RSS Feed

Tag Archives: cock rooster

The Art of Cookery, Chapter IV: A number of little dishes fit for a supper…

Posted on
Source:  Wikipedia

Sugarloaf. Source: Wikipedia

Hannah’s book continues.  The lengthy title sums up the chapter’s contents; unlike today where every word counts because people’s attention spans are spread as thin as butter on too many toasts, 18th century writers could take their time, and frequently did so.  There are quite a few interesting bits in this chapter:  Have you ever pickled hog’s ears?  Or even seen a recipe for it before now?  Not me.  And just how much space can there be inside a cock’s comb, to stuff?  The thought of stewing lettuce may seem very odd to us; but there are two things to consider:  One, eighteenth century English had an aversion to fresh fruits or vegetables; they considered them unsafe, and unhealthy.  Two, their lettuce was not the hybrid, water-retaining, chilled leaves we know of today; we still stew spinach, fry, boil and bake it, after all, and their lettuce was probably not much different.

Sugar was sold in solidly-packed “loafs”, or cones; Sugarloaf Mountain in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil was thus named because it resembled this traditional shape.

Enjoy!

Chapter IV:  To make a number of little dishes fit for a supper, or side dish. and little corner dishes for a great table; and the rest you have in the chapter for Lent.

Hog’s ears forced.

Take four hogs ears, and half boil them, or take them soused*; make a force-meat** thus:  take half a pound of beef-suet, as much crumbs of bread, an anchovy, some sage, boil and chop very find a little parsley; mix all together with the yolk of an egg, a little pepper, slit your ears very carefully to make a place for your stuffing, fill them, flour them, and fry them in fresh butter till they are of a fine brown; then pour out all the fat clean, and put to them half a pint of gravy, a glass of white wine, three tea-spoonfuls of mustard, a piece of butter as big as a nutmeg rolled in flour, a little pepper, a small onion whole; cover them close, and let them stew softly for half an hour, shaking your pan now and then.  When they are enough, lay them in your dish, and pour your sauce over them; but first take out the onion.  This makes a very pretty dish; but if you would make a fine large dish, take the feet, and cut all the meat in small thin pieces, and stew the ears.  Season with salt to your palate.

*Souse:  To pickle, steep in vinegar, preserved in salt and vinegar.

** Force-meat – a stuffing, with either meat or bread as a base.

To force cocks-combs.

Parboil your cocks-combs, then open them with a point of a knife at the great end:  take the white of a fowl, as much bacon and beef marrow, cut these small, and beat them fine in a marble mortar; season them with salt, pepper, and grated nutmeg, and mix it with an egg; fill the cocks-combs, and stew them in a little strong gravy softly for half an hour, then slice in some fresh mushrooms and a few pickled ones; then beat up the yolk of an egg in a little gravy, stirring it.  Season with salt.  When they are enough, dish them up in little dishes or plates.

To preserve cocks-combs.

Let them be well cleaned, then put them into a pot, with some melted bacon, and boil them a little; about half an hour after, add a little bay salt, some pepper, a little vinegar, a lemon sliced, and an onion stuck with cloves.  When the bacon begins to stick to the pot, take them up, put them into the pan you would keep them in, lay a clean linen cloth over them, and pour melted butter clarified over them, to keep them close from the air.  These make a pretty plate at a supper.

To preserve or pickle pigs feet and ears.

Take your feet and ears single, and wash them well, split the feet in two, put a bay leaf between every foot, put in almost as much water as will cover them.  When they are well steemed, add to them cloves, mace, whole pepper, and ginger, coriander-seed and salt, according to your discretion; put to them a bottle or two of Rhenish* wine, according to the quantity you do, half a score of bay-leaves, and a bunch of sweet-herbs.  Let them boil softly till they are very tender, then take them out of the liquor, lay them in an earthen pot, then strain the liquor over them; when they are cold, cover them down close, and keep them for use.

You should let them stand to be cold; skim off all the fat, and then put in the wine and spice.

They eat well cold; or at any time, heat them in the jelly, and thicken it with a little piece of butter rolled in flour, makes a pretty dish; or eat the ears, and take the feet clean out of the jelly, and roll it in the yolk of an egg, or melted butter, and then in crumbs of bread, and broil them; or fry them in fresh butter, lay the ears in the middle and the feet round, and pour the sauce over, or you may cut the ears in long slips, which is better:  and if you chuse it, make a good brown gravy to mix with them, a glass of white wine and some mustard, thickened with a piece of butter rolled in flour.

* Rhenish wine:  Wine from the Rhine valley in Germany; it could refer to either red or white.

To pickle ox-palates.

Take your palates, wash them well with salt and water, and put them in a pipkin with water and some salt; and when they are ready to boil, skim them well, and put to them pepper, cloves, and mace, as much as will give them a quick taste.  When they are boiled tender (which will require four or five hours) peel them and cut them into small pieces, and let them cool; then make the pickle of white wine and vinegar, an equal quantity; boil the pickle, and put in the spices that were boiled in the palates; when both the pickle and palates are cold, lay your palates in a jar, and put to them a few bay-leaves and a little fresh spice:  pour the pickle over them, cover them close, and keep them for use.

Of these you may at any time make a pretty little dish, either with brown sauce or white; or butter and mustard and a spoonful of white wine; or they are ready to put in made-dishes.

To stew cucumbers.

Pare twelve cucumbers, and slice them as thick as a crown-piece, and put them to drain, and then lay them in a coarse cloth till they are dry, flour them and fry them brown in butter; pour out the fat, then put to them some gravy, a little claret, some pepper, cloves, and mace, and let them stew a little, then roll a bit of butter in flour, and toss them up; season with salt:  you may add a very little mushroom pickle.

To ragoo cucumbers.

Take two cucumbers, two onions, slice them, and fry them in a little butter, then drain them in a sieve, put them into a sauce-pan, add six spoonfuls of gravy, two of white wine, a blade of mace:  let them stew five or six minutes; then take a piece of butter as big as a walnut rolled in flour, shake them together, and when it is thick, dish them up.

A fricasey of kidney beans.

Take a quart of the seed, when dry, soak them all night in river water, then boil them on a slow fire till quite tender; take a quarter of a peck* of onions, slice them thin, fry them in butter till brown; then take them out of the butter, and put them in a quart of strong draw’d gravy.  Boil them till you may mash them fine, then put in your beans, and give them a boil or two.  Season with pepper, salt and nutmeg.

* Peck:  A unit for measuring the amount of something dry such as grain or fruit, containing eight quarts.

To dress Windsor beans.

Take the seed, boil them till they are tender; then blanch them, and fry them in clarified butter.  Melt butter, with a drop of vinegar, and pour over them.  Stew them with salt, pepper, and nutmeg.

Or you may eat them with butter, sack*, sugar, and a little powder of cinnamon.

* Sack:  An antiquated wine term referring to white fortified wine imported from mainland Spain or the Canary Islands.

To make jumballs.

Take a pound of fine flour and a pound of fine powder-sugar, make them into a light paste, with whites of eggs beat fine; then add half a pint of cream, half a pound of fresh butter melted, and a pound of blanched almonds well  beat.  Knead them all together thoroughly, with a little rose-water, and cut out your jumballs in what figures you fancy; and either bake them in a gentle oven, or fry them in fresh butter, and they make a pretty side or corner dish.  You may melt a little butter with a spoonful of sack*, and throw fine sugar all over the dish.  If you make them in pretty figures, they make a fine little dish.

* Sack:  An antiquated wine term referring to white fortified wine imported from mainland Spain or the Canary Islands.

To make ragoo of onions.

Take a pint of little young onions, peel them, and take four large one, peel them and cut them very small; put a quarter of a pound of good butter into a stew-pan, when it is melted and done making a noise, throw in your onions, and fry them till they begin to look a little brown:  then shake in a little flour, and shake them round till they are thick; throw in a little salt, a little beaten pepper, a quarter of a pint of good gravy, and a tea-spoonful of mustard.  Stir all together, and when it is well tasted and of a good thickness pour it into your dish, and garnish it with fried crumbs of bread and raspings.  They make a pretty little dish, and are very good.  You may stew raspings in the room of flour, if you please.

A ragoo of oysters.

Open twenty large oysters, take them out of their liquor, save the liquor, and dip the oysters in a batter made thus:  take two eggs, beat them well, a little lemon-peel grated, a little nutmeg grated, a blade of made pounded fine, a little parsley chopped fine; beat all together with a little flour, have ready some butter or dripping in a stew-pan; when it boils, dip in your oysters, one by one, into the batter, and fry them of a fine brown; then with an egg-slice take them out, and lay them in a dish before the fire.  Pour the fat out of the pan, and shake a little flour over the bottom of the pan, then rub a little piece of butter, as big as a small walnut, all over with your knife, whilst it is over the fire; then pour in three spoonfuls of the oyster liquor strained, one spoonful of white wine; and a quarter of a pint of gravy; grate a little nutmeg, stir all together, throw in the oysters, give the pan a toss round, and when the sauce is of a good thickness, pour all into the dish, and garnish with raspings.

A ragoo of asparagus.

Scrape a hundred of grass* very clean, and throw it into cold water.  When you have scraped all, cut as far as is good and green, about an inch long, and take two heads of endive clean washed and picked, cut it very small, a young lettuce clean washed and cut small, a large onion peeled and cut small; put a quarter of a pound of butter into a stew-pan, when it is melted throw in the above things:  toss them about, and fry them ten minutes; then season them with a little pepper and salt, shake in a little flour, toss them about, then pour in half a pint of gravy.  Let them stew till the sauce is very thick and good; then pour all into your dish.  Save a few of the little tops of the grass to garnish the dish.

*Grass:  She’s referring to the asparagus thus.

A ragoo of livers.

Take as many livers as you would have for your dish.  A turkey’s liver and six fowls livers will make a pretty dish.  Pick the galls from them, and throw them into cold water; take the six livers, put them in a sauce-pan with a quarter of a pint of gravy, a spoonful of mushrooms, either pickled or fresh, a spoonful of catchup, a little bit of butter as big as a nutmeg rolled in flour; season them with pepper and salt to your palate.  Let them stew softly ten minutes:  in the mean while broil the turkey’s liver nicely, lay it in the middle, and the stewed livers round.  Pour the sauce all over, and garnish with lemon.

To ragoo cauliflowers.

Lay a large cauliflower in water, then pick it to piece, as if for pickling:  take a quarter of a pound of butter, with a spoonful of water, and melt it in a stew-pan, then throw in your cauliflowers, and shake them about often till they are quite tender; then shake in a little flour, and toss the pan about.  Season them with a little pepper and salt, pour in half a pint of good gravy, let them stew till the sauce is thick, and pour it all into a little dish.  Save a few little bits of cauliflower, when stewed in the butter, to garnish with.

Stewed peases and lettuce.

Take a quart of green peas, two nice lettuces clean washed and picked, cut them small across, put all into a sauce-pan, with a quarter of a pound of butter, pepper and salt to your palate; cover them close, and let them stew softly, shaking the pan often.  Let them stew ten minutes, then shake in a little flour, toss them round, and pour in half a pint of good gravy; put in a little bundle of sweet-herbs and an onion, with three cloves, and a blade of mace stuck in it.  Cover it close, and let them stew a quarter of an hour; then take out the onions and sweet-herbs, and turn it all into a dish.  If you find the sauce not thick enough, shake in a little more flour, and let it simmer, then take it up.

