, as you have for rabbits, and they look very pretty boiled and trussed in this manner, and smothered with onions:  or if they are to be boiled for chickens, cut off the head, and cover them with white celery-sauce, or rice-sauce tossed up with cream.

Rabbits surprise.

Roast two half-grown rabbits, cut off the heads close to the shoulders and the first joints; then take off all the lean meat from the back bones, cut it small, and toss it up with six or seven spoonfuls of cream and milk, and a piece of butter as big as a walnut rolled in flour, a little nutmeg and a little salt, shake it all together till it is as thick as good cream, and set it to cool; then make a force-meat* with a pound of veal, a pound of suet, as much crumbs of bread, two anchovies, a little piece of lemon-peel cut fine, a little sprig of thyme, and a nutmeg grated; let the veal and suet be chopped very fine and beat in a mortar, then mix it all together with the yolks of two raw eggs, place it all round the rabbits, leaving a long trough in the back bone open, that you think will holt the meat you cut out with the sauce, pour it in and cover it with the force-meat, smooth it all over with your hand as well as you can with a raw egg, square at both ends, throw on a little grated bread, and butter a mazarine, or pan, and take them from the dresser where you formed them, and place them on it very carefully.  Bake them three quarters of an hour till they are of a fine brown colour.  Let your sauce be gravy thickened with butter and the juice of a lemon; lay them into the dish, and pour in the sauce.  Garnish with orange cut into quarters, and serve it up for a first course.

* Force-meat – a stuffing, with either meat or bread as a base.

To boil rabbits.

Truss them for boiling, boil them quick and white; for sauce take the livers, boil and shred them, and some parsley shred fine, and pickled astertion-buds chopped fine, or capers, mix these with half a pint of good gravy, a glass of white wine, a little beaten mace and nutmeg, a little pepper and salt, if wanted, a piece of butter as big as a large walnut rolled in flour; let it all boil together till it is thick, take up the rabbits and pour the sauce over them.  Garnish with lemon.  You may lard them with bacon, if it is liked.

*Astertion:  meaning uncertain.  She most likely meant Nasturtium, an edible perennial flower.

To dress rabbits in casserole.

Divide the rabbits into quarters.  You may lard them or let them alone, just as you please, shake some flour over them and fry them with lard or butter, then put them into an earthen pipkin* with a quart of good broth, a glass of white wine, a little pepper and salt, if wanted, a bunch of sweet-herbs, and a piece of butter as big as a walnut rolled in flour; cover them close and let them stew half an hour, then dish them up and pour the sauce over them.  Garnish with Seville orange, cut into thin slices and notched; the peel that is cut out lay prettily between the slices.

* Pipkin: An earthenware cooking pot used for cooking over direct heat from coals or a wood fire. It has a handle and three feet.

Mutton kebob’d.

Take a loin of mutton, and joint it between every bone:  season it with pepper and salt moderately, grate a small nutmeg all over, dip them in the yolks of three eggs, and have ready crumbs of bread and sweet-herbs, dip them in and clap them together in the same shape again, and put it on a small spit, roast them before a quick fire, set a dish under and baste it with a little piece of butter, and then keep basting with what comes from it, and throw some crumbs of bread all over them as it is roasting; when it is enough take it up, and lay it in the dish, and have ready half a pint of good gravy, and what comes from it; take two spoonfuls of catchup, and mix a tea-spoonful of flour with it and put to the gravy, stir it together and give it a boil, and pour over the mutton.

Note, You must observe to take off all the fat of the inside, and the skin of the top of the meat, and some of the fat, if there be too much.  When you put in what comes from your meat into the gravy, observe to pour out all the fat.

A neck of mutton, called the hasty dish.

Take a large pewter or silver dish, make like a deep soup-dish, with an edge about an inch deep on the inside, on which the lid fixes (with an handle at top) so fast that you may lift it up full by that handle without falling.  This dish is called a necromancer.  Take a neck of mutton about six pounds, take off the skin, cut it into chops, not too thick, slice a French roll thin, peel and slice a very large onions, pare and slice three or four turnips, lay a row of mutton in the dish, on that a row of roll, then a row of turnips, and then onions, a little salt, then the meat, and so on; put in a little bundle of sweet-herbs, and two or three blades of mace; have a tea-kettle of water boiling, fill the dish and cover it close, hang the dish on the back of two chairs by the rim, have ready three sheets of brown paper, tear each sheet into five pieces, and draw them through your hand, light one piece and hold it under the bottom of the dish, moving the paper about; as fast as the paper burns, light another till all is burnt, and your meat will be enough.  Fifteen minutes just does it.  Send it to table hot in the dish.

Note, this dish was first contrived by Mr. Rich, and is much admired by the nobility.

To dress a loin of pork with onions.