Cod-founds broiled with gravy.

Scald them in hot water, and rub them with salt well; blanch them, that is, take off the black dirty skin, then set them on in cold water, and let them simmer till they begin to be tender; take them out and flour them, and broil them on the grid-iron.  In the mean time take a little good gravy, a little mustard, a little bit of butter rolled in flour, give it a boil, season it with pepper and salt.  Lay the founds in your dish, and pour your sauce over them.

A forced cabbage.

Take a fine white-heart cabbage, about as big as a quarter of a peck, lay it in water two or three hours, then half boil it, set it in a cullender to drain, then very carefully cut out the heart, but take great care not to break off any of the outside leaves, fill it with force-meat* made thus:  take a pound of veal, half a pound of bacon, fat and lean together, cut them small, and beat them fine in a mortar, with four eggs boiled hard.  Season with pepper and salt, a little beaten mace, a very little lemon-peel cut fine, some parsley chopped fine, a very little thyme, and two anchovies:  when they are beat fine, take the crumb of a stale roll, some mushrooms, if you have them either pickled or fresh, together with the yolk of an egg, then fill the hollow part of the cabbage, and tie it with a packthread; then lay some slices of bacon to the bottom of a stew-pan or sauce-pan, and on that a pound of coarse lean beef, cut thin; put in the cabbage, cover it close, and let it stew over a slow fire, till the bacon begins to stick to the pan, shake in a little flour, then pour in a quart of broth, an onion stuck with cloves, two blades of mace, some whole pepper, a little bundle of sweet-herbs; cover it close, and let it stew very softly an hour and a half, put in a glass of red wine, give it a boil, then take it up, lay it in the dish, and strain the gravy and pour over:  untie it first.  This is a fine side-dish, and the next day make a fine hash, with a veal-steak nicely broiled and laid on it.

* Force-meat – a stuffing, with either meat or bread as a base.

Stewed red cabbage.

Take a red cabbage, lay it in cold water an hour, then cut it into thin slices across, and cut it into little pieces.  Put it into a stew-pan, with a pound of sausages, a pint of gravy, a little bit of ham or lean bacon; cover it close, and let it stew half an hour; then take the pan off the fire, and skim off the fat, shake in a little flour, and set it on again.  Let it stew two or three minutes, then lay the sausages in your dish, and pour the rest all over.  You may, before you take it up, put in half a spoonful of vinegar.

Savoys forced and stewed.

Take two savoys*, fill one with force-meat**, and the other without.  Stew them with gravy; season them with pepper and salt, and when they are enough take a piece of butter, as big as a large walnut, rolled in flour, and put in.  Let them stew till they are enough, and the sauce thick; then lay them in your dish, and pour the sauce over them.  These things are best done on a stove.

* Savoy – type of cabbage

** Force-meat – a stuffing, with either meat or bread as a base.

To force cucumbers.

Take three large cucumbers, scoop out the pith, fill them with fried oysters, seasoned with pepper and salt; put on the piece again you cut off, sew it with a coarse thread, and fry them in the butter the oysters are fried in:  then pour out the butter, and shake in a little flour, pour in half a pin of gravy, shake it round and put in the cucumbers.  Season it with a little pepper and salt; let them stew softly till they are tender, then lay them in a plate, and pour the gravy over them:  or you may force them with any sort of force-meat* you fancy, and fry them in hog’s lard, and then stew them in gravy and red wine.

** Force-meat – a stuffing, with either meat or bread as a base.

Fried sausages.

Take half a pound of sausages, and six apples; slice four about as thick as a crown, cut the other two in quarters, fry them with the sausages of a fine light brown, lay the sausages in the middle of the dish, and the apples round.  Garnish with the quartered apples.

Stewed cabbage and sausages fried is a good dish; then heat cold peas-pudding in the pan, lay it in the dish and the sausages round, heap the pudding in the middle, and lay the sausages all round thick up, edge-ways, and one in the middle at length.

Callops and eggs.

Cut either bacon, pickled beef, or hung mutton into thin slices; broil them nicely, lay them in a dish before the fire, have ready a stew-pan of water boiling, break as many eggs as you have collops, bream them one by one in a cup, and pour them into the stew-pan.  When the whites of the eggs begin to harden, and all look of a clear white, take them up one by one in an egg-slice, and lay them on the collops.

To dress cold fowl or pigeons.

Cut them in four quarters, beat up an egg or two, according to what you dress, grate a little nutmeg in, a little salt, some parsley chopped, a few crumbs of bread, beat them well together, dip them in this batter, and have ready some dripping hot in a stew-pan, in which fry them of a fine light brown:  have ready a little good gravy, thickened with a little flour, mixed with a spoonful of catchup; lay the fry in the dish, and pour the sauce over.  Garnish with lemon, and a few mushrooms, if you have any.  A cold rabbit eats well done thus.

To mince veal.

Cut your veal as fine as possible, but don’t chop it; grate a little nutmeg over it, shred a little lemon-peel very fine, throw a very little salt on it, drudge a little flour over it.  To a large plate of veal, take four or five spoonfuls of water, let it boil, then put in the veal, with a piece of butter as big as an egg, stir it well together; when it is all thorough hot, it is enough.  Have ready a very think piece of bread toasted brown, cut it into three-corner sippets*, lay it round the place, and pour in the veal.  Just before you pour it in, squeeze in half a lemon, or half a spoonful of vinegar.  Garnish with lemon.  You may put gravy in the room of water, if you love it strong, but it is better without.

*Sippet is the diminutive of sop, which was usually a small piece of bread to dip into a soup or broth.

To fry cold veal.

Cut it in pieces about as thick as half a crown, and as long as you please, dip them in the yolk of an egg, and then in crumbs of bread, with a few sweet-herbs, and shred lemon-peel in it; grate a little nutmeg over them, and fry them in fresh butter.  The butter must be hot, just enough to fry them in:  in the mean time, make a little gravy of the bone of the veal; when the meat is fried take it out with a fork, and lay it in a dish before the fire, then shake a little flour into the pan, and stir it round; then put in a little gravy, squeeze in a little lemon, and pour it over the veal.  Garnish with lemon.

To toss up cold veal white.

Cut the veal into little thin bits, put milk enough to it for sauce, grate in a little nutmeg, a very little salt, a little piece of butter rolled in flour:  to half a pint of milk, the yolks of two eggs well beat, a spoonful of mushroom-pickle, stir all together till it is thick; then pour it into your dish, and garnish with lemon.

Cold fowl skinned, and done this way, eats well; or the best end of a cold breast of veal; first fry it, drain it from the fat, then pour this sauce to it.

To hash cold mutton.

Cut your mutton with a very sharp knife in very little bits, as thin as possible; then boil the bones with an onions, a little sweet-herbs, a blade of mace, a very little whole pepper, a little salt, a piece of crust toasted very crisp; let it boil till there is just enough for a sauce, strain it, and put it into a sauce-pan, with a piece of butter rolled in flour; put in the meat, when it is very hot it is enough.  Have ready some thin bread toasted brown, cut three-corner-ways, lay them round the dish, and pour in the hash.  As to walnut-pickle, and all sorts of pickles, you must put in according to your fancy.  Garnish with pickles.  Some love a small onion peeled, and cut very small, and done in the hash.

To hash mutton like venison.

Cut it very thin as above; boil the bones as above; strain the liquor, where there is just enough for the hash, to a quarter of a pint of gravy put a large spoonful of red wine, an onion peeled and chopped fine, a very little lemon-peel shred fine, a piece of butter as big as a small walnut rolled in flour; put it into a sauce-pan with the meat, shake it all together, and when it is thoroughly hot, pour it into your dish.  Hash beef the same way.

To make collops of cold beef.

If you have any cold inside of a sirloin of beef, take off all the fat, cut it very thin in little bits, cut an onion very small, boil as much water as you think will do for sauce, season it with a little pepper and salt, and a bundle of sweet-herbs.  Let the water boil, then put in the meat, with a good piece of butter rolled in flour, shake it round, and stir it.  When the sauce is thick and the meat done, take out the sweet-herbs, and pour it into your dish.  They do better than fresh meat.

To make a florendine of veal.

Take two kidneys of a loin of veal, fat and all, and mince it very fine, then chop a few herbs and put to it, and add a few currants:  season it with cloves, mace, nutmeg, and a little salt, four or five yolks of eggs chopped fine, and some crumbs of bread, a pippin* or two chopped, some candied lemon-peel cut small, a little sack**, and orange flower-water.  Lay a sheet of puff paste at the bottom of your dish, and put in the ingredients, and cover it with another sheet of puff paste.  Bake it in a slack oven, scrape sugar*** on the top, and serve it up hot.

* Pippin:  Varieties of apples grown from the seed, or “pip.”

** Sack is an antiquated wine term referring to white fortified wine imported from mainland Spain or the Canary Islands.

*** Sugar was sold in “sugarloafs”, rounded cylindrical cones that had to be scraped, or pieces broken off with sugar nips.

To make Salamongundy.

Take two or three Roman or cabbage lettuces, and when you have washed them clean, swing them pretty dry in a cloth; then beginning at the open end, cut them cross-ways, as fin as a good big thread, and lay the lettuces so cut, about an inch thick, all over the bottom of a dish.  When you have thus garnished your dish, take two cold roasted pullets or chickens, and cut the flesh off the breasts and wings into slices, about three inches long, a quarter of an inch broad, and as thin as a shilling:  lay them upon the lettuce round the end to the middle of the dish, and the other towards the brim; then having boned and cut six anchovies, cut each into eight pieces, lay them all between each slice of the fowls, then cut the lean meat off the legs into dice, and cut a lemon into small dice; then mince the yolks of four eggs, three or four anchovies, and a little parsley, and make a round heap of these in your dish, piling it up in the form of a sugar-loaf, and garnish it with onions as big as the yolks of eggs, boiled in a good deal of water very tender and white.  Put the largest of the onions in the middle of the top of the salamongundy, and lay the rest all round the brim of the dish, as thick as you can lay them; then beat some salad oil up with vinegar, salt, and pepper, and pour over it all.  Garnish with grapes just scalded, or French beans blanched, or astertion-flowers*, and serve it up for a first course.

*Astertion:  meaning uncertain.  She most likely meant Nasturtium, an edible perennial flower.

Another way.

Mince two chickens, either boiled or roasted, very fine, or veal, if you please; also mince the yolks of hard eggs very small, and mince the whites very small by themselves; shred the pulp or two or three lemons very small, then lay in your dish a layer of mince-meat, and a layer of yolks of eggs, a layer of whites, a layer of anchovies, a layer of your shred lemon-pulp, a layer of pickles, a layer of sorrel, a layer of spinach, and shallots shred small.  When you have filled a dish with the ingredients, set an orange or lemon on the top; then garnish with horse-raddish scraped, barberries, and sliced lemon.  Beat up some oil, with the juice of lemon, salt, and mustard, thick, and serve it up for a second course, side-dish, or middle dish, for supper.

A third Salamongundy.

Mince veal or fowl very small, a pickled herring boned and picked small, cucumber minced small, apples minced small, an onion peeled and minced small, some pickled red cabbage chopped small, cold pork minced small, or cold duck or pigeons minced small, boiled parsley chopped fine, celery cut small, the yolks of hard eggs chopped small, and the whites chopped small, and either lay all the ingredients by themselves separate on saucers, or in heaps in a dish.  Dish them out with what pickles you have, and sliced lemon nicely cut; and if you can get astertion-flower*, lay them round it.  This is a find middle-dish for supper; but you may always make salamongundy of such things as you have, according to your fancy.  The other sorts you have in the chapter of fasts.

*Astertion:  meaning uncertain.  She most likely meant Nasturtium, an edible perennial flower.

To make little pasties.

Take the kidney of a loin of veal cut very fine, with as much of the fat, the yolks of two hard eggs, seasoned with a little salt, and half a small nutmeg.  Mix them well together, then roll it well in a puff-paste crust, make three of it, and fry them nicely in hog’s lard or butter.

They make a pretty little dish for change.  You may put in some carrots, and a little sugar and spice, with the juice of an orange, and sometimes apples, first boiled and sweetened, with a little juice of lemon, or any fruit you please.

Petit patties for garnishing of dishes.

Make a short crust, roll it thick, make them about as big as the bowl of a spoon, and about an inch deep:  take a piece of veal, enough to fill the patty, as much bacon and beef-suet, shred them all very fine, season them with pepper and salt, and a little sweet-herbs; put them into a little stew-pan, keep turning them about with a few mushrooms chopped small, for eight or ten minutes; then fill your petty patties, and cover them with some crust.  Colour them with the yolk of an egg, and bake them.  Sometime fill them with oysters for fish, or the melts of the fish pounded, and seasoned with pepper and salt; fill them with lobsters, or what you fancy.  They make fine garnishing, and give a dish a fine look:  if for a calf’s head, the brains seasoned is most proper, and some with oysters.

Ox-palate baked.

When you salt a tongue, cut off the root, and take some ox palates, wash them clean, cut them into six or seven pieces, put them into an earthen pot, just cover them with water, put in a blade or two of mace, twelve whole pepper-corns, three or  four cloves, a little bundle of sweet-herbs, a small onion, half a spoonful of raspings; cover it close with brown paper, and let it be well baked.  When it comes out of the oven, season it with salt to your palate.

The Art of Cookery Continued: Chapter II: Made Dishes, Part 3

Posted on
curds and whey

Selling curds and whey

Chapter two is by far the longest chapter in Hannah Glasse’s cookery book; it shows just how much emphasis was placed on meats on the eighteenth century table.  In this section there are quite a few unusual terms, all of which I’ve added explanations for:  Force-meat and sweetbread (both meats), burnt butter, astertium and broom-buds, mushroom powder, neat and pippen, just to name a few.  So, without further ado:

To fry beef steaks.

Take rump steaks, beat them very well with a roller, fry them in half a pint of ale that is not bitter, and whilst they are frying cut a large onion small, a very little thyme, some parsley shred small, some grated nutmeg, and a little pepper and salt; roll all together in a piece of butter, and then in a little flour, put this into the stew-pan, and shake all together.  When the steaks are tender, and the sauce of a fine thickness, dish it up.

A second way to fry beef steaks.

Cut the lean by itself, and beat them well with the back of a knife, fry them in just as much butter as will moisten the pan, pour out the gravy as it runs out of the meat, turn them often, do them over a gentle fire, then fry the fat by itself and lay upon the meat, and put to the gravy a glass of red wine, half an anchovy, a little nutmeg, a little beaten pepper, and a shallot cut small; give it two or three little boils, season it with salt to your palate, pour it over the steaks, and send them to table.

Another way to do beef steaks.

Cut your steaks, half broil them, then lay them in a stew-pan, season them with pepper and salt, just cover them with gravy and a piece of butter rolled in flour.  Let them stew for half an hour, beat up the yolks of two eggs, stir all together for two or three minutes, and then serve it up.

A pretty side-dish of beef.

Roast a tender piece of beef, lay fat bacon all over it, and roll it in paper, baste it, and when it is roasted cut about two pounds in thin slices, lay them in a stew-pan, and take six large cucumbers, peel them, and chop them small, lay over them a little pepper and salt, stew them in butter for about ten minutes, then drain out the butter, and shake some flour over them; toss them up, pour in half a pint of gravy, let them stew till they are thick, and dish them up.

To dress a fillet of beef.

It is the inside of a sirloin.  You must carefully cut it all out from the bone, grate some nutmeg over it, a few crumbs of bread, a little pepper and salt, a little lemon-peel, a little thyme, some parsley shred small, and roll it up tight; tie it with a packthread, roast it, put a quart of milk and a quarter of a pound of butter into the dripping-pan, and baste it; when it is enough, take it up, untie it, leave a little skewer in it to hold it together, have a little good gravy in the dish, and some sweet sauce in a cup.  You may baste it with red wine and butter, if you like it better; or it will do very well with butter only.

Beef steaks rolled.

Take three or four beef steaks, flat them with a cleaver, and make a force-meat* thus; take a pound of veal beat fine in a mortar, the flesh of a large fowl thus cut small, half a pound of cold ham chopped small, the kidney-fat of a loin of veal chopped small, a sweetbread** cut in little pieces, an ounce of truffles and morels first stewed and then cut small, some parsley, the yolks of four eggs, a nutmeg grated, a very little thyme, a little lemon-peel cut fine, a little pepper and salt, and half a pint of cream:  mix all together, lay it on your steaks, roll them up firm, of a good size, and put a little skewer into them, put them into the stew-pan, and fry them of a nice brown; then pour all the fat quite out, and put in a pint of good fried gravy (as in “To make gravy,”  Chapter I), put one spoonful of catchup, two spoonfuls of red wine, a few mushrooms, and let them stew for a quarter of an hour.  Take up the steaks, cut them in two, lay the cut side uppermost, and pour the sauce over it.  Garnish with lemon.

Note, Before you put the force-meat into the beef, you are to stir it all together over a slow fire for eight or ten minutes.

* Force-meat – a stuffing, with either meat or bread as a base.

**Sweetbread:  Culinary names for the thymus (throat, gullet, or neck) or the pancreas (also heart, stomach, or belly) especially of the calf (ris de veau) and lamb (ris d’agneau) (although beef and pork sweetbreads are also eaten).

To stew a rump of beef.

Having boiled it till it is little more than half enough, take it up, and peel off the skin:  take salt, pepper, beaten mace, grated nutmeg, a handful of parsley, a little thyme, winter-savory, sweet-marjoram, all chopped fine and mixed, and stuff them in great hold in the fat and lean, the rest spread over it, with yolks of two eggs; save the gravy that runs out, put to it a pint of claret, and put the meat in a deep pan, pour the liquor in, cover it close, and let it bake two hours, then put it into the dish, pour the liquor over it, and sent it to table.

Another way to stew a rump of beef.

You must cut the meat off the bone, lay it in your stew pan, cover it with water, put in a spoonful of whole pepper, two onions, a bundle of sweet herbs, some salt, and a pint of red wine; cover it close, set it over a stove or slow fire for four hours, shaking it sometimes, and turning it four or five times; make gravy as for soup, put in three quarts, keep it stirring till dinner is ready:  take ten or twelve turnips, cut them into slices the broad way, then cut them into four, flour them, and fry them brown in beef dripping.  Be sure to let your dripping boil before you put them in; then drain them well from the fat, lay the beef in your soup-dish, toast a little bread very nice and brown, cut in three corner dice, lay them into the dish, and the turnips likewise; strain in the gravy, and send it to table.  If you have the convenience of a stove, put the dish over it for five or six minutes; it gives the liquor a fine flavour of the turnips, makes the bread eat better, and is a great addition.  Season it with salt to your palate.

Portugal beef.

Take a rump of beef, cut it off the bone, cut it across, flour it, fry the thin part brown in butter, the thick end stuff with suet, boiled chesnuts, an anchovy, an onion, and a little pepper.  Stew it in a pan of strong broth, and when it is tender, lay both the fried and stewed together in your dish, cut the friend in two and lay on each side of the stewed, strain the gravy it was stewed in, put to it some pickled gerkins chopped, and boiled chestnuts, thicken it with a piece of burnt butter*, give it two or three boils up, season it with salt to your palate, and pour it over the beef.  Garnish with lemon.

* burnt butter:  Melt the butter on a gentle heat in a small saucepan until nutty brown.

To stew a rump of beef, or the briscuit, the French way.

Take a rump of beef, put it into a little pot that will hold it, cover it with water, put on the cover, let it stew an hour; but if the briscuit, two hours.  Skim it clean, then slash the meat with a knife to let out the gravy, put in a little beaten pepper, some salt, four cloves, with two or three large blades of mace beat fine, six onions sliced, and half a pint of red wine; cover it close, let it stew an hour, then put in two spoonfuls of capers or astertium-buds* pickled, or broom-buds**, chop them;  two spoonfuls of vinegar, and two of verjuice; boil fix cabbage lettuces in water, then put them in a pot, put in a pint of good gravy, let all stew together for half an hour, skim all the fat off, lay the meat into the dish, and pour the rest over it, have ready some pieces of bread cut three corner ways, and fried crisp, stick them about the meat, and garnish them.  When you put in the cabbage, put with it a good piece of butter rolled in flour.

* astertium-buds pickled:  She must mean “Nasturtium” buds, of a flowering plant; for more information, see the culinary section under “Tropaeolum” at Wikipedia.

**broom-buds:  She may be referring to either the Spartium plant, or the broom shrub, which was used raw or pickled, even though it is now known to be potentially toxic, effecting the heart and / or causing problems during pregnancy!

To stew beef gobbets.

Get any piece of beef, except the leg, cut it in pieces about the bigness of a pullet’s egg, put them in a stew-pan, cover them with water, let them stew, skim them clean, and when they have stewed an hour, take mace, cloves, and whole pepper tied in a muslin rag loose, some celery cut small, put them into the pan with some salt, turnips and carrots, pared and cut in slices, a little parsley, a bundle of sweet-herbs, and a large crust of bread.  You may put in an ounce of barley or rice, if you like it.  Cover it close, and let it stew till it is tender, take out the herbs, spices, and bread, and have ready fried a French roll cut in four.  Dish up all together, and send it to table.

Beef royal.

Take a sirloin of beef, or a large rump, bone it and beat it very well, then lard it with bacon, season it all over with salt, pepper, mace, cloves, and nutmeg, all beat fine, some lemon-peel cut small, and some sweet-herbs; in the mean time make a strong broth of the bones, take a piece of butter with a little flour, brown it, put in the beef, keep it turning often till it is brown, then strain the broth, put all together into a pot, put in a bay-leaf, a few truffles, and some ox palates cut small; cover it close, and let it stew till it is tender, take out the beef, skim off all the fat, pour in a pint of claret, some fried oysters, an anchovy, and some gerkins shred small; boil all together, put in the beef to warm, thicken your sauce with a piece of butter rolled in flour, or mushroom powder**, or burnt butter**.  Lay your meat in the dish, pour the sauce over it, and send it to table.  This may be eat either hot or cold.

* mushroom powder:  Dried mushrooms ground to a powder in a mortar, used as flavouring.  This is still used in Asian cuisine, and you might be able to find it in a good Asian supermarket or health food store in the Vegetarian section.

**burnt butter:  Melt the butter on a gentle heat in a small saucepan until nutty brown.

A tongue and udder forced.