Take a fore-loin of pork, and roast it as at another time, peel a quarter of a peck of onions, and slice them thin, lay them in the dripping-pan, which must be very clean, under the pork; let the fat drop on them; when the pork is nigh enough, put the onions into the sauce-pan, let them simmer over the fire a quarter of an hour, shaking them well, then pour out all the fat as well as you can, shake in a very little flour, a spoonful of vinegar, and three tea-spoonfuls of mustard, shake all well together, and stir in the mustard, set it over the fire for four or five minutes, lay the pork in a dish, and the onions in a bason.  This is an admirable dish to those who love onions.

To make a currey the Indian way.

Take two small chickens, skin them and cut them as for a fricasey, wash them clean, and stew them in about a quart of water, for about five minutes, then strain off the liquor and put the chickens in a clean dish; take three large onions, chop them small, and fry them in about two ounces of butter, then put in the chickens and fry them together till they are brown, take a quarter of an ounce of turmerick, a large spoonful of ginger and beaten pepper together, and a little salt to your palate; strew all these ingredients over the chickens whilst it is frying, then pour in the liquor, and let it stew about half an hour, then put in a quarter of a pint of cream, and the juice of two lemons, and serve it up.  The ginger, pepper and tumerick must be beat very fine.

To boil the rice.

Put two quarts of water to a pint of rice, let it boil till you think it is done enough, then throw in a spoonful of salt, and turn it out into a cullender; then let it stand about five minutes before the fire to dry, and serve it up in a dish by itself.  Dish it up and send it to table, the rice in a dish by itself.

To make a pellow the Indian way.

Take three pounds of rice, pick and wash it very clean, put it into a cullender, and let it drain very dry; take three quarters of a pound of butter, and put it into a pan over a very slow fire till it melts, then put in the rice and cover it over very close, that it may keep all the steam in; add to it a little salt, some whole pepper, half a dozen blades of mace, and a few cloves.  You must put in a little water to keep it from burning, then stir it up very often, and let it stew till the rice if soft.  Boil two fowls, and a fine piece of bacon of about two pounds weight as common, cut the bacon in two pieces, lay it in the dish with the fowls, cover it over with the rice, and garnish it with about half a dozen hard eggs and a dozen of onions fried whole and very brown.

Note, This is the true Indian way of dressing them.

Another way to make a pillow.

Take a leg of veal about twelve or fourteen pounds weight, an old cock skinned, chop both to pieces, put it into a pot with five or six blades of mace, some whole white pepper, and three gallons of water, half a pound of bacon, two onions, and six cloves; cover it close, and when it boils let it do very softly till the meat is good for nothing, and above two-thirds is wasted, then strain it; the next day put this soup into a sauce-pan, with a pound of rice, set it over a very slow fire, take great care it do not burn; when the rice is very thick and dry, turn it into a dish.  Garnish with hard eggs cut in two, and have roasted fowls in another dish.

Note, You are to observe, if your rice simmers too fast it will burn, when it comes to be thick.  It must be very thick and dry, and the rice not boiled to a mummy.

To make essence of ham.

Take off the fat of a ham, and cut the lean in slices, beat them well and lay them in the bottom of a stew-pan, with slices of carrots, parsnips, and onions; cover your pan, and set it over a gentle fire:  let them stew till they begin to stick, then sprinkle on a little flour, and turn them; then moisten with broth and veal gravy.  Season them with three or four mushrooms, as many truffles, a whole leek, some parsley, and half a dozen cloves:  or instead of a leek, a clove of garlick.  Put in some crusts of bread, and let them simmer over the fire for a quarter of an hour; strain it, and set away for use.  Any pork or ham does for this, that is well made.

Rules to be observed in all made-dishes.

First, that the stew-pans, or sauce-pans, and cover, be very clean, free from sand, and well tinned; and that all the white sauces have a little tartness, and be very smooth and of a fine thickness, and all the time any white sauce is over the fire keep stirring it one way.

And as to brown sauce, take great care no fat swims at the top, but that it be all smooth alike, and about as thick as good cream, and not to taste of one thing more than another.  As to pepper and salt, season to your palate, but do not put too much of either, for that will take away the fine flavour of everything.  As to most made dishes, you may put in what you think proper to enlarge it, or make it good; as mushrooms pickled, dried, fresh or powdered; truffles, morels, cocks-combs stewed, ox palates cut in little bits, artichoke-bottoms, either pickled, fresh or boiled, or dried ones softened in warm water, each cut in four pieces, asparagus-tops, the yolks of hard eggs, force-meat* balls, &c.  The best things to give a sauce tartness, are mushroom-pickle, white walnut-pickle, elder vinegar, or lemon-juice.

* Force-meat – a stuffing, with either meat or bread as a base.

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About Trinity

A melancholic pragmatist with a wide streak of mischief and an active imagination that turns into novels.

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