First parboil your tongue and udder, blanch the tongue and stick it with cloves; as for the udder, you must carefully raise it, and fill it with force-meat made with veal:  first wash the inside with the yolk of an egg, then put in the force-meat*, tie the ends close and spit them, roast them, and baste them with butter when enough, have good gravy in the dish, and sweet sauce in a cup.  Note, For variety, you may lard the udder.

** Force-meat – a stuffing, with either meat or bread as a base.

To fricasey neat’s tongues.

Take neats tongues, boil them tender, peel them, cut them into thin slices, and fry them in fresh butter; then pour out the butter, put in as much gravy as you shall want for sauce, a bundle of sweet herbs, an onion, some pepper and salt, and a blade or two of mace; simmer all together half an hour, then take out your tongue, strain the gravy, put it with the tongue in the stew-pan again, beat up the yolks of two eggs with a glass of white wine, a little grated nutmeg, a piece of butter as big as a walnut rolled in flour, shake all together for four or five minutes, dish it up, and send it to table.

Neat is an Old English word for an ox, bullock or cow, from the Proto-Germanic word “nautam,” meaning a possession of value.

To force a tongue.

Boil it till it is tender; let it stand till it is cold, then cut a hole at the root end of it, take out some of the meat, chop it with as much beef suet, a few pippins*, some pepper and salt, a little mace beat, some nutmeg, a few sweet herbs, and the yolks of two eggs; chop it all together, stuff it, cover the end with a veal caul** or buttered paper, roast it, baste it with butter, and dish it up.  Have for sauce good gravy, a little melted butter, the juice of an orange or lemon, and some grated nutmeg; boil it up, and pour it into the dish.

* Pippin:  Varieties of apples grown from the seed, or “pip.”

** Caul :  The membrane.

To stew neat’s tongues whole.

Take two tongues, let them stew in water just to cover them for two hours, then peel them, put them in again with a pint of strong gravy, half a pint of white wine, a bundle of sweet-herbs, a little pepper and salt, some mace, cloves, and whole pepper tied in a muslin rag, a spoonful of capers chopped, turnips and carrots sliced, and a piece of butter rolled in flour; let all stew together very softly over a slow fire for two hours, then take out the spice and sweet-herbs, and send it to table.  You may leave out the turnips and carrots, or boil them by themselves, and lay them in a dish, just as you like.

To fricasey ox palates.

After boiling your palates very tender, (which you must do by setting them on in cold water, and letting them do softly) then blanch them and scrape them clean; take mace, nutmeg, cloves and pepper beat fine, rub them all over with those, and with crumbs of bread; have ready some butter in a stew-pan, and when it is hot put in the palates; fry them brown on both sides, then pour out the fat, and put to them some mutton or beef gravy, enough for sauce, an anchovy, a little nutmeg, a little piece of butter rolled in flour, and the juice of a lemon:  let it simmer all together for a quarter of an hour, dish it up, and garnish with lemon.

To roast ox palates.

Having boiled your palates tender, blanch them, cut them into slices about two inches long, lard half with bacon, then have ready two or three pigeons and two or three chicken-peepers, draw them, truss them, and fill them with force-meat*; let half of them be nicely larded, spit them on a bird-spit; spit them thus:  a bird, a palate, a sage-leaf, and a piece of bacon and so on, a bird, a palate, a sage-leaf, and a piece of bacon.  Take cocks-combs and lamb stones, parboiled and blanched, lard them with little bits of bacon, large oysters parboiled, and each one larded with one piece of bacon, put these on a skewer with a little piece of bacon and a sage-leaf between them, tie them on to a spit and roast them, then beat up the yolks of three eggs, some nutmeg, a little salt and crumbs of bread; baste them with these all the time they are a-roasting, and have ready two sweetbreads** each cut in two, some artichoke-bottoms cut into four and fried, and then rub the dish with shallots: lay the birds in the middle, piled upon one another, and lay the other things all separate by themselves round about in the dish.  Have ready for sauce a pint of good gravy, a quarter of a pint of red wine, an anchovy, the oyster liquor, a piece of butter rolled in flour; boil all these together and pour into the dish, with a little juice of lemon.  Garnish your dish with lemon.

* Force-meat – a stuffing, with either meat or bread as a base.

**Culinary names for the thymus (throat, gullet, or neck) or the pancreas (also heart, stomach, or belly) especially of the calf (ris de veau) and lamb (ris d’agneau) (although beef and pork sweetbreads are also eaten).

To dress a leg of mutton à la royale.

Having taken off all the fat, skin, and shank-bone, lard it with bacon, season it with pepper and salt, and a round piece of about three or four pounds of beef or leg of veal, lard it, have ready some hog’s lard boiling, flour your meat, and give it a colour in the lard, then take the meat out and put it into a pot, with a bundle of sweet herbs, some parsley, an onion stuck with cloves, two or three blades of mace, some whole pepper, and three quarts of water; cover it close, and let it boil very softly for two hours, mean while get ready a sweetbread* split, cut into four, and broiled, a few truffles and morels stewed in a quarter of a pint of strong gravy, a glass of red wine, a few mushrooms, two spoonfuls of catchup, and some asparagus-tops; boil all these together, then lay the mutton in the middle of the dish, cut the beef or veal into slices, make a rim round your mutton with the slices, and pour the ragoo over it; when you have taken the meat out of the pot, skim all the fat off the gravy; strain it, and add as much to the other as will fill the dish.  Garnish with lemon.

*Culinary names for the thymus (throat, gullet, or neck) or the pancreas (also heart, stomach, or belly) especially of the calf (ris de veau) and lamb (ris d’agneau) (although beef and pork sweetbreads are also eaten).

A leg of mutton à la hautgout*

Let it hang a fortnight in an airy place, then have ready some cloves of garlic, and stuff it all over, rub it with pepper and salt; roast it, have ready some good gravy and red wine in the dish, and sent it to table.

*high taste

To roast a leg of mutton with oysters.

Take a leg about two or three days killed, stuff it all over with oysters, and roast it.  Garnish with horse-raddish.

To roast a leg of mutton with cockles.

Stuff it all over with cockles, and roast it.  Garnish with horse-raddish.

A shoulder of mutton in epigram.

Roast it almost enough, then very carefully take off the skin about the thickness of a crown-piece, and the shank-bone with it at the end; then season that skin and shank-bone with pepper and salt, a little lemon-peel cut small, and a few sweet-herbs and crumbs of bread, then lay this on the gridiron, and let it be of a fine brown; in the mean time take the rest of the meat and cut it like a hash about the bigness of a shilling; have the gravy and put to it, with a few spoonfuls of strong gravy, half an onion cut fine, a little nutmeg, a little pepper and salt, a little bundle of sweet-herbs, some gerkins cut very small, a few mushrooms, two or three truffles cut small, two spoonfuls of wine, either red or white, and throw a little flour over the meat:  Let all these stew together very softly for five or six minutes, but be sure it do not boil; take out the sweet-herbs, and put the hash into the dish, lay the broiled upon it, and send it to table.

a harrico* of mutton.

Take a neck or loin of mutton, cut it into six pieces, flour it, and fry it brown on both sides in the stew-pan, then pour out all the fat; put in some turnips and carrots cut like dice, two dozen of chestnuts blanched, two or three lettuces cut small, six little round onions, a bundle of sweet-herbs, some pepper and salt, and two or three blades of mace; cover it close, and let it stew for an hour, then take off the fat and dish it up.

*From what I have been able to find, which isn’t much, it must come from the Old English word hnecca “neck, nape, back of the neck” (a fairly rare word)

To French a hind-saddle of mutton.

It is the two rumps.  Cut off the rump, and carefully lift up the skin with a knife:  begin at the broad end, but be sure you do not crack it nor take it quite off:  then take some slices of ham or bacon chopped fine, a few truffles, some young onions, some parsley, a little thyme, sweet-marjoram, winter savoury, a little lemon-peel, all chopped fine, a little mace and two or three cloves beat fine, half a nutmeg, and a little pepper and salt; mix all together, and throw over the meat where you took off the skin, then lay on the skin again, and fasten it with two fine skewers at each side, and roll it in well buttered paper.  It will take three hours doing:  then take off the paper, baste the meat, strew it all over with crumbs of bread, and when it is of a fine brown take it up.  For sauce take six large shallots, cut them very fine, put them into a saucepan with two spoonfuls of vinegar, and two of white wine; boil them for a minute or two, pour it into the dish, and garnish with horse raddish.

Another French way, called St. Menehout.

Take the hind saddle of mutton, take off the skin, lard it with bacon, season it with pepper, salt, mace, cloves beat, and nutmeg, sweet-herbs, young onions, and parsley, all chopped fine; take a large oval or a large gravy-pan, lay layers of bacon, and then layers of beef all over the bottom, lay in the mutton, then lay layers of bacon on the mutton, and then a layer of beef, put in a pint of wine, and as much good gravy as will stew it, put in a bay-leaf, and two or three shallots, cover it close, put fire over and under it, if you have a close pan, and let it stand stewing for two hours; when done, take it out, strew crumbs of bread all over it, and put it into the oven to brown, strain the gravy it was stewed in, and boil it till there is just enough for sauce, lay the mutton into a dish, pour the sauce in, and serve it up.  You must brown it before a fire, if you have not an oven.

Cutlets à la Maintenon.  A very good dish.

Cut your cutlets handsomely, beat them thin with your cleaver, season them with pepper and salt, make a force-meat* with veal, beef, suet, spice and sweet-herbs, rolled in yolks of eggs, roll force-meat round each cutlet, within two inches of the top of the bone, then have as many half sheets of white paper as cutlets, roll each cutlet in a piece of paper, first buttering the paper well on the inside, dip the cutlets in melted butter and them in crumbs of bread, lay each cutlet on half a sheet of paper cross the middle of it, leaving about an inch of the bone out, then close the two ends of your paper as you do a turnover tart, and cut off the paper that is too much; broil your mutton cutlets half an hour, your veal cutlets three quarters of an hour, and then take the paper off and lay them round in the dish, with the bone outwards.  Let your sauce be good gravy thickened, and serve it up.

** Force-meat – a stuffing, with either meat or bread as a base.

To make a mutton hash.

Cut your mutton in little bits as think as you can, strew a little flour over it, have ready some gravy (enough for sauce) wherein sweet-herbs, onion, pepper and salt, have been boiled; strain it, put in your meat, with a little piece of butter rolled in flour, and a little salt, a shallot cut fine, a few capers and gerkins chopped fine, and a blade of mace:  toss all together for a minute or two, have ready some bread toasted and cut into thin sippets, lay them round the dish, and pour in your hash.  Garnish your dish with pickles and horse-raddish.

Note, Some love a glass of red wine, or walnut pickle.  You may put just what you will into a hash.  If the sippets are toasted it is better.

*Sippet is the diminutive of sop, which was usually a small piece of bread to dip into a soup or broth.

To dress a pig’s petty-toes.

Put your petty-toes into a saucepan with half a pint of water, a blade of mace, a little whole pepper, a bundle of sweet-herbs, and an onion.  Let them boil five minutes, then take out the liver, lights, and heart, mince them very fine, grate a little nutmeg over them, and shake a little flour on them; let the feet do till they are tender, then take them out and strain the liquor, put all together with a little salt, and a piece of butter as big as a walnut, shake the saucepan often, let it simmer five or six minutes, then cut some toasted sippets and lay round the dish, lay the mince-meat and sauce in the middle, and the petty-toes split round it.  You may add the juice of half a lemon, or a very little vinegar.

A second way to roast a leg of mutton with oysters.

Stuff a leg of mutton with mutton suet, salt, pepper, nutmeg, and the yolks of eggs; then roast it, stick it all over with cloves, and when it is about half done, cut off some of the under-side of the fleshy end in little bits, put these into a pipkin with a pint of oysters, liquor and all, a little salt and mace, and half a pint of hot water:  stew them till half the liquor is wasted, then put in a piece of butter rolled in flour, shake all together, and when the mutton is enough take it up; pour this sauce over it, and send it to table.

To dress a leg of mutton to eat like venison.

Take a hind-quarter of mutton, and cut the leg in the shape of a haunch of venison, save the blood of the sheep and steep it in for five or six hours, then take it out and roll it in three or four sheets of white paper well-buttered on the inside, tie it with a packthread, and roast it, basting it with good beef-dripping or butter.  It will take two hours at a good fire, for your mutton must be fat and thick.  About five or six minutes before you take it up, take off the paper, baste it with a piece of butter, and shake a little flour over it to make it have a fine froth, and then have a little good drawn gravy in a bason, and sweet-sauce in another.  Don’t garnish with any thing.

To dress mutton the Turkish way.

First cut your meat into thin slices, then wash it in vinegar, and put it into a pot or saucepan that has a close cover to it, put in some rice, whole pepper, and three or four whole onions; let all these stew together, skimming it frequently; when it is enough, take out the onions, and season it with salt to your palate, lay the mutton in the dish, and pour the rice and liquor over it.

Note, The neck or leg are the best joins to dress this way:  Put in to a leg four quarts of water, and a quarter of a pound of rice; to a neck two quarts of water, and two ounces of rice.  To every pound of meat allow a quarter of an hour, being close covered.  If you put in a blade or two of mace, and a bundle of sweet-herbs, it will be a great addition.  When it is just enough put in a piece of butter, and take care the rice don’t burn to the pot.  In all these things you should lay skewers at the bottom of the pot to lay your meat on, that it may not stick.

A shoulder of mutton with a ragoo of turnips.

Take a shoulder of mutton, get the blade-bone taken out as neat as possible, and in the place put a ragoo, done thus:  take one or two sweetbreads*, some cocks-combs, half an ounce of truffles, some mushrooms, a blade or two of mace, a little pepper and salt; stew all these in a quarter of a pint of good gravy, and thicken it with a piece of butter rolled in flour, or yolks of eggs, which you please:  let it be cold before you put it in, and fill up the place where you took the bone out just in the form it was before, and sew it up tight:  take a large deep stew-pan, or one of the round deep copper pans with two handles, lay at the bottom thin slices of bacon, then slices of veal, a bundle of parsley, thyme, and sweet-herbs, some whole pepper, a blade or two of mace, three or four cloves, a large onion, and put in just think gravy enough to cover the meat; cover it close, and let it stew two hours, then take eight or ten turnips, pare them, and cut them into what shape you please, put them into boiling water, and let them be just enough, throw them into a sieve to drain over the hot water, that they may keep warm, then take up the mutton, drain it from the fat, lay it in a dish, and keep it hot covered; strain the gravy it was stewed in, and take off all the fat, put in a little salt, a glass of red wine, two spoonfuls of catchup, and a piece of butter rolled in flour, boil together till there is just enough for sauce, then put in the turnips, give them a boil up, pour them over the meat, and sent it to table.  You may fry the turnips of a light brown, and toss them up with the sauce; but that is according to your palate.

Note, For a change you may leave out the turnips, and add a bunch of celery cut and washed clean, and stewed in a very little water, till it is quite tender, and the water almost boiled away.  Pour the gravy, as before directed, into it, and boil it up till the sauce is good:  or you may leave both these out, and add truffles, morels, fresh and pickled mushrooms, and artichoke-bottoms.

N.B. A shoulder of veal without the knuckle, first fried, and then done just as the mutton, eats very well.  Don’t garnish your mutton, but garnish your veal with lemon.

*Culinary names for the thymus (throat, gullet, or neck) or the pancreas (also heart, stomach, or belly) especially of the calf (ris de veau) and lamb (ris d’agneau) (although beef and pork sweetbreads are also eaten).

To stuff a leg or shoulder of mutton.

Take a little grated bread, some beef suet, the yolks of hard eggs, three anchovies, a bit of onion, some pepper and salt, a little thyme and winter savoury, twelve oysters, and some nutmeg grated; mix all these together, shred them very fine, work them up with raw eggs like a paste, stuff your mutton under the skin in the thickest place, or where you please, and roast it:  for sauce, take some of the oyster liquor, some claret, one anchovy, a little nutmeg, a bit of an onion, and a few oysters; stew all these together, then take out your onion, pour sauce under your mutton, and send it to table.  Garnish with horse-raddish.

Sheep rumps with rice.

Take six rumps, put them into a stew-pan with some mutton gravy, enough to fill it, stew them about half an hour, take them up and let them stand to cool, then put into the liquor a quarter of a pound of rice, an onion stuck with cloves, and a blade or two of mace; let it boil till the rice is as thick as a pudding, but take care it don’t stick to the bottom, which you must do by stirring it often:  in the mean time take a clean stew-pan, put a piece of butter into it; dip your rumps in the yolks of eggs beat, and then in crumbs of bread with a little nutmeg, lemon-peel, and a very little thyme in it, fry them in the butter of a fine brown, then take them out, lay them in a dish to drain, pour out all the fat, and toss the rice into that pan; stir it all together for a minute or two, then lay the rice into the dish, lay the rumps all round upon the rice, have ready four eggs boiled hard, cut them into quarters, lay them round the dish with friend parsley between them, and send it to table.

To make lamb and rice.

Take a neck and loin of lamb, half roast it, take it up, cut it into steaks, then take half a pound of rice, put it into a quart of good gravy, with two or three blades of mace, and a little nutmeg.  Do it over a stove or slow fire till the rice begins to be thick; then take it off, stir in a pound of butter, and when that is quite melted stir in the yolks of six eggs; first beat, then take a dish and butter it all over, take the steaks and put a little pepper and salt over them, dip them in a little melted butter, lay them into the dish, pour the gravy which comes out of them over them, and then the rice; beat the yolks of three eggs and pour all over, send it to the oven, and bake it better than half an hour.

Baked mutton chops.

Take a loin or neck of mutton, cut it into steaks, put some pepper and salt over it, butter your dish and lay in your steaks; then take a quart of milk, six eggs beat up fine, and four spoonfuls of flour; beat your flour and eggs in a little milk first, and then put the rest to it, put in a little beaten ginger, and a little salt.  Pour this over the steaks, and send it to the over; an hour and an half will bake it.

A forced leg of lamb.

Take a large leg of lamb, cut a long slit on the back side, but take great care you don’t deface the other side; then chop the meat small with marrow, half a pound of beef-suet, some oysters, an anchovy unwashed, an onion, some sweet-herbs, a little lemon peel, and some beaten mace and nutmeg; beat all these together in a mortar, stuff it up in the shape it was before, sew it up, and rub it over with the yolks of eggs beaten, spit it, flour it all lover, lay it to the fire, and baste it with butter.  An hour will roast it.  You may bake it, if you please, but then you must butter the dish, and lay the butter over it:  cut the loin into steaks, season them with pepper, salt, and nutmeg, lemon-peel cut fine, and a few sweet-herbs; fry them in fresh butter of a fine brown, then pour out all the butter, put in a quarter of a pint of white wine, shake it about, and put in half a pint of strong gravy, wherein good spice has been boiled, a quarter of a pint of oysters and the liquor, some mushrooms and a spoonful of the pickle, a piece of butter rolled in flour, and the yolk of an egg beat; stir all these together till it is thick, then lay your leg of lamb in the dish, and the loin around it; pour the sauce over it, and garnish with lemon.

To fry a loin of lamb.

Cut the loin into thin steaks, put a very little pepper and salt, and a little nutmeg on them, and fry them in fresh butter; when enough, take out the steaks, lay them in a dish before the fire to keep hot, then pour out the butter, shake a little flour over the bottom of the pan, pour in a quarter of a pint of boiling water, and put in a piece of butter; shake all together, give it a boil or two up, pour it over the steaks, and send it to table.

Note, You may do mutton the same way, and add two spoonfuls of walnut-pickle.

Another way of frying a neck or loin of lamb.

Cut into thin steaks, beat them with a rolling pin, fry them in half a pint of ale, season them with a little salt, and cover them close; when enough, take them out of the pan, lay them in a plate before the fire to keep hot, and pour all out of the pan into a bason; then put in half a pint of white wine, a few capers, the yolks of two eggs beat, with a little nutmeg and a little salt; add to this the liquor they were fried in, and keep stirring it one way all the time till it is thick, then put in the lamb, keep shaking the pan for a minute or two, lay the steaks into the dish, pour the sauce over them, and have some parsley in a plate before the fire a-crisping.  Garnish your dish with that and lemon.

To make a ragoo of lamb.

Take a fore-quarter of lamb, cut the knuckle-bone off, lard it with little thin bits of bacon, flour it, fry it of a fine brown, and then put it into an earthen pot or stew-pan; put to it a quart of broth or good gravy, a bundle of herbs, a little mace, two or three cloves, and a little whole pepper; cover it close, and let it stew pretty fast for half an hour, pour the liquor all out, strain it, keep the lamb hot in the pot till the sauce is ready.  Take half a pint of oysters, flour them, fry them brown, drain out all the fat clean that you fried them in, skim all the fat off the gravy, then pour it into the oysters, put in an anchovy, and two spoonfuls of either red or white wine; boil all together, till there is just enough for sauce, add some fresh mushrooms (if you can get them) and some pickled onions, with a spoonful of the pickle, or the juice of half a lemon.  Lay your lamb in the dish, and pour the sauce over it.  Garnish with lemon.

To stew a lamb’s, or calf’s head.

First wash it, and pick it very clean, lay it in water for an hour, take out the brains, and with a sharp penknife carefully take out the bones and the tongue, but be careful you do not bread the meat; then take out the two eyes, and take two pounds of veal and two pounds of beef-suet, a very little thyme, a good piece of lemon-peel minced, a nutmeg grated, and two anchovies: chop all very well together, grate two stale rolls, and mix all together with the yolks of four eggs:  save enough of this meat to make about twenty balls, take half a pint of fresh mushrooms clean peeled and washed, or pickled cockles; mix all these together, but first stew your oysters, and put to it two quarts of gravy, with a blade or two of mace.  It will be proper to tie the head with packthread, cover it close, and let it stew two hours:  in the mean time beat up the brains with some lemon-peel cut fine, a little parsley chopped, half a nutmeg grated, and the yolk of an egg; have some dripping boiling, fry half the brains in little cakes, and fry the balls, keep them both hot by the fire; take half an ounce of truffles and morels, then strain the gravy the head was stewed in, put the truffles and morels to it with the liquor, and a few mushrooms; boil all together, then put in the rest of the brains that are not fried, stew them together for a minute or two, pour it over the head, and lay the fried brains and balls around it.  Garnish with lemon.  You may fry about twelve oysters.

To dress veal à la Bourgoise.

Cut pretty thick slices of veal, lard them with bacon, and season them with pepper, salt, beaten mace, cloves, nutmeg, and chopped parsley, then take the stew-pan and cover the bottom with slices of fat bacon, lay the veal upon them, cover it, and set it over a very slow fire for eight or ten minutes, just to be hot and no more, then brisk up your fire and brown your veal on both sides, then shake some flour over it and brown it; pour in a quart of good broth or gravy, cover it close, and let it stew gently till it is enough; when enough, take out the slices of bacon, and skim all the fat off clean, and beat up the yolks of three eggs with some of the gravy; mix all together, and keep it stirring one way till it is smooth and thick, then take it up, lay your meat in the dish, and pour the sauce over it.  Garnish with lemon.

A disguised leg of veal and bacon.

Lard your veal all over with slips of bacon and a little lemon-peel, and boil it with a piece of bacon:  when enough, take it up, cut the bacon into slices, and have ready some dried sage and pepper rubbed fine, rub it over the bacon, lay the veal in the dish and the bacon round it, strew it all over with fried parsley, and have green sauce in cups, made thus:  take two handfuls of sorrel, pound it in a mortar, and squeeze out the juice, put it into a sauce-pan with some melted butter, a little sugar, and the juice of lemon.  Or you may make it thus:  beat two handfuls of sorrel in a mortar, with two pippins* quartered, squeeze the juice out, with the juice of a lemon or vinegar, and sweeten it with sugar.

* Pippin:  Varieties of apples grown from the seed, or “pip.”

A pillaw of veal.

Take a neck or breast of veal, half roast it, then cut it into six pieces, season it with pepper, salt, and nutmeg:  take a pound of rice, put to it a quart of broth, some mace, and a little salt, do it over a stove or very slow fire till it is thick, but butter the bottom of the dish or pan you do it in:  beat up the yolks of six eggs and stir into it, then take a little round deep dish, butter it, lay some of the rice at the bottom, then lay the veal on a round heap, and cover it all over with rice, wash it over with the yolks of eggs, and bake it an hour and a half, then open the top and pour in a pint of rich good gravy.  Garnish with a Seville orange cut in quarters, and send it to table hot.

Bombarded veal.

You must get a fillet of veal, cut out of it five lean pieces as thick as your hand, round them up a little, then lard them very thick on the round side with little narrow thin pieces of bacon, and lard five sheeps tongues being first boiled and blanched), lard them here and there with very little bits of lemon-peel, and make a well-seasoned force-meat* of veal, bacon, ham, beef-suet, and an anchovy beat well; make another tender force-meat of veal, beef-suet, mushrooms, spinach, parsley, thyme, sweet-marjoram, winter savory, and green onions.  Season with pepper, salt, and mace; beat it well, make a round ball of the other force-meat and stuff in the middle of this, roll it up in a veal caul, and bake it; what is left, tie up like a Bologna sausage, and boil it, but first rub the caul with the yolk of an egg; put the larded veal into a stew-pan with some good gravy, and when it is enough skim off the fat, put in some truffles and morels, and some mushrooms.  Your force-meat being baked enough, lay it in the middle, the veal round it, and the tongues fried, and laid in between, the boiled cup into slices, and fried, and throw all over.  Pour on them the sauce.  You may add artichoke-bottoms, sweetbreads**, and cocks-combs, if you please.  Garnish with lemon.

* Force-meat – a stuffing, with either meat or bread as a base.

**Culinary names for the thymus (throat, gullet, or neck) or the pancreas (also heart, stomach, or belly) especially of the calf (ris de veau) and lamb (ris d’agneau) (although beef and pork sweetbreads are also eaten).

The Art of Cookery Continued: Chapter II: Made Dishes, Part 2

Posted on

One cooking technique that is described a few times in this chapter is touched on briefly in Hannah’s recipe for roasting a turkey “the genteel way”:  It was to gut the bird, or animal part (sometimes even the skull), cook the removed bits in some form, and then re-stuff the carcass to make it appear as if it were whole.  It was about presentation of the final dish on the dining table, and eighteenth century dining presentations were elaborate, to say the least.  The American holidays use the same idea, in stuffing a turkey; it’s just that our modern sensibilities find it more tasteful to serve it without feet and head!  In that time and age, however, every part of the animal was used; you’ll even find quite a few recipes calling for cox-combs…

To collar a breast of mutton.

Do it the same way, and it eats very well.  But you must take off the skin.

Another way to dress a breast of mutton.

Collar it as before, roast it, and baste it with half a pint of red wine, and when that is all soaked in, baste it well with butter, have a little good gravy, set the mutton upright in the dish, pour in the gravy, have a sweet sauce as for venison, and send it to table.  Don’t garnish the dish, but be sure to take the skin off the mutton.

The inside of a sirloin of beef is very good done this way.  If you don’t like the wine, a quart of milk, and a quarter of a pound of butter, put into the dripping-pan, does full as well to baste it.

To force a leg of lamb.

With a sharp knife carefully take out all the meat, and leave the skin whole and the fat on it, make the lean you cut out into the force-meat thus:  to two pounds of meat, add three pounds of beef-suet cut fine, and beat in a marble mortar till it is very fine, and take away all the skin of the meat and suet, when mix with it four spoonfuls of grated bread, eight or ten cloves, five or six large blades of mace dried and beat find, half a large nutmeg grated, a little pepper and salt, a little lemon-peel cut fine, a very little thyme, some parsley and four eggs; mix all together, put into the skin again just as it was, in the same shape, sew it up, roast it, baste it with butter, cut the loin into steaks and fry it nicely, lay the leg in the dish and the loin round it, with stewed cauliflower (see “to dress cauliflowers”) all round upon the loin; pour a pint of good gravy into the dish, and send it to table.  If you don’t like the cauliflower, it may be omitted.

To boil a leg of lamb.

Let the leg be boiled very white.  An hour will do it.  Cut the loin into steaks, dip them into a few crumbs of bread and egg, fry them nice and brown, boil a good deal of spinach and lay in the dish; put the leg in the middle, lay the loin round it, cut an orange in four and garnish the dish, and have butter in a cup.  Some love the spinach boiled, then drained, put into a sauce-pan with a good piece of butter, and stewed.

To force a large fowl.

Cut the skin down the back, and carefully flip it up so as to make out all the meat, mix it with one pound of beef-suet, cut it small, and beat them together in a marble mortar:  take a pint of large oysters cut small, two anchovies cut small, one shallot cut fine, a few sweet-herbs, a little pepper, a little nutmeg grated, and the yolks of four eggs; mix altogether and lay this on the bones, draw over the skin and sew up the back, pout the fowl into a bladder, boil it an hour and a quarter, stew some oysters in a good gravy thickened with a piece of butter rolled in flour, take the fowl out of the bladder, lay it in your dish and pour the sauce over it.  Garnish with lemon.

It eats much better roasted with the same sauce.

To roast a turkey the genteel way.

First cut it down the back, and with a sharp penknife bone it, then make your force-meat thus:  Take a large fowl, or a pound of veal, as much grated bread, half a pound of suet cut and beat very fine, a little beaten mace, two cloves, half a nutmeg grated, about a large tea-spoonful of lemon-peel, and the yolks of two eggs; mix all together, with a little pepper and salt, fill up the places where the bones came out, and fill the body, that it may look just as it did before, sew up the back, and roast it.  You may have oyster-sauce, celery sauce, or just as you please; but good gravy in the dish, and garnish with lemon, is as good as any thing.  Be sure to leave the pinions* on.

*pinion:  She is either referring to the wings, or to the bindings one might have used in the sewing up and “make it look just as it did before” – process.

To stew a turkey or fowl.

First let your pot be very clean, lay four clean skewers at the bottom, lay your turkey or fowl upon them, put in a quart of gravy, take a bunch of celery, cut it small, and wash it very clean, put it into your pot, with two or three blades of mace, let it stew softly till there is just enough for sauce, then add a good piece of butter rolled in flour, two spoonfuls of red wine, two of catchup, and just as much pepper and salt as will season it, lay your fowl or turkey in the dish, pour the sauce over and sent it to table.  If the fowl or turkey is enough before the sauce, take it up, and keep it up till the sauce is boiled enough, then put it in, let it boil a minute or two, and dish it up.

To stew a knuckle of veal.

Be sure to let the pot or saucepan be very clean, lay at the bottom four clean wooden skewers, wash and clean the knuckle very well, then lay it in the pot with two or three blades of mace, a little whole pepper, a little piece of thyme, a small onion, a crust of bread, and two quarts of water.  Cover it down close, make it boil, then only let it simmer for two hours, and when it is enough take it up; lay it in a dish, and strain the broth over it.

Another way to stew a knuckle of veal.

Clean it as before directed, and boil it till there is just enough for sauce, add one spoonful of catchup, one of red wine, and one of walnut pickle, some truffles and morels, or some dried mushrooms cut small; boil it all together, take up the knuckle, lay it in a dish, pour the sauce over it, and send it to table.

Note, It eats very well done as the turkey, before directed.

To ragoo a piece of beef.

Take a large piece of the flank, which has fat at the top cut square, or any piece that is all meat, and has fat at the top, but no bones.  The rump does well.  Cut all nicely off the bone (which makes fine soup), then take a large stew-pan, and with a good piece of butter fry it a little brown all over, flouring your meat well before you put it into the pan, then pour in as much gravy as will cover it, made thus:  take about a pound of coarse beef, a little piece of veal cut small, a bundle of sweet-herbs, an onion, some whole black pepper and white pepper, two or three large blades of mace, four or five cloves, a piece of carrot, a little piece of bacon steeped in vinegar a little while, a crust of bread toasted brown; put to this a quart water, and let it boil till half is wasted.  While this is making, pour a quart of boiling water into the stew-pan, cover it close, and let it be stewing softly; when the gravy is done strain it, pour into the pan where the beef is, take an ounce of truffles and morels cut small, some fresh or dried mushrooms cut small, two spoonfuls of catchup, and cover it close.  Let all this stew till the sauce is rich and thick; then have ready some artichoke bottoms cut into four, and a few pickled mushrooms, give them a boil or two, and when your meat is tender and your sauce quite rich, lay the meat into a dish and pour the sauce over it.  You may add a sweetbread* cut in six pieces, a palate stewed tender cut into little pieces, some cocks-combs, and a few force meat balls.  These are a great addition, but it will be good without.

Note, For variety, when the beef is ready and the gravy put to it, add a large bunch of celery cut small and washed clean, two spoonfuls of catchup, and a glass of red wine.  Omit all the other ingredients.  When the meat and celery are tender, and the sauce is rich and good, serve it up.  It is also very good this way:  take six large cucumbers, scoop out the seeds, pare them, cut them into slices, and do them just as you do the celery.

 *Culinary names for the thymus (throat, gullet, or neck) or the pancreas (also heart, stomach, or belly) especially of the calf (ris de veau) and lamb (ris d’agneau) (although beef and pork sweetbreads are also eaten).

To force the inside of a sirloin of beef.

Take a sharp knife, and carefully lift up the fat of the inside, take out all the meat close to the bone, chop it small, take a pound of suet, and chop fine, about as many crumbs of bread, a little thyme and lemon peel, a little pepper and salt, half a nutmeg grated, and two shallots chopped fine; mix all together, with a glass of red wine, then put it into the same place, cover it with the skin and fat, skewer it down with fine skewers, and cover it with paper.  Don’t take the paper off till the meat is on the dish.  Take a quarter of a pint of red wine, two shallots shred small, boil them, and pour into the dish, with the gravy which comes out of the meat; it eats well.  Spit your meat before you take out the inside.

Another way to force a sirloin.

When it is quite roasted, take it up, and lay it in the dish with the inside uppermost, with a sharp knife lift up the skin, hack and cut the inside very fine, shake a little pepper and salt over it, with two shallots, cover it with the skin, and send it to table.  You may add red wine or vinegar, just as you like.

To force the inside of a rump of beef.

You may do it just in the same manner, only lift up the outside skin, take the middle of the meat, and do as before directed; put it into the same place, and with fine skewers put it down close.

A rolled rump of beef.

Cut the meat all off the bone whole, slit the inside down from top to bottom, but not through the skin, spread it open, take the flesh of two fowls and beef-suet, an equal quantity, and as much cold boiled ham, if you have it, a little pepper, an anchovy, a nutmeg grated, a little thyme, a good deal of parsley, a few mushrooms, and chop them all together, beat them in a mortar, with a half-pint bason full of crumbs of bread; mix all these together, with four yolks of eggs, lay it into the meat, cover it up, and roll it round, stick one skewer in, and tie it with a packthread cross and cross to hold it together; take a pot or large saucepan that will just hold it, lay a layer of bacon and a layer of beef cut in thin slices, a piece of carrot, some whole pepper, mace, sweet herbs, and a large onion, lay the rolled beef on it, just put water enough to the top of the beef; cover it close, and let it stew very softly on a slow fire for eight or ten house, but not to fast.  When you find the beef tender, which you will know by running a skewer into the meat, then take it up, cover it up hot, boil the gravy till it is good, then strain it off, and add some mushrooms chopped, some truffles and morels cut small, two spoonfuls of red or white wine, the yolks of two eggs and a piece of butter rolled in flour; boil it together, set the meat before the fire, baste it with butter, and throw crumbs of bread all over it:  when the sauce is enough, lay the meat into the dish and pour the sauce over it.  Take care the eggs do not curd.

To boil a rump of beef the French fashion.

Take a rump of beef, boil it half an hour, take it up, lay it into a large deep pewter dish or stew-pan, cut three or four gashes in it all along the side, rub the gashes with pepper and salt, and pour into the dish a pint of red wine, as much hot water, two or three large onions cut small, the hearts of eight or ten lettuces cut small, and a good piece of butter rolled in a little flour; lay the fleshy part of the meat downwards, cover it close, let it stew an hour and a half over a charcoal fire, or a very slow coal fire.  Observe that the butcher chops the bone so close, that the meat may lie as flat as you can in the dish.  When it is enough, take the beef, lay it in the dish, and pour the sauce over it.

Note,  When you do it in a pewter dish, it is best done over a chaffing-dish of hot coals, with a bit or two of charcoal to keep it alive.

Beef escarlot.

Take a briscuit of beef, half a pound of coarse sugar, two ounces of bay salt, a pound of common salt; mix all together, and rub the beef, lay it in an earthen pan, and turn it every day.  It may lie a fortnight in the pickle; then boil it, and serve it up either with savoys or pease pudding.

Note, It eats much finer cold, cut into slices, and sent to table.

Beef à la daub.

You may take a buttock or a rump of beef, lard it, fry it brown in some sweet butter, then put it into a pot that will just hold it; put in some broth or gravy hot, some pepper, cloves, mace, and a bundle of sweet-herbs, stew it four hours till it is tender, and season it with salt; take half a pint of gravy, two sweetbreads* cut into eight pieces, some truffles and morels, palates, artichoke bottoms, and mushrooms, boil all together, lay your beef into the dish; strain the liquor into the sauce, and boil all together.  If it is not thick enough, roll a piece of butter in flour, and boil in it; pour this all over the beef.  Take forcemeat rolled in pieces half as long as one’s finger; dip them into batter made with eggs, and fry them brown; fry some sippets** dipped into batter cut three corner-ways, stick them into the meat, and garnish with the force meat.

** Sippet is the diminutive of sop, which was usually a small piece of bread to dip into a soup or broth.

* Culinary names for the thymus (throat, gullet, or neck) or the pancreas (also heart, stomach, or belly) especially of the calf (ris de veau) and lamb (ris d’agneau) (although beef and pork sweetbreads are also eaten).

Beef à la mode in pieces.

You must take a buttock of beef, cut it into two-pound pieces, lard them with bacon, fry them brown, put them into a pot that will just hold them, put in two quarts of broth or gravy, a few sweet-herbs, an onion, some mace, cloves, nutmeg, pepper and salt; when that is done, cover it close, and stew it till it is tender, skim off all the fat, lay the meat in the dish, and strain the sauce over it.  You may serve it up hot or cold.

Beef à la mode, the French way.

Take a piece of the buttock of beef, and some fat bacon cut into little long bits, then take two tea-spoonfuls of salt, one teaspoonful of beaten pepper, one of beaten mace, and one of nutmeg; mix all together, have your larding pins ready, first dip the bacon in vinegar, then roll it in your spice, and lard your beef very thick and nice; put the meat into a pot with two or three large onions, a good piece of lemon-peel, a bundle of herbs, and three or four spoonfuls of vinegar; cover it down close, and put a wet cloth round the edge of the cover, that no steam can get out, and set it over a very slow fire:  when you think one side is done enough, turn the other, and cover it with the rind of the bacon; cover the pot close again as before, and when it is enough (which it will be when quite tender) take it up and lay it in your dish, take off all the fat from the gravy, and pour the gravy over the meat.  If you chuse your beef to be red, you may rub it with saltpetre overnight.

Note, You must take great care in doing your beef this way that your fire is very slow; it will at least take six hours doing, if the piece be any thing large.  If you would have the sauce very rich, boil half an ounce of truffles and morels in half a pint of good gravy, till they are very tender, and all a gill of pickled mushrooms, but fresh ones are best; mix all together with the gravy of the meat, and pour it over your beef.  You must mind and beat all your spices very fine; and if you have not enough, mix some more, according to the bigness of your beef.

Beef olives.

Take a rump of beef, cut it into steaks half a quarter long, about an inch thick, let them be square; lay on some good forcemeat made with veal, roll them, tie them once round with a hard knot, dip them in egg, crumbs of bread, and grated nutmeg, and a little pepper and salt.  The best way is to roast them, or fry them brown in fresh butter, lay them every one on a bay-leaf, and cover them over one with a piece of bacon toasted, have some good gravy, a few truffles and morels, and mushrooms; boil all together, pour into the dish, and send it to table.

Veal olives.

They are good done the same way, only roll them narrow at one end and broad at the other.  Fry them of a fine brown.  Omit the bay leaf, but lay little pieces of bacon about two inches long on them.  The same sauce.  Garnish with lemon.

Beef collops.

Cut them into thin pieces about two inches long, beat them with the back of a knife very well, grate some nutmeg, flour them a little, lay them in a stew-pan, put in as much water as you think will do for sauce, half an onion cut small, a little piece of lemon-peel cut small, a bundle of sweet-herbs, a little pepper and salt, a piece of butter rolled in a little flour.  Set them on a slow fire:  when they begin to simmer, stir them now and then; when they begin to be hot, ten minutes will do them, but take care they do not boil.  Take out the sweet-herbs, pour it into the dish, and send it to table.

Note, You may do the inside of a sirloin of beef in the same manner, the day after it is roasted, only do not beat them, but cut them thin.

N.B. You may do this dish between two pewter dishes, hang them between two chairs, take six sheets of white brown paper, tear them into slips, and burn them under the dish once piece at a time.

* collops – a small piece of meat, either thin slices or minced meat of either beef, lamb or venison.

To stew beef-steaks.

Take rump steaks, pepper and salt them, lay them in a stew-pan, pour in half a pint of water, a blade or two of mace, two or three cloves, a little bundle of sweet-herbs, an anchovy, a piece of butter rolled in flour, a glass of white wine, and an onion; cover them close, and let them stew softly till they are tender, then take out the steaks, flour them, fry them in fresh butter, and pour away all the fat, strain the sauce they were stewed in, and pour into the pan; toss it all up together till the sauce is quite hot and thick.  If you add a quarter of a pint of oysters, it will make it the better.  Lay the steaks into the dish, and pour the sauce over them.  Garnish with any pickle you like.

The Art of Cookery: Receipts for the Sick, Part 1/2

Posted on

Following on from last weeks’ post, Hannah Glasse wrote a note to the reader, which in and of itself is entertaining, informative and historical.  She minces no words on her disdain for the French, so to my French readers I ask that they please take it on the chin with a pinch of salt and a wink!  I’ll post the note first, and then add a portion of section X, “Directions to prepare proper Food for the Sick.”  Without further ado:

 

Hannah Glasse Book

Here’s a sample of the original text; I’m gradually reading / typing my way through to a cleaner, searchable document…

Mace is the lacy casing around the seed known as nutmeg; the ones I’ve seen are white, but they can also be reddish brown.  If you can’t buy mace as such, nutmeg will substitute just as well.   By bruising, I’m assuming that it would be beating it to either soften it, or draw out the blood to the surface (bruising is a common term in this book, for various meats).  Beating the cock (rooster) would probably fall under the same category as bruising – to soften the meat (I can imagine that their basic meat products were quite a bit stringier / tougher / leaner than what we know today…).

Hannah Glasse’s “To the Reader.”

I Believe I have attempted a branch of Cookery, which nobody has yet thought worth their while to write upon:  but as I have both seen, and found, by experienced, that the generality of servants are greatly wanting in that point, therefore I have taken upon me to instruct them in the best manner I am capable; and, I dare say, that every servant who can but read will be capable of making a tolerable good cook, and those who have the least notion of Cookery cannot miss of being very good ones.

If I have not wrote in the high polite style, I hope I shall be forgiven; for my intention is to instruct the lower sort, and therefore must treat them in their own way.  For example:  when I bid them lard a fowl, if I should bid them lard with large lardoons, they would not know what I meant; but when I say they must lard with little pieces of bacon, they know what I mean.  So, in many other things in Cookery, the great cooks have such a high way of expressing themselves, that the poor girls are at a loss to know what they mean:  and in all Receipt Books yet printed, there are such an odd jumble of things as would quite spoil a good dish; and indeed some things so extravagant, that it would be almost a shame to make use of them, when a dish can be made full as good, or better, without them.  For example:  when you entertain ten or twelve people, you shall use for a cullis, a leg of veal and a ham, which, with the other ingredients, makes it very expensive, and all this only to mix with other sauce.  And again, the essence of ham for sauce to on dish; when I will prove it, for about three shillings I will make as rich and high a sauce as all that will be, when done.  For example:

Take a large deep stew-pan, half a pound of bacon, fat and lean together, cut the fat and lay it over the bottom of the pan; then take a pound of veal, cut it into thin slices, beat it well with the back of a knife, lay it all over the bacon; then have six-penny worth of the coarse lean part of the beef cut thin and well beat, lay a layer of it all over, with some carrot, then the lean of the bacon cut thin and laid over that:  then cut two onions and strew over, a bundle of sweet-herbs, four or five blades of mace, six or seven cloves, a spoonful of whole pepper, black and white together, half a nutmeg beat, a pigeon beat all to pieces, lay that all over, half an ounce of truffles and morels, then the rest of your beef, a good crust of bread toasted very brown and dry on both sides:  you may add an old cock beat to pieces; cover it close, and let it stand over a slow fire two or three minutes, then pour on boiling water enough to fill the pan, cover it close, and let it stew till it is as rich as you would have it, and then strain off all that sauce.  Put all your ingredients together again, fill the pan with boiling water, put in a fresh onions, a blade of mace, and a piece of carrot; cover it close, and let it stew till it is as strong as you want it.  This will be full as good as the essence of ham for all sorts of fowls, or indeed most made-dishes, mixed with a glass of wine, and two or three spoonfuls of catchup.  When your first gravy is cool, skim off all the fat, and keep it for use. – This falls far short of the expense of a leg of veal and ham, and answers every purpose you want.

If you go to market, the ingredients will not come to above half a crown, or for about eighteen-pence you may make as much good gravy as will serve twenty people.

Take twelve-penny worth of coarse lean beef, which will be six or seven pounds, cut it all to pieces, flour it well, take a quarter of a pound of good butter, put it into a little pot or large deep stew-pan, and put in your beef:  keep stirring it, and when it begins to look a little brown, pour in a pint of boiling water; stir it all together, put in a large onion, a bundle of sweet herbs, two or three blades of made, five or six cloves, a spoonful of whole pepper, a crust of bread toasted, and a piece of carrot; then pour in four or five quarts of water, stir all together, cover close, and let it stew till it is as rich as you would have it; when enough, strain it off, mix it with two or three spoonfuls of catchup, and half a pint of white wine; then put all the ingredients together again, and put in two quarts of boiling water, cover it close, and let it boil till there is about a pint; strain it off well, add it to the first, and give it a boil together.  This will make a great deal of rich good gravy.

You may leave out the wine, according to what use you want it for; so that really one might have a genteel entertainment, for the price the sauce of one dish comes to:  but if gentlemen will have French cooks, they must pay for French tricks.

A Frenchman in his own country will dress a fine dinner of twenty dishes, and all genteel and pretty, for the expense he will put an English lord to for dressing one dish.  But then there is the little petty profit.  I have heard of a cook that used six pounds of butter to fry twelve eggs; when everybody knows (that understands cooking) that half a pound is full enough, or more than need be used; but then it would not be French.  So much is the blind folly of this age, that they would rather be imposed on by a French booby, than give encouragement to a good English cook!

I doubt I shall not gain the esteem of those gentlemen; however, let that be as it will, it little concerns me; but should I be so happy as to gain the good opinion of my own sex, I desire no more; that will be a full recompence for all my trouble; and I only beg the favour of every lade to read my Book throughout before they censure me, and then I flatter myself I shall have their approbation.

I shall not take upon me to meddle in the physical way farther than two receipts, which will be of use to the public in general: one is for the bit of a mad dog: and the other, if a man would be near where the plague is, he shall be in no danger; which, if made use of, would be found of very great service to those who go abroad.

Nor shall I take upon me to direct a lady in the economy of her family, for every mistress does, or at least ought to know, what is most proper to be done there; therefore I shall not fill my Book with a deal of nonsense of that kind, which I am very well assured none will have regard to.

I have indeed given some of my dishes French names to distinguish them, because they are known by those names:  and where there is a great variety of dishes and a large table to cover, so there must be a variety of names for them; and it matters not whether they be called by a French, Dutch or English name, so they are good, and done with as little expence as the dish will allow of.

I shall say no more, only hope my Book will answer the ends I intend it for; which is to improve the servants, and save the ladies a great deal of trouble.

Chapter X:  Directions for the Sick (Part 1/2)

I don’t pretend to meddle here in the physical way; but a few directions for the cook, or nurse, I presume, will not be improper, to make such a diet, &c. as the doctor shall order.

To make mutton broth.

Take a pound of a loin of mutton, take off the fat, put to it one quart of water, let it boil and skim it well; then put in a good piece of upper-crust of bread, and one large blade of mace.  Cover it close, and let it boil slowly an hour; don’t stir it, but pour the broth clear off.  Season it with a little salt, and the mutton will be fit to eat.  If you boil turnips, don’t boil them in the broth, but by themselves in another sauce-pan.

To boil a scrag* of veal.

Set on the scrag a clean sauce-pan: to each pound of veal put a quart of water, skim it very clean, then put in a good piece of upper-crust, a blade of mace to each pound, and a little parsley tied with a thread.  Cover it close; then let it boil very softly two hours, and both broth and meat will be fit to eat.

[*Scrag:  the lean end of the neck of mutton or lamb.  Most likely a remnant of Old Norse in English, as skragg in Norwegian means a lean person, and skrog in Danish means skull, or carcass.]

To make beef or mutton broth for very weak people, who take but little nourishment.

Take a pound of beef, or mutton, or both together: to a pound put two quarts of water, first skin the meat and take off all the fat; then cut it into little pieces, and boil it till it comes to a quarter of a pint.  Season it with a very little corn of salt.  Skim off all the fat, and give a spoonful of this broth at a time.  To very weak people, half a spoonful is enough; to some a teaspoonful at a time; and to others a tea-cup full.  There is greater nourishment from this than anything else.

To make beef drink, which is ordered for weak people.

Take a pound of lean beef; then take off all the fat and skin, cut it into pieces, and put it into a gallon of water, with the under-crust of a penny-loaf, and a very little salt.  Let it boil till it comes to two quarts; then strain it off, and it is a very hearty drink.

To make pork broth.

Take two pounds of young pork; then take off the skin and fat, boil it in a gallon of water, with a turnip and a very little corn of salt.  Let it boil till it comes to two quarts, then strain it off, and let it stand till cold.  Take off the fat, then leave the settling at the bottom of the pan, and drink half a pint in the morning fasting, and hour before breakfast, and at noon, if the stomach will bear it.

To boil a chicken.

Let your sauce-pan be very clean and nice; when the water boils put in your chicken, which must be very nicely picked and clean, and laid in cold water a quarter of an hour before it is boiled; then take it out of the water boiling, and lay it in a pewter-dish.  Save all the liquor that runs from it in the dish, cut up your chicken all in joints in the dish; then bruise the liver very fine, add a little boiled parsley chopped very fine, a very little salt, and a very little grated nutmeg:  mix it all well together with two spoonfuls of the liquor of the fowl, and pour it into the dish with the rest of the liquor in the dish.  If there is not liquor enough, take two or three spoonfuls of the liquor it was boiled in, clap another dish over it; then set it over a chafing dish of hot coals five or six minutes, and carry it to table hot with the cover on.  This is better than butter, and lighter for the stomach, though some chuse it only with the liquor, and no parsley, nor liver, or any thing else, and that is according to different palates.  If it is for a very weak person, take off the skin of the chicken before you set it on the chaffing-dish.  If you roast it, make nothing but bread-sauce, and that is lighter than any sauce you can make for a weak stomach.

Thus you may dress a rabbit, only bruise but a little piece of the liver.

To boil pigeons.

Let your pigeons be cleaned, washed, drawn, and skinned.  Boil them in milk and water ten minutes, and pour over them sauce made thus:  take the livers parboiled, and bruise them find with as much parsley boiled and chopped fine.  Melt some butter, mix a little with the liver and parsley first, then mix all together, and pour over the pigeons.

To boil a partridge, or any other wild fowl.

When your water boils, put in your partridge, let it boil ten minutes; then take it up into a pewter-plate, and cut it in two, laying the insides next the plate, and have ready some bread-sauce made thus:  take the crumb of a halfpenny-roll, or thereabouts, and boil it in a half a pint of water, with a blade of mace.  Let it boil two or three minutes, pour away most of the water; then beat it up with a little piece of nice butter, a little salt, and pour it over the partridge.  Clap a cover over it; the set it over a chaffing-dish of coals four or five minutes, and send it away hot, covered close.

Thus you may dress any sort of wild fowl, only boiling it more or less, according to the bigness.  Ducks, take off the skins before you pour the bread-sauce over them; and if you roast them, lay bread-sauce under them.  It is lighter than gravy for weak stomachs.

To boil a plaice or flounder.

Let your water boil, throw some salt in; then put in your fish, boil it till you think it is enough, and take it out of the water in a slice to drain.  Take two spoonfuls of the liquor, with a little salt, a little grated nutmeg; then beat up the yolk of an eggs very well with the liquor, and stir in the egg; beat it well together, with a knife carefully slice away all the little bones round the fish, pour the sauce over it:  then set it over a chaffing-dish of coals for a minute, and sent it hot away.  Or in the room of this sauce, add melted butter in a cup.

To mince veal or chicken for the sick, or weak people.

Mince a chicken or some veal very fine, taking off the skin; just boil as much water as will moisten it, and no more, with a very little salt, grate a very little nutmeg; then throw a little flour over it, and when the water boils put in the meat.  Keep shaking it about over the fire a minute; then have ready two or three very thin sippets* toasted nice and brown, laid in the plate, and pour the mince-meat over it.

[*Sippet is the diminutive of sop, which was usually a small piece of bread to dip into a soup or broth.]

To pull a chicken for the sick.

You must take as much cold chicken as you think proper, take off the skin, and pull the meat into little bits as thick as a quill; then take the bones, boil them with a little salt till they are good, strain it; then take a spoonful of the liquor, a spoonful of milk, a little bit of butter, as big as a large nutmeg, rolled in flour, a little chopped parsley as much as will lie on a sixpence, and a little salt if wanted.  This will be enough for half a small chicken.  Put all together into the sauce-pan: then keep shaking it till it is thick, and pour it into a hot plate.

To make chicken broth.

You must take an old cock or large fowl, flay it; then pick off all the fat, and break it all to pieces with a rolling-pin:  put it into two quarts of water, with a good crust of bread, and a blade of mace.  Let it boil softly till it is as good as you would have it.  If you do it as it should be done, it will take five or six hours doing; pour it off, then put a quart more of boiling water, and cover it close.  Let it boil softly till it is good, and strain if off.  Season with a very little salt.  When you boil a chicken save the liquor, and when the meat is eat, take the bones, then break them and put to the liquor you boiled the chicken in, with a blade of mace and a crust of bread.  Let it boil till it is good, and strain it off.

To make chicken water.

Take a cock, or large fowl, flat it, then bruise it with a hammer, and put it into a gallon of water, with a crust of bread.  Let it boil half away, and strain it off.

To make a white caudle*.

You must take two quarts of water, mix in four spoonfuls of oatmeal, a blade or two of mace, a piece of lemon-peel, let it boil, and keep stirring it often.  Let it boil about a quarter of an hour, and take care it does not boil over; then strain it through a coarse sieve.  When you use it, sweeten it to your palate, grate in a little nutmeg, and what wine is proper; and if it is not for a sick person, squeeze in the juice of a lemon.

[*A caudle is a hot drink given to the sick, made of wine or ale, eggs, and bread.]

To make a brown caudle.

Boil the gruel as above, with six spoonfuls of oatmeal, and strain it; then add a quart of good ale, not bitter; boil it, then sweeten it to your palate, and add half a pint of white wine.  When you don’t put in white wine, let it be half ale.

To make a water-gruel.

You must take a pint of water, and a large spoonful of oatmeal; then stir it together, and let it boil up three or four times, stirring it often.  Don’t let it boil over, then strain it through a sieve, salt it to your palate, put in a good piece of fresh butter, brew it with a spoon till the butter is all melted, then it will be fine and smooth, and very good.  Some love a little pepper in it.

%d bloggers like this: