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The Art of Cookery Continued: Chapter II: Made Dishes, Part 3

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curds and whey

Selling curds and whey

Chapter two is by far the longest chapter in Hannah Glasse’s cookery book; it shows just how much emphasis was placed on meats on the eighteenth century table.  In this section there are quite a few unusual terms, all of which I’ve added explanations for:  Force-meat and sweetbread (both meats), burnt butter, astertium and broom-buds, mushroom powder, neat and pippen, just to name a few.  So, without further ado:

To fry beef steaks.

Take rump steaks, beat them very well with a roller, fry them in half a pint of ale that is not bitter, and whilst they are frying cut a large onion small, a very little thyme, some parsley shred small, some grated nutmeg, and a little pepper and salt; roll all together in a piece of butter, and then in a little flour, put this into the stew-pan, and shake all together.  When the steaks are tender, and the sauce of a fine thickness, dish it up.

A second way to fry beef steaks.

Cut the lean by itself, and beat them well with the back of a knife, fry them in just as much butter as will moisten the pan, pour out the gravy as it runs out of the meat, turn them often, do them over a gentle fire, then fry the fat by itself and lay upon the meat, and put to the gravy a glass of red wine, half an anchovy, a little nutmeg, a little beaten pepper, and a shallot cut small; give it two or three little boils, season it with salt to your palate, pour it over the steaks, and send them to table.

Another way to do beef steaks.

Cut your steaks, half broil them, then lay them in a stew-pan, season them with pepper and salt, just cover them with gravy and a piece of butter rolled in flour.  Let them stew for half an hour, beat up the yolks of two eggs, stir all together for two or three minutes, and then serve it up.

A pretty side-dish of beef.

Roast a tender piece of beef, lay fat bacon all over it, and roll it in paper, baste it, and when it is roasted cut about two pounds in thin slices, lay them in a stew-pan, and take six large cucumbers, peel them, and chop them small, lay over them a little pepper and salt, stew them in butter for about ten minutes, then drain out the butter, and shake some flour over them; toss them up, pour in half a pint of gravy, let them stew till they are thick, and dish them up.

To dress a fillet of beef.

It is the inside of a sirloin.  You must carefully cut it all out from the bone, grate some nutmeg over it, a few crumbs of bread, a little pepper and salt, a little lemon-peel, a little thyme, some parsley shred small, and roll it up tight; tie it with a packthread, roast it, put a quart of milk and a quarter of a pound of butter into the dripping-pan, and baste it; when it is enough, take it up, untie it, leave a little skewer in it to hold it together, have a little good gravy in the dish, and some sweet sauce in a cup.  You may baste it with red wine and butter, if you like it better; or it will do very well with butter only.

Beef steaks rolled.

Take three or four beef steaks, flat them with a cleaver, and make a force-meat* thus; take a pound of veal beat fine in a mortar, the flesh of a large fowl thus cut small, half a pound of cold ham chopped small, the kidney-fat of a loin of veal chopped small, a sweetbread** cut in little pieces, an ounce of truffles and morels first stewed and then cut small, some parsley, the yolks of four eggs, a nutmeg grated, a very little thyme, a little lemon-peel cut fine, a little pepper and salt, and half a pint of cream:  mix all together, lay it on your steaks, roll them up firm, of a good size, and put a little skewer into them, put them into the stew-pan, and fry them of a nice brown; then pour all the fat quite out, and put in a pint of good fried gravy (as in “To make gravy,”  Chapter I), put one spoonful of catchup, two spoonfuls of red wine, a few mushrooms, and let them stew for a quarter of an hour.  Take up the steaks, cut them in two, lay the cut side uppermost, and pour the sauce over it.  Garnish with lemon.

Note, Before you put the force-meat into the beef, you are to stir it all together over a slow fire for eight or ten minutes.

* Force-meat – a stuffing, with either meat or bread as a base.

**Sweetbread:  Culinary names for the thymus (throat, gullet, or neck) or the pancreas (also heart, stomach, or belly) especially of the calf (ris de veau) and lamb (ris d’agneau) (although beef and pork sweetbreads are also eaten).

To stew a rump of beef.

Having boiled it till it is little more than half enough, take it up, and peel off the skin:  take salt, pepper, beaten mace, grated nutmeg, a handful of parsley, a little thyme, winter-savory, sweet-marjoram, all chopped fine and mixed, and stuff them in great hold in the fat and lean, the rest spread over it, with yolks of two eggs; save the gravy that runs out, put to it a pint of claret, and put the meat in a deep pan, pour the liquor in, cover it close, and let it bake two hours, then put it into the dish, pour the liquor over it, and sent it to table.

Another way to stew a rump of beef.

You must cut the meat off the bone, lay it in your stew pan, cover it with water, put in a spoonful of whole pepper, two onions, a bundle of sweet herbs, some salt, and a pint of red wine; cover it close, set it over a stove or slow fire for four hours, shaking it sometimes, and turning it four or five times; make gravy as for soup, put in three quarts, keep it stirring till dinner is ready:  take ten or twelve turnips, cut them into slices the broad way, then cut them into four, flour them, and fry them brown in beef dripping.  Be sure to let your dripping boil before you put them in; then drain them well from the fat, lay the beef in your soup-dish, toast a little bread very nice and brown, cut in three corner dice, lay them into the dish, and the turnips likewise; strain in the gravy, and send it to table.  If you have the convenience of a stove, put the dish over it for five or six minutes; it gives the liquor a fine flavour of the turnips, makes the bread eat better, and is a great addition.  Season it with salt to your palate.

Portugal beef.

Take a rump of beef, cut it off the bone, cut it across, flour it, fry the thin part brown in butter, the thick end stuff with suet, boiled chesnuts, an anchovy, an onion, and a little pepper.  Stew it in a pan of strong broth, and when it is tender, lay both the fried and stewed together in your dish, cut the friend in two and lay on each side of the stewed, strain the gravy it was stewed in, put to it some pickled gerkins chopped, and boiled chestnuts, thicken it with a piece of burnt butter*, give it two or three boils up, season it with salt to your palate, and pour it over the beef.  Garnish with lemon.

* burnt butter:  Melt the butter on a gentle heat in a small saucepan until nutty brown.

To stew a rump of beef, or the briscuit, the French way.

Take a rump of beef, put it into a little pot that will hold it, cover it with water, put on the cover, let it stew an hour; but if the briscuit, two hours.  Skim it clean, then slash the meat with a knife to let out the gravy, put in a little beaten pepper, some salt, four cloves, with two or three large blades of mace beat fine, six onions sliced, and half a pint of red wine; cover it close, let it stew an hour, then put in two spoonfuls of capers or astertium-buds* pickled, or broom-buds**, chop them;  two spoonfuls of vinegar, and two of verjuice; boil fix cabbage lettuces in water, then put them in a pot, put in a pint of good gravy, let all stew together for half an hour, skim all the fat off, lay the meat into the dish, and pour the rest over it, have ready some pieces of bread cut three corner ways, and fried crisp, stick them about the meat, and garnish them.  When you put in the cabbage, put with it a good piece of butter rolled in flour.

* astertium-buds pickled:  She must mean “Nasturtium” buds, of a flowering plant; for more information, see the culinary section under “Tropaeolum” at Wikipedia.

**broom-buds:  She may be referring to either the Spartium plant, or the broom shrub, which was used raw or pickled, even though it is now known to be potentially toxic, effecting the heart and / or causing problems during pregnancy!

To stew beef gobbets.

Get any piece of beef, except the leg, cut it in pieces about the bigness of a pullet’s egg, put them in a stew-pan, cover them with water, let them stew, skim them clean, and when they have stewed an hour, take mace, cloves, and whole pepper tied in a muslin rag loose, some celery cut small, put them into the pan with some salt, turnips and carrots, pared and cut in slices, a little parsley, a bundle of sweet-herbs, and a large crust of bread.  You may put in an ounce of barley or rice, if you like it.  Cover it close, and let it stew till it is tender, take out the herbs, spices, and bread, and have ready fried a French roll cut in four.  Dish up all together, and send it to table.

Beef royal.

Take a sirloin of beef, or a large rump, bone it and beat it very well, then lard it with bacon, season it all over with salt, pepper, mace, cloves, and nutmeg, all beat fine, some lemon-peel cut small, and some sweet-herbs; in the mean time make a strong broth of the bones, take a piece of butter with a little flour, brown it, put in the beef, keep it turning often till it is brown, then strain the broth, put all together into a pot, put in a bay-leaf, a few truffles, and some ox palates cut small; cover it close, and let it stew till it is tender, take out the beef, skim off all the fat, pour in a pint of claret, some fried oysters, an anchovy, and some gerkins shred small; boil all together, put in the beef to warm, thicken your sauce with a piece of butter rolled in flour, or mushroom powder**, or burnt butter**.  Lay your meat in the dish, pour the sauce over it, and send it to table.  This may be eat either hot or cold.

* mushroom powder:  Dried mushrooms ground to a powder in a mortar, used as flavouring.  This is still used in Asian cuisine, and you might be able to find it in a good Asian supermarket or health food store in the Vegetarian section.

**burnt butter:  Melt the butter on a gentle heat in a small saucepan until nutty brown.

A tongue and udder forced.

First parboil your tongue and udder, blanch the tongue and stick it with cloves; as for the udder, you must carefully raise it, and fill it with force-meat made with veal:  first wash the inside with the yolk of an egg, then put in the force-meat*, tie the ends close and spit them, roast them, and baste them with butter when enough, have good gravy in the dish, and sweet sauce in a cup.  Note, For variety, you may lard the udder.

** Force-meat – a stuffing, with either meat or bread as a base.

To fricasey neat’s tongues.

Take neats tongues, boil them tender, peel them, cut them into thin slices, and fry them in fresh butter; then pour out the butter, put in as much gravy as you shall want for sauce, a bundle of sweet herbs, an onion, some pepper and salt, and a blade or two of mace; simmer all together half an hour, then take out your tongue, strain the gravy, put it with the tongue in the stew-pan again, beat up the yolks of two eggs with a glass of white wine, a little grated nutmeg, a piece of butter as big as a walnut rolled in flour, shake all together for four or five minutes, dish it up, and send it to table.

Neat is an Old English word for an ox, bullock or cow, from the Proto-Germanic word “nautam,” meaning a possession of value.

To force a tongue.

Boil it till it is tender; let it stand till it is cold, then cut a hole at the root end of it, take out some of the meat, chop it with as much beef suet, a few pippins*, some pepper and salt, a little mace beat, some nutmeg, a few sweet herbs, and the yolks of two eggs; chop it all together, stuff it, cover the end with a veal caul** or buttered paper, roast it, baste it with butter, and dish it up.  Have for sauce good gravy, a little melted butter, the juice of an orange or lemon, and some grated nutmeg; boil it up, and pour it into the dish.

* Pippin:  Varieties of apples grown from the seed, or “pip.”

** Caul :  The membrane.

To stew neat’s tongues whole.

Take two tongues, let them stew in water just to cover them for two hours, then peel them, put them in again with a pint of strong gravy, half a pint of white wine, a bundle of sweet-herbs, a little pepper and salt, some mace, cloves, and whole pepper tied in a muslin rag, a spoonful of capers chopped, turnips and carrots sliced, and a piece of butter rolled in flour; let all stew together very softly over a slow fire for two hours, then take out the spice and sweet-herbs, and send it to table.  You may leave out the turnips and carrots, or boil them by themselves, and lay them in a dish, just as you like.

To fricasey ox palates.

After boiling your palates very tender, (which you must do by setting them on in cold water, and letting them do softly) then blanch them and scrape them clean; take mace, nutmeg, cloves and pepper beat fine, rub them all over with those, and with crumbs of bread; have ready some butter in a stew-pan, and when it is hot put in the palates; fry them brown on both sides, then pour out the fat, and put to them some mutton or beef gravy, enough for sauce, an anchovy, a little nutmeg, a little piece of butter rolled in flour, and the juice of a lemon:  let it simmer all together for a quarter of an hour, dish it up, and garnish with lemon.

To roast ox palates.

Having boiled your palates tender, blanch them, cut them into slices about two inches long, lard half with bacon, then have ready two or three pigeons and two or three chicken-peepers, draw them, truss them, and fill them with force-meat*; let half of them be nicely larded, spit them on a bird-spit; spit them thus:  a bird, a palate, a sage-leaf, and a piece of bacon and so on, a bird, a palate, a sage-leaf, and a piece of bacon.  Take cocks-combs and lamb stones, parboiled and blanched, lard them with little bits of bacon, large oysters parboiled, and each one larded with one piece of bacon, put these on a skewer with a little piece of bacon and a sage-leaf between them, tie them on to a spit and roast them, then beat up the yolks of three eggs, some nutmeg, a little salt and crumbs of bread; baste them with these all the time they are a-roasting, and have ready two sweetbreads** each cut in two, some artichoke-bottoms cut into four and fried, and then rub the dish with shallots: lay the birds in the middle, piled upon one another, and lay the other things all separate by themselves round about in the dish.  Have ready for sauce a pint of good gravy, a quarter of a pint of red wine, an anchovy, the oyster liquor, a piece of butter rolled in flour; boil all these together and pour into the dish, with a little juice of lemon.  Garnish your dish with lemon.

* Force-meat – a stuffing, with either meat or bread as a base.

**Culinary names for the thymus (throat, gullet, or neck) or the pancreas (also heart, stomach, or belly) especially of the calf (ris de veau) and lamb (ris d’agneau) (although beef and pork sweetbreads are also eaten).

To dress a leg of mutton à la royale.

Having taken off all the fat, skin, and shank-bone, lard it with bacon, season it with pepper and salt, and a round piece of about three or four pounds of beef or leg of veal, lard it, have ready some hog’s lard boiling, flour your meat, and give it a colour in the lard, then take the meat out and put it into a pot, with a bundle of sweet herbs, some parsley, an onion stuck with cloves, two or three blades of mace, some whole pepper, and three quarts of water; cover it close, and let it boil very softly for two hours, mean while get ready a sweetbread* split, cut into four, and broiled, a few truffles and morels stewed in a quarter of a pint of strong gravy, a glass of red wine, a few mushrooms, two spoonfuls of catchup, and some asparagus-tops; boil all these together, then lay the mutton in the middle of the dish, cut the beef or veal into slices, make a rim round your mutton with the slices, and pour the ragoo over it; when you have taken the meat out of the pot, skim all the fat off the gravy; strain it, and add as much to the other as will fill the dish.  Garnish with lemon.

*Culinary names for the thymus (throat, gullet, or neck) or the pancreas (also heart, stomach, or belly) especially of the calf (ris de veau) and lamb (ris d’agneau) (although beef and pork sweetbreads are also eaten).

A leg of mutton à la hautgout*

Let it hang a fortnight in an airy place, then have ready some cloves of garlic, and stuff it all over, rub it with pepper and salt; roast it, have ready some good gravy and red wine in the dish, and sent it to table.

*high taste

To roast a leg of mutton with oysters.

Take a leg about two or three days killed, stuff it all over with oysters, and roast it.  Garnish with horse-raddish.

To roast a leg of mutton with cockles.

Stuff it all over with cockles, and roast it.  Garnish with horse-raddish.

A shoulder of mutton in epigram.

Roast it almost enough, then very carefully take off the skin about the thickness of a crown-piece, and the shank-bone with it at the end; then season that skin and shank-bone with pepper and salt, a little lemon-peel cut small, and a few sweet-herbs and crumbs of bread, then lay this on the gridiron, and let it be of a fine brown; in the mean time take the rest of the meat and cut it like a hash about the bigness of a shilling; have the gravy and put to it, with a few spoonfuls of strong gravy, half an onion cut fine, a little nutmeg, a little pepper and salt, a little bundle of sweet-herbs, some gerkins cut very small, a few mushrooms, two or three truffles cut small, two spoonfuls of wine, either red or white, and throw a little flour over the meat:  Let all these stew together very softly for five or six minutes, but be sure it do not boil; take out the sweet-herbs, and put the hash into the dish, lay the broiled upon it, and send it to table.

a harrico* of mutton.

Take a neck or loin of mutton, cut it into six pieces, flour it, and fry it brown on both sides in the stew-pan, then pour out all the fat; put in some turnips and carrots cut like dice, two dozen of chestnuts blanched, two or three lettuces cut small, six little round onions, a bundle of sweet-herbs, some pepper and salt, and two or three blades of mace; cover it close, and let it stew for an hour, then take off the fat and dish it up.

*From what I have been able to find, which isn’t much, it must come from the Old English word hnecca “neck, nape, back of the neck” (a fairly rare word)

To French a hind-saddle of mutton.

It is the two rumps.  Cut off the rump, and carefully lift up the skin with a knife:  begin at the broad end, but be sure you do not crack it nor take it quite off:  then take some slices of ham or bacon chopped fine, a few truffles, some young onions, some parsley, a little thyme, sweet-marjoram, winter savoury, a little lemon-peel, all chopped fine, a little mace and two or three cloves beat fine, half a nutmeg, and a little pepper and salt; mix all together, and throw over the meat where you took off the skin, then lay on the skin again, and fasten it with two fine skewers at each side, and roll it in well buttered paper.  It will take three hours doing:  then take off the paper, baste the meat, strew it all over with crumbs of bread, and when it is of a fine brown take it up.  For sauce take six large shallots, cut them very fine, put them into a saucepan with two spoonfuls of vinegar, and two of white wine; boil them for a minute or two, pour it into the dish, and garnish with horse raddish.

Another French way, called St. Menehout.

Take the hind saddle of mutton, take off the skin, lard it with bacon, season it with pepper, salt, mace, cloves beat, and nutmeg, sweet-herbs, young onions, and parsley, all chopped fine; take a large oval or a large gravy-pan, lay layers of bacon, and then layers of beef all over the bottom, lay in the mutton, then lay layers of bacon on the mutton, and then a layer of beef, put in a pint of wine, and as much good gravy as will stew it, put in a bay-leaf, and two or three shallots, cover it close, put fire over and under it, if you have a close pan, and let it stand stewing for two hours; when done, take it out, strew crumbs of bread all over it, and put it into the oven to brown, strain the gravy it was stewed in, and boil it till there is just enough for sauce, lay the mutton into a dish, pour the sauce in, and serve it up.  You must brown it before a fire, if you have not an oven.

Cutlets à la Maintenon.  A very good dish.

Cut your cutlets handsomely, beat them thin with your cleaver, season them with pepper and salt, make a force-meat* with veal, beef, suet, spice and sweet-herbs, rolled in yolks of eggs, roll force-meat round each cutlet, within two inches of the top of the bone, then have as many half sheets of white paper as cutlets, roll each cutlet in a piece of paper, first buttering the paper well on the inside, dip the cutlets in melted butter and them in crumbs of bread, lay each cutlet on half a sheet of paper cross the middle of it, leaving about an inch of the bone out, then close the two ends of your paper as you do a turnover tart, and cut off the paper that is too much; broil your mutton cutlets half an hour, your veal cutlets three quarters of an hour, and then take the paper off and lay them round in the dish, with the bone outwards.  Let your sauce be good gravy thickened, and serve it up.

** Force-meat – a stuffing, with either meat or bread as a base.

To make a mutton hash.

Cut your mutton in little bits as think as you can, strew a little flour over it, have ready some gravy (enough for sauce) wherein sweet-herbs, onion, pepper and salt, have been boiled; strain it, put in your meat, with a little piece of butter rolled in flour, and a little salt, a shallot cut fine, a few capers and gerkins chopped fine, and a blade of mace:  toss all together for a minute or two, have ready some bread toasted and cut into thin sippets, lay them round the dish, and pour in your hash.  Garnish your dish with pickles and horse-raddish.

Note, Some love a glass of red wine, or walnut pickle.  You may put just what you will into a hash.  If the sippets are toasted it is better.

*Sippet is the diminutive of sop, which was usually a small piece of bread to dip into a soup or broth.

To dress a pig’s petty-toes.

Put your petty-toes into a saucepan with half a pint of water, a blade of mace, a little whole pepper, a bundle of sweet-herbs, and an onion.  Let them boil five minutes, then take out the liver, lights, and heart, mince them very fine, grate a little nutmeg over them, and shake a little flour on them; let the feet do till they are tender, then take them out and strain the liquor, put all together with a little salt, and a piece of butter as big as a walnut, shake the saucepan often, let it simmer five or six minutes, then cut some toasted sippets and lay round the dish, lay the mince-meat and sauce in the middle, and the petty-toes split round it.  You may add the juice of half a lemon, or a very little vinegar.

A second way to roast a leg of mutton with oysters.

Stuff a leg of mutton with mutton suet, salt, pepper, nutmeg, and the yolks of eggs; then roast it, stick it all over with cloves, and when it is about half done, cut off some of the under-side of the fleshy end in little bits, put these into a pipkin with a pint of oysters, liquor and all, a little salt and mace, and half a pint of hot water:  stew them till half the liquor is wasted, then put in a piece of butter rolled in flour, shake all together, and when the mutton is enough take it up; pour this sauce over it, and send it to table.

To dress a leg of mutton to eat like venison.

Take a hind-quarter of mutton, and cut the leg in the shape of a haunch of venison, save the blood of the sheep and steep it in for five or six hours, then take it out and roll it in three or four sheets of white paper well-buttered on the inside, tie it with a packthread, and roast it, basting it with good beef-dripping or butter.  It will take two hours at a good fire, for your mutton must be fat and thick.  About five or six minutes before you take it up, take off the paper, baste it with a piece of butter, and shake a little flour over it to make it have a fine froth, and then have a little good drawn gravy in a bason, and sweet-sauce in another.  Don’t garnish with any thing.

To dress mutton the Turkish way.

First cut your meat into thin slices, then wash it in vinegar, and put it into a pot or saucepan that has a close cover to it, put in some rice, whole pepper, and three or four whole onions; let all these stew together, skimming it frequently; when it is enough, take out the onions, and season it with salt to your palate, lay the mutton in the dish, and pour the rice and liquor over it.

Note, The neck or leg are the best joins to dress this way:  Put in to a leg four quarts of water, and a quarter of a pound of rice; to a neck two quarts of water, and two ounces of rice.  To every pound of meat allow a quarter of an hour, being close covered.  If you put in a blade or two of mace, and a bundle of sweet-herbs, it will be a great addition.  When it is just enough put in a piece of butter, and take care the rice don’t burn to the pot.  In all these things you should lay skewers at the bottom of the pot to lay your meat on, that it may not stick.

A shoulder of mutton with a ragoo of turnips.

Take a shoulder of mutton, get the blade-bone taken out as neat as possible, and in the place put a ragoo, done thus:  take one or two sweetbreads*, some cocks-combs, half an ounce of truffles, some mushrooms, a blade or two of mace, a little pepper and salt; stew all these in a quarter of a pint of good gravy, and thicken it with a piece of butter rolled in flour, or yolks of eggs, which you please:  let it be cold before you put it in, and fill up the place where you took the bone out just in the form it was before, and sew it up tight:  take a large deep stew-pan, or one of the round deep copper pans with two handles, lay at the bottom thin slices of bacon, then slices of veal, a bundle of parsley, thyme, and sweet-herbs, some whole pepper, a blade or two of mace, three or four cloves, a large onion, and put in just think gravy enough to cover the meat; cover it close, and let it stew two hours, then take eight or ten turnips, pare them, and cut them into what shape you please, put them into boiling water, and let them be just enough, throw them into a sieve to drain over the hot water, that they may keep warm, then take up the mutton, drain it from the fat, lay it in a dish, and keep it hot covered; strain the gravy it was stewed in, and take off all the fat, put in a little salt, a glass of red wine, two spoonfuls of catchup, and a piece of butter rolled in flour, boil together till there is just enough for sauce, then put in the turnips, give them a boil up, pour them over the meat, and sent it to table.  You may fry the turnips of a light brown, and toss them up with the sauce; but that is according to your palate.

Note, For a change you may leave out the turnips, and add a bunch of celery cut and washed clean, and stewed in a very little water, till it is quite tender, and the water almost boiled away.  Pour the gravy, as before directed, into it, and boil it up till the sauce is good:  or you may leave both these out, and add truffles, morels, fresh and pickled mushrooms, and artichoke-bottoms.

N.B. A shoulder of veal without the knuckle, first fried, and then done just as the mutton, eats very well.  Don’t garnish your mutton, but garnish your veal with lemon.

*Culinary names for the thymus (throat, gullet, or neck) or the pancreas (also heart, stomach, or belly) especially of the calf (ris de veau) and lamb (ris d’agneau) (although beef and pork sweetbreads are also eaten).

To stuff a leg or shoulder of mutton.

Take a little grated bread, some beef suet, the yolks of hard eggs, three anchovies, a bit of onion, some pepper and salt, a little thyme and winter savoury, twelve oysters, and some nutmeg grated; mix all these together, shred them very fine, work them up with raw eggs like a paste, stuff your mutton under the skin in the thickest place, or where you please, and roast it:  for sauce, take some of the oyster liquor, some claret, one anchovy, a little nutmeg, a bit of an onion, and a few oysters; stew all these together, then take out your onion, pour sauce under your mutton, and send it to table.  Garnish with horse-raddish.

Sheep rumps with rice.

Take six rumps, put them into a stew-pan with some mutton gravy, enough to fill it, stew them about half an hour, take them up and let them stand to cool, then put into the liquor a quarter of a pound of rice, an onion stuck with cloves, and a blade or two of mace; let it boil till the rice is as thick as a pudding, but take care it don’t stick to the bottom, which you must do by stirring it often:  in the mean time take a clean stew-pan, put a piece of butter into it; dip your rumps in the yolks of eggs beat, and then in crumbs of bread with a little nutmeg, lemon-peel, and a very little thyme in it, fry them in the butter of a fine brown, then take them out, lay them in a dish to drain, pour out all the fat, and toss the rice into that pan; stir it all together for a minute or two, then lay the rice into the dish, lay the rumps all round upon the rice, have ready four eggs boiled hard, cut them into quarters, lay them round the dish with friend parsley between them, and send it to table.

To make lamb and rice.

Take a neck and loin of lamb, half roast it, take it up, cut it into steaks, then take half a pound of rice, put it into a quart of good gravy, with two or three blades of mace, and a little nutmeg.  Do it over a stove or slow fire till the rice begins to be thick; then take it off, stir in a pound of butter, and when that is quite melted stir in the yolks of six eggs; first beat, then take a dish and butter it all over, take the steaks and put a little pepper and salt over them, dip them in a little melted butter, lay them into the dish, pour the gravy which comes out of them over them, and then the rice; beat the yolks of three eggs and pour all over, send it to the oven, and bake it better than half an hour.

Baked mutton chops.

Take a loin or neck of mutton, cut it into steaks, put some pepper and salt over it, butter your dish and lay in your steaks; then take a quart of milk, six eggs beat up fine, and four spoonfuls of flour; beat your flour and eggs in a little milk first, and then put the rest to it, put in a little beaten ginger, and a little salt.  Pour this over the steaks, and send it to the over; an hour and an half will bake it.

A forced leg of lamb.

Take a large leg of lamb, cut a long slit on the back side, but take great care you don’t deface the other side; then chop the meat small with marrow, half a pound of beef-suet, some oysters, an anchovy unwashed, an onion, some sweet-herbs, a little lemon peel, and some beaten mace and nutmeg; beat all these together in a mortar, stuff it up in the shape it was before, sew it up, and rub it over with the yolks of eggs beaten, spit it, flour it all lover, lay it to the fire, and baste it with butter.  An hour will roast it.  You may bake it, if you please, but then you must butter the dish, and lay the butter over it:  cut the loin into steaks, season them with pepper, salt, and nutmeg, lemon-peel cut fine, and a few sweet-herbs; fry them in fresh butter of a fine brown, then pour out all the butter, put in a quarter of a pint of white wine, shake it about, and put in half a pint of strong gravy, wherein good spice has been boiled, a quarter of a pint of oysters and the liquor, some mushrooms and a spoonful of the pickle, a piece of butter rolled in flour, and the yolk of an egg beat; stir all these together till it is thick, then lay your leg of lamb in the dish, and the loin around it; pour the sauce over it, and garnish with lemon.

To fry a loin of lamb.

Cut the loin into thin steaks, put a very little pepper and salt, and a little nutmeg on them, and fry them in fresh butter; when enough, take out the steaks, lay them in a dish before the fire to keep hot, then pour out the butter, shake a little flour over the bottom of the pan, pour in a quarter of a pint of boiling water, and put in a piece of butter; shake all together, give it a boil or two up, pour it over the steaks, and send it to table.

Note, You may do mutton the same way, and add two spoonfuls of walnut-pickle.

Another way of frying a neck or loin of lamb.

Cut into thin steaks, beat them with a rolling pin, fry them in half a pint of ale, season them with a little salt, and cover them close; when enough, take them out of the pan, lay them in a plate before the fire to keep hot, and pour all out of the pan into a bason; then put in half a pint of white wine, a few capers, the yolks of two eggs beat, with a little nutmeg and a little salt; add to this the liquor they were fried in, and keep stirring it one way all the time till it is thick, then put in the lamb, keep shaking the pan for a minute or two, lay the steaks into the dish, pour the sauce over them, and have some parsley in a plate before the fire a-crisping.  Garnish your dish with that and lemon.

To make a ragoo of lamb.

Take a fore-quarter of lamb, cut the knuckle-bone off, lard it with little thin bits of bacon, flour it, fry it of a fine brown, and then put it into an earthen pot or stew-pan; put to it a quart of broth or good gravy, a bundle of herbs, a little mace, two or three cloves, and a little whole pepper; cover it close, and let it stew pretty fast for half an hour, pour the liquor all out, strain it, keep the lamb hot in the pot till the sauce is ready.  Take half a pint of oysters, flour them, fry them brown, drain out all the fat clean that you fried them in, skim all the fat off the gravy, then pour it into the oysters, put in an anchovy, and two spoonfuls of either red or white wine; boil all together, till there is just enough for sauce, add some fresh mushrooms (if you can get them) and some pickled onions, with a spoonful of the pickle, or the juice of half a lemon.  Lay your lamb in the dish, and pour the sauce over it.  Garnish with lemon.

To stew a lamb’s, or calf’s head.

First wash it, and pick it very clean, lay it in water for an hour, take out the brains, and with a sharp penknife carefully take out the bones and the tongue, but be careful you do not bread the meat; then take out the two eyes, and take two pounds of veal and two pounds of beef-suet, a very little thyme, a good piece of lemon-peel minced, a nutmeg grated, and two anchovies: chop all very well together, grate two stale rolls, and mix all together with the yolks of four eggs:  save enough of this meat to make about twenty balls, take half a pint of fresh mushrooms clean peeled and washed, or pickled cockles; mix all these together, but first stew your oysters, and put to it two quarts of gravy, with a blade or two of mace.  It will be proper to tie the head with packthread, cover it close, and let it stew two hours:  in the mean time beat up the brains with some lemon-peel cut fine, a little parsley chopped, half a nutmeg grated, and the yolk of an egg; have some dripping boiling, fry half the brains in little cakes, and fry the balls, keep them both hot by the fire; take half an ounce of truffles and morels, then strain the gravy the head was stewed in, put the truffles and morels to it with the liquor, and a few mushrooms; boil all together, then put in the rest of the brains that are not fried, stew them together for a minute or two, pour it over the head, and lay the fried brains and balls around it.  Garnish with lemon.  You may fry about twelve oysters.

To dress veal à la Bourgoise.

Cut pretty thick slices of veal, lard them with bacon, and season them with pepper, salt, beaten mace, cloves, nutmeg, and chopped parsley, then take the stew-pan and cover the bottom with slices of fat bacon, lay the veal upon them, cover it, and set it over a very slow fire for eight or ten minutes, just to be hot and no more, then brisk up your fire and brown your veal on both sides, then shake some flour over it and brown it; pour in a quart of good broth or gravy, cover it close, and let it stew gently till it is enough; when enough, take out the slices of bacon, and skim all the fat off clean, and beat up the yolks of three eggs with some of the gravy; mix all together, and keep it stirring one way till it is smooth and thick, then take it up, lay your meat in the dish, and pour the sauce over it.  Garnish with lemon.

A disguised leg of veal and bacon.

Lard your veal all over with slips of bacon and a little lemon-peel, and boil it with a piece of bacon:  when enough, take it up, cut the bacon into slices, and have ready some dried sage and pepper rubbed fine, rub it over the bacon, lay the veal in the dish and the bacon round it, strew it all over with fried parsley, and have green sauce in cups, made thus:  take two handfuls of sorrel, pound it in a mortar, and squeeze out the juice, put it into a sauce-pan with some melted butter, a little sugar, and the juice of lemon.  Or you may make it thus:  beat two handfuls of sorrel in a mortar, with two pippins* quartered, squeeze the juice out, with the juice of a lemon or vinegar, and sweeten it with sugar.

* Pippin:  Varieties of apples grown from the seed, or “pip.”

A pillaw of veal.

Take a neck or breast of veal, half roast it, then cut it into six pieces, season it with pepper, salt, and nutmeg:  take a pound of rice, put to it a quart of broth, some mace, and a little salt, do it over a stove or very slow fire till it is thick, but butter the bottom of the dish or pan you do it in:  beat up the yolks of six eggs and stir into it, then take a little round deep dish, butter it, lay some of the rice at the bottom, then lay the veal on a round heap, and cover it all over with rice, wash it over with the yolks of eggs, and bake it an hour and a half, then open the top and pour in a pint of rich good gravy.  Garnish with a Seville orange cut in quarters, and send it to table hot.

Bombarded veal.

You must get a fillet of veal, cut out of it five lean pieces as thick as your hand, round them up a little, then lard them very thick on the round side with little narrow thin pieces of bacon, and lard five sheeps tongues being first boiled and blanched), lard them here and there with very little bits of lemon-peel, and make a well-seasoned force-meat* of veal, bacon, ham, beef-suet, and an anchovy beat well; make another tender force-meat of veal, beef-suet, mushrooms, spinach, parsley, thyme, sweet-marjoram, winter savory, and green onions.  Season with pepper, salt, and mace; beat it well, make a round ball of the other force-meat and stuff in the middle of this, roll it up in a veal caul, and bake it; what is left, tie up like a Bologna sausage, and boil it, but first rub the caul with the yolk of an egg; put the larded veal into a stew-pan with some good gravy, and when it is enough skim off the fat, put in some truffles and morels, and some mushrooms.  Your force-meat being baked enough, lay it in the middle, the veal round it, and the tongues fried, and laid in between, the boiled cup into slices, and fried, and throw all over.  Pour on them the sauce.  You may add artichoke-bottoms, sweetbreads**, and cocks-combs, if you please.  Garnish with lemon.

* Force-meat – a stuffing, with either meat or bread as a base.

**Culinary names for the thymus (throat, gullet, or neck) or the pancreas (also heart, stomach, or belly) especially of the calf (ris de veau) and lamb (ris d’agneau) (although beef and pork sweetbreads are also eaten).

The Art of Cookery Continued: Chapter II: Made Dishes, Part 2

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One cooking technique that is described a few times in this chapter is touched on briefly in Hannah’s recipe for roasting a turkey “the genteel way”:  It was to gut the bird, or animal part (sometimes even the skull), cook the removed bits in some form, and then re-stuff the carcass to make it appear as if it were whole.  It was about presentation of the final dish on the dining table, and eighteenth century dining presentations were elaborate, to say the least.  The American holidays use the same idea, in stuffing a turkey; it’s just that our modern sensibilities find it more tasteful to serve it without feet and head!  In that time and age, however, every part of the animal was used; you’ll even find quite a few recipes calling for cox-combs…

To collar a breast of mutton.

Do it the same way, and it eats very well.  But you must take off the skin.

Another way to dress a breast of mutton.

Collar it as before, roast it, and baste it with half a pint of red wine, and when that is all soaked in, baste it well with butter, have a little good gravy, set the mutton upright in the dish, pour in the gravy, have a sweet sauce as for venison, and send it to table.  Don’t garnish the dish, but be sure to take the skin off the mutton.

The inside of a sirloin of beef is very good done this way.  If you don’t like the wine, a quart of milk, and a quarter of a pound of butter, put into the dripping-pan, does full as well to baste it.

To force a leg of lamb.

With a sharp knife carefully take out all the meat, and leave the skin whole and the fat on it, make the lean you cut out into the force-meat thus:  to two pounds of meat, add three pounds of beef-suet cut fine, and beat in a marble mortar till it is very fine, and take away all the skin of the meat and suet, when mix with it four spoonfuls of grated bread, eight or ten cloves, five or six large blades of mace dried and beat find, half a large nutmeg grated, a little pepper and salt, a little lemon-peel cut fine, a very little thyme, some parsley and four eggs; mix all together, put into the skin again just as it was, in the same shape, sew it up, roast it, baste it with butter, cut the loin into steaks and fry it nicely, lay the leg in the dish and the loin round it, with stewed cauliflower (see “to dress cauliflowers”) all round upon the loin; pour a pint of good gravy into the dish, and send it to table.  If you don’t like the cauliflower, it may be omitted.

To boil a leg of lamb.

Let the leg be boiled very white.  An hour will do it.  Cut the loin into steaks, dip them into a few crumbs of bread and egg, fry them nice and brown, boil a good deal of spinach and lay in the dish; put the leg in the middle, lay the loin round it, cut an orange in four and garnish the dish, and have butter in a cup.  Some love the spinach boiled, then drained, put into a sauce-pan with a good piece of butter, and stewed.

To force a large fowl.

Cut the skin down the back, and carefully flip it up so as to make out all the meat, mix it with one pound of beef-suet, cut it small, and beat them together in a marble mortar:  take a pint of large oysters cut small, two anchovies cut small, one shallot cut fine, a few sweet-herbs, a little pepper, a little nutmeg grated, and the yolks of four eggs; mix altogether and lay this on the bones, draw over the skin and sew up the back, pout the fowl into a bladder, boil it an hour and a quarter, stew some oysters in a good gravy thickened with a piece of butter rolled in flour, take the fowl out of the bladder, lay it in your dish and pour the sauce over it.  Garnish with lemon.

It eats much better roasted with the same sauce.

To roast a turkey the genteel way.

First cut it down the back, and with a sharp penknife bone it, then make your force-meat thus:  Take a large fowl, or a pound of veal, as much grated bread, half a pound of suet cut and beat very fine, a little beaten mace, two cloves, half a nutmeg grated, about a large tea-spoonful of lemon-peel, and the yolks of two eggs; mix all together, with a little pepper and salt, fill up the places where the bones came out, and fill the body, that it may look just as it did before, sew up the back, and roast it.  You may have oyster-sauce, celery sauce, or just as you please; but good gravy in the dish, and garnish with lemon, is as good as any thing.  Be sure to leave the pinions* on.

*pinion:  She is either referring to the wings, or to the bindings one might have used in the sewing up and “make it look just as it did before” – process.

To stew a turkey or fowl.

First let your pot be very clean, lay four clean skewers at the bottom, lay your turkey or fowl upon them, put in a quart of gravy, take a bunch of celery, cut it small, and wash it very clean, put it into your pot, with two or three blades of mace, let it stew softly till there is just enough for sauce, then add a good piece of butter rolled in flour, two spoonfuls of red wine, two of catchup, and just as much pepper and salt as will season it, lay your fowl or turkey in the dish, pour the sauce over and sent it to table.  If the fowl or turkey is enough before the sauce, take it up, and keep it up till the sauce is boiled enough, then put it in, let it boil a minute or two, and dish it up.

To stew a knuckle of veal.

Be sure to let the pot or saucepan be very clean, lay at the bottom four clean wooden skewers, wash and clean the knuckle very well, then lay it in the pot with two or three blades of mace, a little whole pepper, a little piece of thyme, a small onion, a crust of bread, and two quarts of water.  Cover it down close, make it boil, then only let it simmer for two hours, and when it is enough take it up; lay it in a dish, and strain the broth over it.

Another way to stew a knuckle of veal.

Clean it as before directed, and boil it till there is just enough for sauce, add one spoonful of catchup, one of red wine, and one of walnut pickle, some truffles and morels, or some dried mushrooms cut small; boil it all together, take up the knuckle, lay it in a dish, pour the sauce over it, and send it to table.

Note, It eats very well done as the turkey, before directed.

To ragoo a piece of beef.

Take a large piece of the flank, which has fat at the top cut square, or any piece that is all meat, and has fat at the top, but no bones.  The rump does well.  Cut all nicely off the bone (which makes fine soup), then take a large stew-pan, and with a good piece of butter fry it a little brown all over, flouring your meat well before you put it into the pan, then pour in as much gravy as will cover it, made thus:  take about a pound of coarse beef, a little piece of veal cut small, a bundle of sweet-herbs, an onion, some whole black pepper and white pepper, two or three large blades of mace, four or five cloves, a piece of carrot, a little piece of bacon steeped in vinegar a little while, a crust of bread toasted brown; put to this a quart water, and let it boil till half is wasted.  While this is making, pour a quart of boiling water into the stew-pan, cover it close, and let it be stewing softly; when the gravy is done strain it, pour into the pan where the beef is, take an ounce of truffles and morels cut small, some fresh or dried mushrooms cut small, two spoonfuls of catchup, and cover it close.  Let all this stew till the sauce is rich and thick; then have ready some artichoke bottoms cut into four, and a few pickled mushrooms, give them a boil or two, and when your meat is tender and your sauce quite rich, lay the meat into a dish and pour the sauce over it.  You may add a sweetbread* cut in six pieces, a palate stewed tender cut into little pieces, some cocks-combs, and a few force meat balls.  These are a great addition, but it will be good without.

Note, For variety, when the beef is ready and the gravy put to it, add a large bunch of celery cut small and washed clean, two spoonfuls of catchup, and a glass of red wine.  Omit all the other ingredients.  When the meat and celery are tender, and the sauce is rich and good, serve it up.  It is also very good this way:  take six large cucumbers, scoop out the seeds, pare them, cut them into slices, and do them just as you do the celery.

 *Culinary names for the thymus (throat, gullet, or neck) or the pancreas (also heart, stomach, or belly) especially of the calf (ris de veau) and lamb (ris d’agneau) (although beef and pork sweetbreads are also eaten).

To force the inside of a sirloin of beef.

Take a sharp knife, and carefully lift up the fat of the inside, take out all the meat close to the bone, chop it small, take a pound of suet, and chop fine, about as many crumbs of bread, a little thyme and lemon peel, a little pepper and salt, half a nutmeg grated, and two shallots chopped fine; mix all together, with a glass of red wine, then put it into the same place, cover it with the skin and fat, skewer it down with fine skewers, and cover it with paper.  Don’t take the paper off till the meat is on the dish.  Take a quarter of a pint of red wine, two shallots shred small, boil them, and pour into the dish, with the gravy which comes out of the meat; it eats well.  Spit your meat before you take out the inside.

Another way to force a sirloin.

When it is quite roasted, take it up, and lay it in the dish with the inside uppermost, with a sharp knife lift up the skin, hack and cut the inside very fine, shake a little pepper and salt over it, with two shallots, cover it with the skin, and send it to table.  You may add red wine or vinegar, just as you like.

To force the inside of a rump of beef.

You may do it just in the same manner, only lift up the outside skin, take the middle of the meat, and do as before directed; put it into the same place, and with fine skewers put it down close.

A rolled rump of beef.

Cut the meat all off the bone whole, slit the inside down from top to bottom, but not through the skin, spread it open, take the flesh of two fowls and beef-suet, an equal quantity, and as much cold boiled ham, if you have it, a little pepper, an anchovy, a nutmeg grated, a little thyme, a good deal of parsley, a few mushrooms, and chop them all together, beat them in a mortar, with a half-pint bason full of crumbs of bread; mix all these together, with four yolks of eggs, lay it into the meat, cover it up, and roll it round, stick one skewer in, and tie it with a packthread cross and cross to hold it together; take a pot or large saucepan that will just hold it, lay a layer of bacon and a layer of beef cut in thin slices, a piece of carrot, some whole pepper, mace, sweet herbs, and a large onion, lay the rolled beef on it, just put water enough to the top of the beef; cover it close, and let it stew very softly on a slow fire for eight or ten house, but not to fast.  When you find the beef tender, which you will know by running a skewer into the meat, then take it up, cover it up hot, boil the gravy till it is good, then strain it off, and add some mushrooms chopped, some truffles and morels cut small, two spoonfuls of red or white wine, the yolks of two eggs and a piece of butter rolled in flour; boil it together, set the meat before the fire, baste it with butter, and throw crumbs of bread all over it:  when the sauce is enough, lay the meat into the dish and pour the sauce over it.  Take care the eggs do not curd.

To boil a rump of beef the French fashion.

Take a rump of beef, boil it half an hour, take it up, lay it into a large deep pewter dish or stew-pan, cut three or four gashes in it all along the side, rub the gashes with pepper and salt, and pour into the dish a pint of red wine, as much hot water, two or three large onions cut small, the hearts of eight or ten lettuces cut small, and a good piece of butter rolled in a little flour; lay the fleshy part of the meat downwards, cover it close, let it stew an hour and a half over a charcoal fire, or a very slow coal fire.  Observe that the butcher chops the bone so close, that the meat may lie as flat as you can in the dish.  When it is enough, take the beef, lay it in the dish, and pour the sauce over it.

Note,  When you do it in a pewter dish, it is best done over a chaffing-dish of hot coals, with a bit or two of charcoal to keep it alive.

Beef escarlot.

Take a briscuit of beef, half a pound of coarse sugar, two ounces of bay salt, a pound of common salt; mix all together, and rub the beef, lay it in an earthen pan, and turn it every day.  It may lie a fortnight in the pickle; then boil it, and serve it up either with savoys or pease pudding.

Note, It eats much finer cold, cut into slices, and sent to table.

Beef à la daub.

You may take a buttock or a rump of beef, lard it, fry it brown in some sweet butter, then put it into a pot that will just hold it; put in some broth or gravy hot, some pepper, cloves, mace, and a bundle of sweet-herbs, stew it four hours till it is tender, and season it with salt; take half a pint of gravy, two sweetbreads* cut into eight pieces, some truffles and morels, palates, artichoke bottoms, and mushrooms, boil all together, lay your beef into the dish; strain the liquor into the sauce, and boil all together.  If it is not thick enough, roll a piece of butter in flour, and boil in it; pour this all over the beef.  Take forcemeat rolled in pieces half as long as one’s finger; dip them into batter made with eggs, and fry them brown; fry some sippets** dipped into batter cut three corner-ways, stick them into the meat, and garnish with the force meat.

** Sippet is the diminutive of sop, which was usually a small piece of bread to dip into a soup or broth.

* Culinary names for the thymus (throat, gullet, or neck) or the pancreas (also heart, stomach, or belly) especially of the calf (ris de veau) and lamb (ris d’agneau) (although beef and pork sweetbreads are also eaten).

Beef à la mode in pieces.

You must take a buttock of beef, cut it into two-pound pieces, lard them with bacon, fry them brown, put them into a pot that will just hold them, put in two quarts of broth or gravy, a few sweet-herbs, an onion, some mace, cloves, nutmeg, pepper and salt; when that is done, cover it close, and stew it till it is tender, skim off all the fat, lay the meat in the dish, and strain the sauce over it.  You may serve it up hot or cold.

Beef à la mode, the French way.

Take a piece of the buttock of beef, and some fat bacon cut into little long bits, then take two tea-spoonfuls of salt, one teaspoonful of beaten pepper, one of beaten mace, and one of nutmeg; mix all together, have your larding pins ready, first dip the bacon in vinegar, then roll it in your spice, and lard your beef very thick and nice; put the meat into a pot with two or three large onions, a good piece of lemon-peel, a bundle of herbs, and three or four spoonfuls of vinegar; cover it down close, and put a wet cloth round the edge of the cover, that no steam can get out, and set it over a very slow fire:  when you think one side is done enough, turn the other, and cover it with the rind of the bacon; cover the pot close again as before, and when it is enough (which it will be when quite tender) take it up and lay it in your dish, take off all the fat from the gravy, and pour the gravy over the meat.  If you chuse your beef to be red, you may rub it with saltpetre overnight.

Note, You must take great care in doing your beef this way that your fire is very slow; it will at least take six hours doing, if the piece be any thing large.  If you would have the sauce very rich, boil half an ounce of truffles and morels in half a pint of good gravy, till they are very tender, and all a gill of pickled mushrooms, but fresh ones are best; mix all together with the gravy of the meat, and pour it over your beef.  You must mind and beat all your spices very fine; and if you have not enough, mix some more, according to the bigness of your beef.

Beef olives.

Take a rump of beef, cut it into steaks half a quarter long, about an inch thick, let them be square; lay on some good forcemeat made with veal, roll them, tie them once round with a hard knot, dip them in egg, crumbs of bread, and grated nutmeg, and a little pepper and salt.  The best way is to roast them, or fry them brown in fresh butter, lay them every one on a bay-leaf, and cover them over one with a piece of bacon toasted, have some good gravy, a few truffles and morels, and mushrooms; boil all together, pour into the dish, and send it to table.

Veal olives.

They are good done the same way, only roll them narrow at one end and broad at the other.  Fry them of a fine brown.  Omit the bay leaf, but lay little pieces of bacon about two inches long on them.  The same sauce.  Garnish with lemon.

Beef collops.

Cut them into thin pieces about two inches long, beat them with the back of a knife very well, grate some nutmeg, flour them a little, lay them in a stew-pan, put in as much water as you think will do for sauce, half an onion cut small, a little piece of lemon-peel cut small, a bundle of sweet-herbs, a little pepper and salt, a piece of butter rolled in a little flour.  Set them on a slow fire:  when they begin to simmer, stir them now and then; when they begin to be hot, ten minutes will do them, but take care they do not boil.  Take out the sweet-herbs, pour it into the dish, and send it to table.

Note, You may do the inside of a sirloin of beef in the same manner, the day after it is roasted, only do not beat them, but cut them thin.

N.B. You may do this dish between two pewter dishes, hang them between two chairs, take six sheets of white brown paper, tear them into slips, and burn them under the dish once piece at a time.

* collops – a small piece of meat, either thin slices or minced meat of either beef, lamb or venison.

To stew beef-steaks.

Take rump steaks, pepper and salt them, lay them in a stew-pan, pour in half a pint of water, a blade or two of mace, two or three cloves, a little bundle of sweet-herbs, an anchovy, a piece of butter rolled in flour, a glass of white wine, and an onion; cover them close, and let them stew softly till they are tender, then take out the steaks, flour them, fry them in fresh butter, and pour away all the fat, strain the sauce they were stewed in, and pour into the pan; toss it all up together till the sauce is quite hot and thick.  If you add a quarter of a pint of oysters, it will make it the better.  Lay the steaks into the dish, and pour the sauce over them.  Garnish with any pickle you like.

The Art of Cookery Continued: Chapter II: Made Dishes, Part 1

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Houmas House, rvfoodies-com

From rvfoodies.com, Houmas House, Lousianna – an 18th century kitchen

The next chapter of Hannah Glasse’s cook book is one of the longest; with most having no oven to bake in, it is little wonder that most cooked meats were either boiled, spitted and roasted, or booked in a stew-pan or sauteed.  They served every part of the animal, from entrails neatly presented to split skulls (with specific directions for how to lay the tongue most becomingly…).  I doubt many modern westerners would be able to stomach a large portion of the English haute cuisine (excuse the pun).  Here’s the first part of Chapter 2, “Made Dishes”:

To dress Scotch collops*.

Take veal, cut it thin, beat it well with the back of a knife or rolling pin, and grate some nutmeg over them ; dip them in the yolk of an egg, and fry them in a little butter till they are of a fine brown; then pour the butter from them, and have ready half a pint of gravy, a little piece of butter rolled in flour, a few mushrooms, a glass of white wine, the yolk of an egg, and a little cream mixed together.  If it wants a little salt, put it in.  Stir it together, and when it is of a fine thickness dish it up.  It does very well without the cream, if you have none; and very well without gravy, only put in just as much warm water, and either red or white wine.

[* collops – a small piece of meat, either thin slices or minced meat of either beef, lamb or venison.]

To dress white Scotch collops.

Do not dip them in egg, but fry them till they are tender, but not brown.  Take your meat out of the pan, and pour all out, then put in your meat again, as above, only you must put in some cream.

[* collops – a small piece of meat, either thin slices or minced meat of either beef, lamb or venison.]

To dress a fillet of veal with collops.

For an alteration, take a small fillet of veal, cut what collops you want, then take the udder and fill it with force-meat, roll it round, tie it with a pack thread across, and roast it; lay your collops in the dish, nd lay your udder in the middle.  Garnish your dishes with lemon.

[* collops – a small piece of meat, either thin slices or minced meat of either beef, lamb or venison.]

To make force-meat balls.

Now you are to observe, that force-meat balls are a great addition to all made dishes; made thus:  take half a pound of veal, and half a pound of suet, cut fine, and beat in a marble mortar or wooden bowl; have a few suet-herbs shred fine, a little mace dried and beat find, a small nutmeg grated, or half a large one, a little lemon peel cut very fine, a little pepper and salt, and the yolks of two eggs; mix all this well together, then roll them in little round balls, and some in little long balls; roll them in flour, and fry them brown.  If they are for anything of white sauce, put a little water on in a saucepan, and when the water boils put them in, and let them boil for a few minutes, but never fry them for white sauce.

Truffles and morels good in sauces and soups.

Take half an ounce of truffles and morels, simmer them in two or three spoonfuls of water for a few minutes, then put them with the liquor into the sauce.  They thicken both sauce and soup, and give it a fine flavour.

To stew ox-palates.

Stew them very tender; which must be done by putting them into cold water, and let them stew very softly over a slow fire till they are tender, then cut them into pieces and put them either into your made-dish or soup; and cocks-combs and artichoke-bottoms, cut small, and put into the made dish.  Garnish your dishes with lemon, sweetbreads* stewed or white dishes, and fried for brown ones, and cut in little pieces.

[*Culinary names for the thymus (throat, gullet, or neck) or the pancreas (also heart, stomach, or belly) especially of the calf (ris de veau) and lamb (ris d’agneau) (although beef and pork sweetbreads are also eaten).]

To ragoo a leg of mutton.

Take all the skin and fat off, cut it very thin the right way of the grain, then butter your stew-pan, and shake some flour into it; slice half a lemon and half an onion, cut them very small, a little bundle of sweet herbs, and a blade of mace.  Put all together with your meat into the pan, stir it a minute or two, and then put in six spoonfuls of gravy, and have ready an anchovy minced small; mix it with some butter and flour, stir it altogether for six minutes, and then dish it up.

To make a brown fricasey.

You must take your rabbits or chickens and skin them, then cut them into small pieces, and rub them over with yolks of eggs.  Have ready some grated bread, a little beaten mace, and a little grated nutmeg mixt together, and then roll them in it: put a little butter into your stew-pan, and when it is melted put in your meat.  Fry it of a fine brown, and take care they don’t stick to the bottom of the pan, then pour the butter from them, and pour in half a pint of gravy, a glass of red wine, a few mushrooms, or two spoonfuls of the pickle, a little salt (if wanted) and a piece of butter rolled in flour.  When it is of a fine thickness dish it up, and sent it to table.

To make a white fricasey.

You may take two chickens or rabbits, skin them and cut them into little pieces.  Lay them into warm water to draw out all the blood, and then lay them in a clean cloth to dry:  put them into a stew-pan with milk and water, stew them till they are tender, and then take a clean pan, put in half a pint of cream, and a quarter of a pound of butter; stir it together till the butter is melted, but you must be sure to keep it stirring all the time r it will be greasy, and then with a fork take the chickens or rabbits out of the stew-pan and put into the sauce-pan to the butter and cream.  Have ready a little mace dried and beat fine, a very little nutmeg, a few mushrooms, shake all together for a minute or two, and dish it up.  If you have no mushrooms a spoonful of the pickle does full as well, and gives it a pretty tartness.  This is a very pretty sauce for a breast of veal roasted.

To fricasey chickens, rabbits, lamb, veal, &c.

Do them the same way.

A second way to make a white fricasey.

You must take two or three rabbits or chickens, skin them, and lay them in warm water, and dry them with a clean cloth.  Put them into a stew-pan with a blade or two of mace, a little black and white pepper, an onions, a little bundle of sweet-herbs, and do but just cover them with water:  stew them till they are tender, then with a fork take them out, strain the liquor, and put them into the pan again with half a pint of the liquor and half a pint of cream, the yolk of two eggs beat well, half a nutmeg grated, a glass of white wine, a little piece of butter rolled in flour, and a gill* of mushrooms; keep stirring all together, all the while one way, till it is smooth and of a fine thickness, and then dish it up.  Add what you please.

[*liquid measure (commonly a half-pint)]

A third way of making a white fricasey.

Take three chickens, skin them, cut them into small pieces; that is, every joint asunder; lay them in warm water, for a quarter of an hour, take them out and dry them with a cloth, then put them into a stew-pan with milk and water, and boil them tender:  take a pint of good cream, a quarter of a pound of butter, and stir it till it is thick, then let it stand till it is cool, and put to it a little beaten mace, half a nutmeg grated, a little salt, a gill* of white wine, and a few mushrooms; stir all together, then take the chickens out of the stew-pan, throw away what they are boiled in, clean the pan and put in the chickens and sauce together:  keep the pan shaking round till they are quite hot, and dish them up.  Garnish with lemon.  They will be very good without wine.

[*liquid measure (commonly a half-pint)]

To fricasey rabbits, lamb, sweetbreads, or tripe.

Do the same way.

Another way to fricasey tripe.

Take a piece of double tripe, cut it into slices two inches long, and half an inch broad, put them into your stew-pan, and sprinkle a little salt over them; then put in a bunch of sweet-herbs, a little lemon-peel, an onion, a little anchovy pickle, and a bay-leaf; put all these to the tripe, then put in just water enough to cover them, and let them stew till the trip is very tender:  then take out the tripe and strain the liquor out, shred a spoonful of capers, and put to them a glass of white wine, and half a pint of the liquor they are stewed in.  Let it boil a little while, then put in your tripe, and beat the yolks of three eggs; put into your eggs a little mace, two cloves, a little nutmeg dried and beat fine, a small handful of parsley picked and shred fine, a piece of butter rolled in flour, and a quarter of a pint of cream:  mix all these well together, and put them into your stew-pan, keep them stirring one way all the while, and when it is of a fine thickness and smooth, dish it up, and garnish the dish with lemon.  You are to observe that all sauces which have eggs or cream in, you must keep stirring one way all the while they are on the fire, or they would turn to curds.  You may add white walnut pickle, or mushrooms, in the room of capers, just to make your sauce a little tart.

To ragoo hogs feet and ears.

Take your feet and ears out of the pickle they are soused in, or boil them till they are tender, then cut them into little long thin bits about two inches long, and about a quarter of an inch thick:  put them into your stew-pan with half a pint of good gravy, a glass of white wine, a good deal of mustard, a good piece of butter rolled in flour, and a little pepper and salt:  stir all together till it is of a fine thickness, and then dish it up.

Note, they make a very pretty dish fried with butter and mustard, and a little good gravy, if you like it.  Then only cut the feet and ears in two.  You may add half an onions, cut small.

To fry tripe.

Cut your tripe into pieces about three inches long, dip them in the yolk of an egg and a few crums of bread, fry them of a fine brown, and then take them out of the pan and lay them in a dish to drain.  Have ready a arm dish to put them in, and send them to table, with butter and mustard in a cup.

To stew tripe.

Cut it just as you do for frying, and set on some water in a sauce-pan, with two or three onions cut into slices, and some salt.  When it boils, put in your tripe.  Ten minutes will boil it.  Send it to table with the liquor in the dish, and the onions.  Have butter and mustard in a cup, and dish it up.  You may put in as many onions as you like to mix with your sauce, or leave them quite out, just as you please.  Put a little bundle of sweet-herbs, and a piece of lemon-peel into the water, when you put in your tripe.

A fricasey of pigeons.

Take eight pigeons, new killed, cut them into small pieces, and put them into a stew-pan with a pint of claret and a pint of water.  Season your pigeons with salt and pepper, a blade or two of mace, an onion, a bundle of sweet-herbs, a good piece of butter just rolled in a very little flour:  cover it close, and let them stew till there is just enough for sauce, and then take out the onions and sweet-herbs, beat up the yolks of three eggs, grate half a nutmeg in, and with your spoon push the meat all to one side of the pan and the gravy to the other side, and stir in the eggs; keep them stirring for fear of turning to curds, and when the sauce is fine and thick shake all together, put in half a spoonful of vinegar, and give them a shake; then put the meat into the dish, pour the sauce over it, and have ready some slices of bacon toasted, and fried oysters; throw the oysters all over, and lay the bacon round.  Garnish with lemon.

A fricasey of lamb-stones and sweetbreads.

Have ready some lamb-stones blanched, parboiled and sliced, and flour two or three sweetbreads*; if very thick, cut them in two, the yolks of six hard eggs whole; a few pistachio-nut kernels, and a few large oysters:  fry these all of a fine brown, then pour out all the butter, and add a pint of drawn gravy, the lamb-stones, some asparagus tops about an inch long, some grated nutmeg, a little pepper and salt, two shallots shred small, and a glass of white wine.  Stew all these together for ten minutes, then add the yolks of six eggs beat very fine, with a little white wine, and a little beaten mace; stir altogether till it is of a fine thickness, and then dish it up.  Garnish with lemon.

[*Culinary names for the thymus (throat, gullet, or neck) or the pancreas (also heart, stomach, or belly) especially of the calf (ris de veau) and lamb (ris d’agneau) (although beef and pork sweetbreads are also eaten).]

To hash a calf’s head.

Boil the head almost enough, then take the best half and with a sharp knife take it nicely from the bone, with the two eyes.  Lay it in a little deep dish before a good fire, and take great care no ashes fall into it, and then hack it with a knife cross and cross:  grate some nutmeg all over, a very little pepper and salt, a few sweet herbs, some crumbs of bread, and a little lemon-peel chopped very fine, baste it with a little butter, then baste it again, and pour over it the yolks of two eggs; keep the dish turning that it may be all brown alike:  cut the other half and tongue into little thin bits, and set on a pint of drawn gravy in a sauce-pan, a little bundle of sweet-herbs, an onions, a little pepper and salt, a glass of red wine, and two shallots; boil all these together, a few minutes, then strain it through a sieve, and put it into a clean stew-pan with the hash.  Flour the meat before you put it in, and put in a few mushrooms, a spoonful of the pickle, two spoonfuls of catchup, and a few truffles and morels; stir all these together for a few minutes, then beat up half the brains, and stir into the stew-pan, and a little piece of butter rolled in flour.  Take the other half of the brains and beat them up with a little lemon-peel cut fine, a little nutmeg grated, a little beaten mace, a little thyme shred small, a little parsley, the yolk of an egg, and have some good dripping boiling in a stew-pan; then fry the brains in little cakes, about as big as a crown-piece.  Fry about twenty oysters dipped in the yolk of an egg, toast some slices of bacon, fry a few force-meat balls, and have ready a hot dish; if pewter, over a few clear coals; if china, over a pan of hot water.  Pour in your hash, then lay in your toasted head, throw the force-meat-balls over the hash, and garnish the dish with fried oysters, the fried brains, and lemon; throw the rest over the hash, lay the bacon round the dish, and send it to table.

To hash a calf’s head white.

Take half a pint of gravy, a large wine-glass of white wine, a little beaten mace, a little nutmeg, and a little salt; throw into your hash a few mushrooms, a few truffles and morels first parboiled, a few artichoke bottoms, and asparagus tops, if you have them, a good piece of butter rolled in flour, the yolks of two eggs, half a pint of cream, and one spoonful of mushroom catchup; stir it all together very carefully till it is of a fine thickness; then pour it into sour dish, and lay the other half of the head as before-mentioned, in the middle, and garnish it as before directed, with fried oysters, brains, lemon, and force-meat balls fried.

To bake a calf’s head.

Take the head, pick it and wash it very clean; take an earthen dish large enough to lay the head on, rub a little piece of butter all over the dish, then lay some long iron skewers across the top of the dish, and lay the head atop them; skewer up the meat in the middle that it don’t lie on the dish, then grate some nutmeg all over it, a few sweet herbs shred small, some crumbs of bread, a little lemon-peel cut fine, and then flour it all over:  stick pieces of butter in the eyes and all over the head, and flour it again.  Let it be well baked, and of a fine brown; you may throw a little pepper and salt over it, and put into the dish a piece of beef cut small, a bundle of sweet-herbs, an onion, some whole pepper, a blade of mace, two cloves, a pint of water, and boil the brains with some sage.  When the head is enough, lay it on a dish, and set it to the fire to keep warm, then stir all together in the dish, and boil it in a sauce-pan; strain it off, put it into the sauce-pan again, add a piece of butter rolled in flour, and the sage in the brains chopped fine, a spoonful of catchup, and two spoonfuls of red wine; boil them together, take the brains, beat them well, and mix then with the sauce:  pour it into the dish, and send it to table.  You must bake the tongue with the head, and don’t cut it out.  It will lie the handsomer in the dish.

To bake a sheep’s head.

Do it the same way, and it eats very well.

To dress a lamb’s head.

Boil the head and pluck tender but don’t let the liver be too much done.  Take the head up, hack it cross and cross with a knife, grate some nutmeg over it, and lay it in a dish, before a good fire; then grate some crumbs of bread, some sweet-herbs rubbed, a little lemon-peel chopped fine, a very little pepper and salt, and baste it with a little butter:  then throw a little flour over it, and just as it is done do the same, baste it and drudge it.  Take half the liver, the lights*, the heart and tongue, chop them very small, with six or eight spoonfuls of gravy or water; first shake some flour over the meat, and stir it together, then put in the gravy or water, a good piece of butter rolled in a little flour, a little pepper and salt, and what runs from the head in the dish; simmer all together a few minutes, and add half a spoonful of vinegar, pour it into your dish, lay the head in the middle of the mince-meat,  have ready the other half of the liver cut thin, with some slices of bacon broiled, and lay round the head.  Garnish the dish with lemon, and send it to table.

[*lights = lungs]

To ragoo a neck of veal.

Cut a neck of veal into steaks, flatten them with a rolling-pin, season them with salt, pepper, cloves and mace, lard them with bacon, lemon-peel and thyme, dip them in the yolks of eggs, make a sheet of strong cap-paper up at the four corners in the form of a dripping-pan; pin up the corners, butter the paper and also the gridiron, and set it over a fire of charcoal; put in your meat, let it do leisurely, keep it basting and turning to keep in the gravy; and when it is enough have ready half a pint of strong gravy, season it high, put in mushrooms and pickles, force-meat balls dipped in the yolks of eggs, oysters stewed and fried, to lay round and at the top of your dish, and then serve it up.  If for a brown ragoo, put in red wine.  If for a white one, put in white wine, with the yolks of eggs beat up with two or three spoonfuls of cream.

To ragoo a breast of veal.

Take your breast of veal, put it into a large stew-pan, put in a bundle of sweet-herbs, an onions, some black and white pepper, a blade or two of mace, two or three cloves, a very little piece of lemon peel, and just cover it with water:  when it is tender take it up, bone it, put in the bones, boil it up till the gravy is very good, then strain it off, and if you have a little rich beef gravy add a quarter of a pint, put in half an ounce of truffles and morels, a spoonful or two of catchup, two or three spoonfuls of white wine, and let them all boil together:  in the mean time flour the veal, and fry it in butter till it is of a fine brown, then drain out all the butter and pour the gravy you are boiling to the veal, with a few mushrooms:  boil all together till the sauce is rich and thick, and cut the sweetbread* into four.  A few force-meat balls is proper in it.  Lay the veal in the dish, and pour the sauce all over it.  Garnish with lemon.

[*Culinary names for the thymus (throat, gullet, or neck) or the pancreas (also heart, stomach, or belly) especially of the calf (ris de veau) and lamb (ris d’agneau) (although beef and pork sweetbreads are also eaten).]

Another way to ragoo a breast of veal.

You may bone it nicely, flour it, and fry it of a fine brown, then pour the fat out of the pan, and the ingredients as above, with the bones; when enough, take it out, and strain the liquor, then put in your meat again, with the ingredients, as before directed.

A breast of veal in hodge-podge.

Take a breast of veal, cut the briscuit into little pieces, and every bone asunder, then flour it, and put half a pound of good butter into a stew-pan; when it is hot, throw in the veal, fry it all over of a fine light brown, and then have ready a tea-kettle of water boiling; pour it in the stew-pan, fill it up and stir it round, throw in a pint of green peas, a fine lettuce whole, clean washed, two or three blades of mace, a little whole pepper tied in a muffin rag, a little bundle of sweet herbs, a small onion stuck with a few cloves, and a little salt.  Cover it close, and let it stew an hour, or till it is boiled to your palate, if you would have soup made of it; if you would only have sauce to eat with the veal, you must stew it till there is just as much as you would have for sauce, and season it with salt to your palate; take out the onions, sweet-herbs and spice, and pour it altogether into your dish.  It is a fine dish.  If you have no pease, pare three or four cucumbers, scoop out the pulp, and cut it into little pieces, and take four or five heads of celery, clean washed, and cut the white part small; when you have no lettuces, take the little hearts of savoys, or the little young sprouts that grow on the old cabbage-stalks about as big as the top of your thumb.

Note, if you would make a very fine dish of it, fill the inside of your lettuce with force-meat, and tie the top close with a thread; stew it till there is but just enough for sauce, set the lettuce in the middle, and the veal round, and pour the sauce all over it.  Garnish your dish with rasped bread, made into figures with your fingers.  This is the cheapest way of dressing a breast of veal to be good, and serve a number of people.

To collar a breast of veal.

Take a very sharp knife, and nicely take out all the bones, but take great care you do not cut the meat through; pick all the fat and meat off the bones, then grate some nutmeg all over the inside of the veal, a very little beaten mace, a little pepper and salt, a few sweet-herbs shred small, some parsley, a little lemon-peel shred small, a few crumbs of bread and the bits of fat picked off the bones; roll it up tight, stick one skewer in to hold it together, but do it clever, that it stands upright in the dish: tie a packthread across it to hold it together, spit it, then roll the caul* all round it, and roast it.  An hour and a quarter will do it.  When it has been about an hour at the fire take off the caul, dredge it with flour, baste it well with fresh butter, and let it be of a fine brown.  Four sauce take two penny-worth of gravy beef, cut it and hack it well, then flour it, fry it a little brown, then pour into your stew pan some boiling water, stir it well together, then fill your pan two parts full of water, put in an onion, a bundle of sweet herbs, a little crust of bread toasted, two or three blades of mace, four cloves, some whole pepper, and the bones of the veal.  Cover it close, and let it stew till it is quite rich and thick; then strain it, boil it up with some truffles and morels, a few mushrooms, a spoonful of catchup, two or three bottoms of artichokes, if you have them; add a little salt, just enough to season the gravy, take the packthread off the veal, and set it upright in the dish; cut the sweetbread* into four, and broil it of a fine brown, with a few force-meat-balls fried; lay these round the dish, and pour in the sauce.  Garnish the dish with lemon, and send it to table.

[*Caul :  The membrane.

*Culinary names for the thymus (throat, gullet, or neck) or the pancreas (also heart, stomach, or belly) especially of the calf (ris de veau) and lamb (ris d’agneau) (although beef and pork sweetbreads are also eaten).]

The Art of Cookery Continued: Chapter I: Of Roasting, Boiling, &c.

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Briglia_Old_cook_with_a_spit

Cook with a spit

Below is the entire chapter I of Hannah’s definitive work.  Her tone comes through loud and clear – she was writing to the “lower” servants – there was a clear hierarchy even within those ranks of society, and she makes it clear which position she sees herself in.  Some of the things that landed on the 18th century plates of England would turn our stomachs today, such as whole woodchucks and snipes with nothing removed.  Parts of animals that we today view with either disgust, or relegate to the “sausage material” category were served with flair and a side dish of gravy.  I would suggest that you avoid eating while reading these directions…

Chapter I:  Of Roasting, Boiling, &c.

 

That professed cooks will find fault with touching upon a branch of cookery which they never thought worth their notice, is what I expect:  however, this I know, it is the most necessary part of it; and few servants there are, that know how to roast and boil to perfection.

I do not pretend to teach professed cooks, but my design is to instruct the ignorant and unlearned (which will likewise be of great use in all private families) and in so plain and full a manner, that the most illiterate and ignorant person, who can but read, will know how to do everything in cookery well.

I shall first begin with roast and boiled of all sorts, and must desire the cook to order her fire according to what she is to dress; if anything very little or thin, then a pretty little brisk fire, that it may be done quick and nice; if a very large joint, then be sure a good fire be laid to cake.  Let it be clear at the bottom; and when your meat is half done, move the dripping pan and spit a little from the fire, and stir up a good brisk fire; for according to the goodness of your fire, your meat will be done sooner or later.

BEEF

If beef, be sure to paper the top, and baste it well all the time it is roasting, and throw a handful of salt on it.  When you see the smoke draw to the fire, it is near enough; then take off the paper, baste it well, and drudge it with a little flour to make a fine froth.  Never salt your roast meat before you lay it to the fire, for that draws out all the gravy.  If you would keep it a few days before you dress it, dry it very well with a clean cloth, then flour it all over, and hang it where the air will come to it; but be sure always to mind that there is no damp place about it, if there is you must dry it well with a cloth.  Take up your meat, and garnish your dish with nothing but horseradish.

MUTTON and LAMB

As to roasting mutton; the loin, the saddle of mutton (which is the two loins) and the chine (which is the two necks) must be done as the beef above.  But all other sorts of mutton and lamb must be roasted with a quick clear fire, and without paper; baste it when you lay it down, and just before you take it up, drudge it with a little flour; but be sure not to use too much, for that takes away all the fine taste of the meat.  Some chuse to skin a loin of mutton, and roast it brown without paper: but that you may do just as you please, but be sure always to take the skin off a breast of mutton.

VEAL

As to veal, you must be careful to roast it of a fine brown; if a large joint, a very good fire; if a small joint, a pretty little brisk fire; if a fillet or loin, be sure to paper the fat, that you lose as little of that as possible.  Lay it some distance from the fire till it is soaked, then lay it near the fire.  When you way it down, baste it well with good butter; and when it is near enough, baste it again, and drudge it with a little flour.  The breast you must roast with the caul on till it is enough; and skewer the sweetbread on the backside of the breast.  When it is high enough, take off the caul, baste it, and drudge it with a little flour.

PORK

Pork must be well done, or it is apt to surfeit.  When you roast a loin, take a sharp penknife and cut the skin across, to make the crackling eat the better.  The chine you must not cut at all.  The best way to roast a leg, is first to parboil it, then skin it and roast it; baste it with butter, then take a little sage, shred it fine, a little pepper and salt, a little nutmeg, and a few crumbs of bread; throw these over it all the time it is roasting, then have a little drawn gravy to put in the dish with the crumbs that drop from it.  Some love the knuckle fluffed with onion and sage shred small, with a little pepper and salt, gravy and apple-sauce to it.  This they call a mock goose.  The spring, or hand of pork, if very young, roasted like a pig, eats very well, otherwise it is better boiled.  The sparerib should be basted with a little bit of butter, a very little dust of flour, and some sage shred small:  but we never make any sauce to it but apple-sauce.  The best way to dress pork grifkins is to roast them, baste them with a little butter and crumbs of bread, sage, and a little pepper and salt.  Few eat anything with these but mustard.

To roast a pig.

Spit your pig and lay it to the fire, which must be a very good one at each end, or hang a flat iron in the middle of the grate.  Before you lay your pig down, take a little sage shred small, a piece of butter as big as a walnut, and a little pepper and salt; put them into the pig and sew it up with coarse thread, then flour it all over well, and keep flouring it till the eyes drop out, or you find the crackling hard.  Be sure to save all the gravy that comes out of it, which you must do by setting basons or pans under the pig in the dripping pan, as soon as you find the gravy begins to run.  When the pig is enough, stir the fire up brisk; take a coarse cloth, with about a quarter of a pound of butter in it, and rub the pig all over till the crackling is quite crisp, and then take it up.  Lay it in your dish, and with a sharp knife cut off the head, and then cut the pig in two, before you draw out the spit.  Cut the ears off the head and lay at each end, and cut the under-jaw in two and lay on each side; melt some good butter, take the gravy you saved and put into it, boil it, and pour it into the dish with the brains bruised fine, and the sage mixed all together, and then send it to table.

Different sorts of sauce for a pig.

Now you are to observe there are several ways of making sauce for a pig.  Some don’t love any sage in the pig, only a crust of bread; but then you should have a little dried sage rubbed and mixed with the gravy and butter.  Some love bread-sauce in a bason; made thus:  take a pint of water, put in a good piece of crumb of bread, a blade of mace, and a little whole pepper; boil it for about five or six minutes, and then pour the water off:  take out the spice, and beat up the bread with a good piece of butter.  Some love a few currants boiled in it, a glass of wine, and a little sugar:  but that you must do just as you like it.  Others take half a pint of good beef gravy, and the gravy which comes out of the pig, with a piece of butter rolled in flour, two spoonfuls of catchup, and boil them all together; then take the brains of the pig and bruise them fine, with two eggs boiled hard and chopped; put all these together, with the sage in the pig, and pour into your dish.  It is a very good sauce.  When you have not gravy enough comes out of your pig with the butter for sauce, take about half a pint of veal gravy and add to it:  or stew the petty-toes, and take as much of that liquor as will do for the sauce, mixed with the other.

To roast the hind quarter of pig, lamb-fashion.

At the time of the year when house-lamb is very dear, take the hind quarter of a large pig; take off the skin and roast it, and it will eat like lamb with mint-sauce, or with a salad, or Seville-orange.  Half an hour will roast it.

To bake a pig.

If you should be in a place where you cannot roast a pig, lay it in a dish, flour it all over well, and rub it over with butter, butter the dish you lay it in, and put it into an oven.  When it is enough draw it out of the oven’s mouth, and rub it over with a buttery cloth; then put it into the over again till it is dry, take it out, and lay it in a dish:  cut it up, take a little veal gravy, and take off the fat in a dish it was baked in, and there will be some good gravy at the bottom; put that to it, with a little piece of butter rolled in flour; boil it up, and put it into the dish with the brains and sage in the belly.  Some love a pig brought whole to the table, then you are only to put what sauce you like into the dish.

To melt butter.

In melting of butter you must be very careful; let your saucepan be well tinned, take a spoonful of cold water, a little dust of flour, and your butter cut into pieces:  be sure to keep shaking your pan one way, for fear it should oil; when it is all melted, let it boil, and it will be smooth and fine.  A silver pan is best, if you have one.

To roast geese, turkies, &c.

When you roast a goose, turkey, or fowls of any sort, take care to singe them with a piece of what paper, and baste them with a piece of butter; drudge them with a little flour, and when the smoke begins to draw to the fire, and the look plump, base them again, and drudge them with a little flour, and take them up.

Sauce for a goose.

For a goose make a little good gravy, and put it into a bason by itself, and some apple-sauce in another.

Sauce for a turkey.

For a turkey good gravy in the dish, and either bread or onion-sauce in a bason.

Sauce for fowls.

To fowls you should put good gravy in the dish, and either bread or egg-sauce in a bason.

Sauce for ducks.

For ducks a little gravy in the dish, and onion in a cup, if liked.

Sauce for pheasants and partridges.

Pheasants and partridges should have gravy in the dish, and bread-sauce in a cup.

Sauce for larks.

Larks, roast them, and for sauce have crumbs of bread done thus:  take a saucepan or stew pan and some butter; when melted, have a good piece of crumb of bread, and rub it in a clean cloth to crumbs, then throw it into your pan; keep stirring them about till they are brown, then throw them into a sieve to drain, and lay them round your larks.

To roast woodcocks and snipes.

Put them on a little spit; take a round of a three-penny loaf and toast it brown, then lay it in a dish under the birds, baste them with a little butter, and let the trale drop on the toast.  When they are roasted put the toast in the dish, lay the woodcocks on it, and have about a quarter of a pine of gravy; pour it into the dish, and set it over a lamp or chafing dish for three minutes, and send them to table.  You are to observe we never take anything out of a woodcock or snipe.

To roast a pigeon.

Take some parsley shred fine, a piece of butter as big as a walnut, a little pepper and salt; tie the neck-end tight; tie a string round the legs and rump, and fasten the other end to the top of the chimney-piece.  Baste them with butter, and when they are enough lay them in the dish, and they will swim with gravy.  You may put them on a little spit, and then tie both ends close.

To broil a pigeon.

When you broil them, do them in the same manner, and take care your fire is very clear, and set your gridiron high, that they may not burn, and have a little melted butter in a cup.  You may split them, and broil them with a little pepper and salt:  and you may roast them only with a little parsley and butter in a dish.

Directions for geese and ducks.

As to geese and ducks, you should have some sage shred fine, and a little pepper and salt, and put them into the belly; but never put anything into wild ducks.

To roast a hare.

Take your hare when it is cased, and make a pudding; take a quarter of a pound of sewet (suet), and as much crumbs of bread, a little parsley shred find, and about as much thyme as will like on a sixpence, when shred; an anchovy shred small, a very little pepper and salt, some nutmeg, two eggs, and a little lemon-peel.  Mix all these together, and put it into the hare.  Sew up the belly, spit it, and lay it to the fire, which must be a good one.  Your dripping-pan must be very clean and nice.  Put in two quarts of milk and half a pound of butter into the pan:  keep basting it all the while it is roasting, with the butter and milk, till the whole is used, and your hare will be enough.  You may mix the liver in the pudding, if you like it.  You must first parboil it, and then chop it fine.

Different sorts of sauce for a hare.

Take for sauce, a pint of cream and half a pound of fresh butter; put them in a saucepan, and keep stirring it with a spoon till the butter is melted, and the sauce is thick; then take up the hare, and pour the sauce into the dish.  Another way to make sauce for a hare, is to make good gravy, thickened with a little piece of butter rolled in flour, and pour it into your dish.  You may leave the butter out, if you don’t like it, and have some currant jelly warmed in a cup, or red wine and sugar boiled to a syrup; done thus:  take half a pint of red wine, a quarter of a pound of sugar, and set over a slow fire to simmer for about a quarter of an hour.  You may do half the quantity, and put it into your sauce boat or bason.

To broil steaks.

First have a very clear brisk fire:  let your gridiron be very clean; put it on the fire, and take a chafing-dish with a few hot coals out of the fire.  Put the dish on it which is to lay your steaks on, then take fine rump steaks about half an inch thick; put a little pepper and salt on them, lay them on the gridiron, and (if you like it) take a shallot or two, or a fine onion and cut it fine; put it into your dish.  Don’t turn your steaks till one side is done, then when you turn the other side there will soon be fine gravy lie on the stop of the steak, which you must be careful not to lose.  When the steaks are enough, take them carefully off into your dish, that none of the gravy be lost; then have ready a hot dish and cover, and carry them hot to table, with the cover on.

Directions concerning the sauce for steaks.

If you love pickles or horse-raddish (horseradish) with steaks, never garnish your dish, because both the garnishing will be dry, and the steaks will be cold, but lay those things on little places, and carry to table.  The great nicety is to have them hot and full of gravy.

General directions concerning broiling.

As to mutton and pork steaks, you must keep them turning quick on the gridiron, and have your dish ready over a chafing-dish of hot coals, and carry them to table covered hot.  When you broil fowls or pigeons, always take care your fire is clear; and never baste anything on the gridiron, for it only make it smoked and burnt.

General directions concerning boiling.

As to all sorts of boiled meats, allow a quarter of an hour to every pound; be sure the pot is very clean, and skim it well, for everything will have a scum rise, and if that boils down it makes the meat black.  All sorts of fresh meat you are to put in when the water boils, but salt meat when the water is cold.

To boil a ham.

When you boil a ham, put it into a copper, if you have one; let it be about three or four hours before it boils, and keep it well skimmed all the time; then if it is a small one, one hour and a half will boil it, after the copper begins to boil; and if a large one, two hours will do; for you are to consider the time it has been heating in the water, which softens the ham, and makes it boil the sooner.

To boil a tongue.

A Tongue, if salt, put it in the pot overnight, and don’t let it boil till about three hours before dinner, and then boil all that three hours; if fresh out of the pickle, two hours, and put it in when the water boils.

To boil fowls and house-lamb.

Fowls and house lamb boil in a pot by themselves, in a good deal of water, and if any scum arises take it off.  They will be both sweeter and whiter than if boiled in a cloth.  A little chicken will be done in fifteen minutes, a large chicken in twenty minutes, a good fowl in half an hour, a little turkey or goose in an hour, and a large turkey in an hour and a half.

Sauce for a boiled turkey.

The best sauce to a boiled turkey is this:  take a little water or mutton gravy, if you have it, a blade of mace, an onion, a little bit of thyme, a little bit of lemon-peel, and an anchovy;  boil all these together, strain them through a sieve, melt some butter and add to them, fry a few sausages and lay round the dish.  Garnish your dish with lemon.

Sauce for a boiled goose.

Sauce for a boiled goose must be either onions or cabbage, first boiled, and then stewed in butter for five minutes.

Sauce for boiled ducks or rabbits.

To boiled ducks or rabbits, you must pour boiled onions over them, which do thus:  take the onions, peel them, and boil them in a great deal of water; shift your water, then let them boil about two hours, take them up and throw them into a cullender to drain, then with a knife chop them on a board; put them into a sauce pan, just shake a little flour over them, put in a little milk or cream, with a good piece of butter; set them over the fire, and when the butter is melted they are enough.  But if you would have onions sauce in half an hour, take your onions, peel them, and cut them into this slices, put them into milk and water, and when the water boils they will be done in twenty minutes, then throw them into a cullender to drain, and chop them and put them into a saucepan; shake in a little flour, with a little cream if you have it, and a good piece of butter; stir all together over the fire till the butter is melted, and they will be very fine.  This sauce is very good with roast mutton, and it is the best way of boiling onions.

To roast venison.

Take a haunch of venison, and spit it.  Take four sheets of white paper, butter them well, and roll about your venison, then tie your paper on with a small string, and baste it very well all the time it is roasting.  If your fire is very good and brisk, two hours will do it; and, if a small haunch, an hour and a half.  The neck and shoulder must be done in the same manner, which will take an hour and a half, and when it is enough to take off the paper, and drudge it with a little flour just to make a froth; but you must be very quick, for fear the fat should melt.  You must not put any sauce in the dish but what comes out of the meat, but have some very good gravy and put into your sauce-boat or bason.  You must always have sweet sauce with your venison in another bason.  If it is a large haunch, it will take two hours and a half.

Different sorts of sauce for venison.

You may take either of these sauces for venison.  Currant jelly warmed; or half a pint of red wine, with a quarter of a pound of sugar, simmered over a clear fire for five or six minutes; or half a pint of vinegar, and a quarter of a pound of sugar, simmered till it is a syrup.

To roast mutton, venison fashion.

Take a hind-quarter of fat mutton, and cut the leg like a haunch; lay it in a pan with the backside of it down, pour a bottle of red wine over it, and let it lie twenty-four hours, then spit it, and baste it with the same liquor and butter all the time it is roasting at a good quick fire, and an hour and a half will do it.  Have a little good gravy in a cup, and sweet sauce in another.  A good fat neck of mutton eats finely done thus.

To keep venison or hares sweet, or to make them fresh when they stink.

If your venison is very sweet, only dry it with a cloth, and hang it where the air comes.  If you would keep it any time, dry it very well with clean cloths, rub it all over with beaten ginger, and hang it in any airy place, and it will keep a great while.  If it stinks, or is musty, take some lukewarm water, and wash it clean:  then take fresh milk and water lukewarm, and wash it again; then dry it in clean cloths very well, and rub it all over with beaten ginger, and hang it in an airy place.  When you roast it, you need only wipe it with a clean cloth, and paper it, as before-mentioned.  Never do anything else to venison, for all other things spoil your venison, and take away the fine flavour, and this preserved it better than anything you can do.  A hare you may manage just the same way.

To roast a tongue or udder.

Parboil it first, then roast it, stick eight or ten cloves about it; baste it with butter, and have some gravy and sweet sauce.  An udder eats very well done the same way.

To roast rabbits.

Baste them with good butter, and drudge them with a little flour.  Half an hour will do them, at a very quick clear fire, and, if they are very small, twenty minutes will do them.  Take the liver, with a little bunch of parsley, and boil them, and then chop them very fine together.  Melt some good butter, and put half the liver and parsley into the butter; pour it into the dish, and garnish the dish with the other half.  Let your rabbits be done of a fine light brown.

To roast a rabbit hare fashion.

Lard a rabbit with bacon; roast it as you do a hare, and it eats very well.  But then you must make gravy-sauce; but if you don’t lard it, white sauce.

Turkies, pheasants, &c. may be larded.

You may lard a turkey or pheasant, or any thing, just as you like it.

To roast a fowl pheasant fashion.

If you should have but one pheasant, and want two in a dish, take a large full-grown fowl, keep the head on, and truss it just as you do a pheasant; lard it with bacon, but don’t lard the pheasant, and nobody will know it.

The Art of Cookery: Rules to be Observed in Roasting

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18th century model for a pastillage piece montee - sugar paste mobile

18th century model for a pastillage piece montee – sugar paste mobile

Below is Hannah Glasse’s instructions to cooks, the hows and whys of the kitchen in the technique of roasting.  It is a fascinating look into the 18th century cooking pot, as it were; not all homes had ovens, and in one recipe it is worded “send it to the oven… when it comes home” – this would imply that it was sent to the village bakery, and brought home to finish off once it had been sent away to be baked.  Because of that limitation, many recipes are for boiling; they seemed to boil the living daylights out of meat, vegetables, or anything else that they could put in a pot.  With a limited variety of spices, space, and kitchen utensils, it’s amazing that they managed to turn out concoctions that modern chefs only dream about (see photo; for more information, please go to www.historicfood.com).

 

Rules to be observed in Roasting

In the first place, take great care the spit be very clean; and be sure to clean it with nothing but sand and water.  Wash it clean, and wipe it with a dry cloth; for oil, brick-dust, and such things will spoil your meat.

BEEF.

To roast a good piece of beef about ten pounds will take an hour and a half, at a good fire.  Twenty pounds weight will take three hours, if it be a thick piece; but if it be a thin piece of twenty pounds weight, two hours and a half will do it; and so on according to the weight of your meat, more or less.  Observe, in frosty weather your beef will take half an hour longer.

 

MUTTON.

A leg of mutton of six pounds will take an hour at a quick fire; if frosty weather an hour and a quarter; nine pounds an hour and a half, a leg of twelve pounds will take two hours; if frosty two hours and a half; a large saddle of mutton will take three house, because of papering it; a small saddle will take an hour and a half, and so on, according to the size; a breast will take half an hour at a quick fire; a neck, if large, an hour; if very small, little better than half an hour; a shoulder much about the same time as a leg.

PORK.

Pork must be well done.  To every pound allow a quarter of an hour:  for example, a joint of twelve pounds weight three hours, and so on; if it be a thick piece of that weight, two hours will roast it.

Directions concerning beef, mutton, and pork.

These three you may baste with fine nice dripping.  Be sure your fire be very good and brisk; but don’t lay your meat too near the fire, for fear of burning or scorching.

VEAL.

Veal takes much the same time roasting as pork; but be sure to paper the fat of a loin or fillet, and baste your veal with good butter.

HOUSE-LAMB.

If a large fore-quarter, an hour and a half; if a small one, an hour.  The outside must be papered, basted with good butter, and you must have a very quick fire.  If a leg, about three quarters of an hour; a neck, a breast or shoulder, three quarters of an hour; if very small, half an hour will do.

A PIG.

If just killed, an hour; if killed the day before, an hour and a quarter; if a very large one, an hour and a half.  But the best way to judge, is when the eyes drop out, and the skin is grown very hard; then you must rub it with a coarse cloth, with a good piece of butter rolled in it, till the crackling is crisp and of a fine light brown.

A HARE.

You must have a quick fire.  If it be a small hare, put three pints of milk and half a pound of fresh butter in the dripping-pan, which must be very clean and nice; if a large one, two quarts of milk and half a pound of fresh butter.  You must baste your hare well with this all the time it is roasting; and when the hare has soaked up all the butter and milk it will be enough.

A TURKY.

A middling turky will take an hour; a very large one, an hour and a quarter; a small one, three quarters of an hour.  You must paper the breast till it is near done enough, then take the paper off and froth it up.  Your fire must be very good.

A GOOSE.

Observe the same rules.

FOWLS.

A large fowl, three quarters of an hour; a middling one, half an hour; very small chickens, twenty minutes.  Your fire must be very quick and clear when you lay them down.

TAME DUCKS.

Observe the same rules.

WILD DUCKS.

Ten minutes at a very quick fire will do them; but if you love them well done, a quarter of an hour.

TEAL, WIGEON, &c.

Observe the same rules.

WOODCOCKS, SNIPES and PARTRIDGES.

They will take twenty minutes.

PIGEONS and LARKS.

They will take fifteen minutes.

Directions concerning poultry.

If your fire is not very quick and clear when you lay your poultry down to roast, it will not eat near so sweet, or look so beautiful to the eye.

To keep meat hot.

The best way to keep meat hot, if it be done before your company is ready, is to set the dish over a pan of boiling water; cover the dish with a deep cover so as not to touch the meat, and throw a cloth over all.  Thus you may keep your meat hot a long time, and it is better than over-roasting and spoiling the meat.  The steam of the water keeps the meat hot, and don’t draw the gravy out, or dry it up; whereas if you set a dish of any meat any time over a chaffing-dish of coals, it will dry up all the gravy, and spoil the meat.

To dress Greens, Roots, &c.

Always be careful that your greens be nicely picked and washed.  You should lay them in a clean pan, for fear of sand or dust, which is apt to hand round the wooden vessels.  Boil all your greens in a copper sauce-pan by themselves, with a great quantity of water.  Boil no meat with them, for that discolours them.  Use no iron pans, &c. for they are not proper; but let them be copper, brass, or silver.

To dress spinach.

Pick it very clean, and wash it in five or six waters; put it in a sauce-pan that will just hold it, throw a little salt over it, and cover the pan close.  Don’t put any water in, but shake the pan often.  You must put your sauce-pan on a clear quick fire.  As soon as you find the greens are shrunk and fallen to the bottom, and that the liquor which comes out of them boils up, they are enough.  Throw them into a clean sieve to drain, and just give them a little squeeze.  Lay them in a plate, but never put any butter on it, but put it in a cup.

To dress cabbages, &c.

Cabbage, and all sorts of young sprouts, must be boiled in a great deal of water.  When the stalks are tender, or fall to the bottom, they are enough; then take them off, before they lose their colour.  Always throw salt in your water before you put your greens in.  Young sprouts you send to table just as they are, but cabbage is best chopped and put into a sauce-pan with a good piece of butter, stirring it for about five or six minutes, till the butter is all melted, and then send it to table.

To dress carrots.

Let them be scraped very clean, and when they are enough rub them in a clean cloth, then slice them into a plate, and pour some melted butter over them.  If they are young spring carrots, half an hour will boil them; if large, an hour; but old Sandwich carrots will take two hours.

To dress turnips.

They eat best boiled in the pot, and when enough take them out and put them in a pan and mash them with butter and a little salt, and send them to table.  But you may do them thus:  pare your turnips, and cut them into dice, as big as the top of one’s finger; put them into a clean saucepan, and just cover them with water.  When enough, throw them into a sieve to drain, and put them into a saucepan with a good piece of butter; stir them over the fire for five or six minutes, and send them to table.

To dress parsnips.

They should be boiled in a great deal of water, and when you find they are soft (which you will know by running a fork into them) take them up, and carefully scrape all the dirt off them, and then with a knife scrape them all fine, throwing away all the sticky parts; then put them into a saucepan with some milk, and stir them over the fire till they are thick.  Take great care they don’t burn, and add a good piece of butter and a little salt, and when the butter is melted send them to table.

To dress brockala (broccoli).

Strip all the little branches off till you come to the top one, then with a knife peel off all the hard outside skin, which is on the stalks and little branches, and throw them into water.  Have a stew-pan of water with some salt in it:  when it boils put in the brockala, and when the stalks are tender it is enough, then send it to table with butter in a cup.  The French eat oil and vinegar with it.

To dress potatoes.

You must boil them in as little water as you can, without burning the sauce-pan.  Cover the saucepan close, and when the skin begins to crack they are enough.  Drain all the water out, and let them stand covered for a minute or two; then peel them, lay them in your plate, and pour some melted butter over them.  The best ways to do them is, when they are peeled to lay them on a gridiron till they are of a fine brown, and send them to table.  Another way is to put them into a saucepan with some good beef dripping, cover them close, and shake the saucepan often for fear of burning to the bottom.  When they are of a fine brown and crisp, take them up in a plate, then put them into another for fear of the fat, and put butter in a cup.

To dress cauliflowers.

Take your flowers, cut off all the green part, and then cut the flowers into four, and lay them into water for an hour:  then have some milk and water boiling, put in the cauliflowers, and be sure to skim the sauce-pan well.  When the stalks are tender, take them carefully up, and put them into a cullender to drain:  then put a spoonful of water into a clean stew-pan with a little dust of flour, about a quarter of a pound of butter, and shake it round till it is all finely melted, with a little pepper and salt; then take half the cauliflower and cut it as you would for pickling, lay it into the stew-pan, turn it, and shake the pan round.  Ten minutes will do it.  Lay the stewed in the middle of your plate, and the boiled round it.  Pour the butter you did it in over it, and send it to table.

To dress French beans.

First string them, then cut them in two, and afterwards across:  but if you would do them nice, cut the bean into four, and then across, which is eight pieces.  Lay them into water and salt, and when your pan boils put in some salt and the beans:  when they are tender they are enough; they will be soon done.  Take care they do not lose their fine green.  Lay them in a plate, and have butter in a cup.

To dress artichokes.

Wring off the stalks, and put them into the water cold, with the tops downwards, so that all the dust and sand may boil out.  When the water boils, an hour and a half will do them.

To dress asparagus.

Scrape all the stalks very carefully till they look white, then cut all the stalks even alike, throw them into water, and have ready a stew-pan boiling.  Put in some salt, and tie the asparagus in little bundles.  Let the water keep boiling, and when they are a little tender take them up.  If you boil them too much you lose both colour and taste.  Cut the round of a small loaf about half an inch thick, toast it brown on both sides, dip it in the asparagus liquor, and lay it in your dish:  pour a little butter over the toast, then lay your asparagus on the toast all round the dish, with the white tops outward.  Don’t pour butter over the asparagus, for that makes them greasy to the fingers, but have your butter in a bason, and send it to table.

Directions concerning garden things.

Most people spoil garden things by over-boiling them.  All things that are green should have a little crispness, for if they are over-boiled they neither have any sweetness or beauty.

To dress beans and bacon.

When you dress beans and bacon, boil the bacon by itself, and the beans by themselves, for the bacon will spoil the colour of the beans.  Always throw some salt into the water, and some parsley nicely picked.  When the beans are enough (which you will know by their being tender) throw them into a cullender to drain.  Take up the bacon and skin it; throw some raspings of bread over the top, and if you have an iron make it red-hot and hold over it, to brown the top of the bacon:  if you have not one, set it before the fire to brown.  Lay the beans in the dish, and the bacon in the middle of the top, and send them to table with butter in a bason.

To make gravy for a turkey, or any sort of fowls.

Take a pound of the lean part of the beef, hack it with a knife, flour it well, have ready a stew-pan with a piece of fresh butter.  When the butter is melted put in the beef, fry it till it is brown, and then pour in a little boiling water.  Stir it altogether, and put in two or three blades of mace, four or five cloves, some whole pepper, an onion, a bundle of sweet herbs, a little crust of bread baked brown, and a little piece of carrot.  Cover it close, and let it stew till it is as good as you would have it.  This will make a pint of rich gravy.

To draw mutton, beef, or veal gravy.

Take a pound of meat, cut it very thin, lay a piece of bacon about two inches long, at the bottom of the stew-pan or sauce-pan, and lay the meat on it.  Lay in some carrot, and cover it close for two or three minutes, then pour in a quart of boiling water, some spice, onion, sweet herbs, and a little crust of bread toasted.  Let it do over a slow fire, and thicken it with a little piece of butter rolled in flour.  When the gravy is as good as you would have it, season it with salt, and then strain it off.  You may omit the bacon, if you dislike it.

To burn butter for thickening of sauce.

Set your butter on the fire, and let it boil till it is brown, then shake in some flour, and stir it all the time it is on the fire till it is thick.  Put it by, and keep it for use.  A little piece is what the cooks use to thicken and brown their sauce:  but there are few stomachs it agrees with, therefore seldom make use of it.

To make gravy.

If you live in the country, where you cannot always have gravy-meat, when your meat comes from the butcher’s take a piece of beef, a piece of veal, and a piece of mutton:  cut them into as small pieces as you can, and take a large deep sauce-pan with a cover, lay your beef at bottom, then your mutton, then a very little piece of bacon, a slice or two of carrot, some mace, cloves, whole pepper black and white, a large onions cut in slices, a bundle of sweet herbs, and then lay in your veal.  Cover it close over a slow fire for six or seven minutes, shaking the sauce-pan now and then; then shake some flour in, and have ready some boiling water; pour it in till you cover the meat and something more.  Cover it close, and let it stew till it is quite rich and good; then season it to your taste with salt, and then strain it off.  This will do for most things.

To make gravy for soups, &c.

Take a leg of beef, cut and hack it, put it into a large earthen pan; put to it a bundle of sweet herbs, two onions stuck with a few cloves, a blade or two of mace, a piece of carrot, a spoonful of whole pepper black and white, and a quart of stale beer.  Cover it with water, tie the pot down close with a brown paper rubbed with butter, send it to the oven, and let it be well baked.  When it comes home, strain it through a course sieve; lay the meat into a clean dish as you strain it, and keep it for use.  It is a fine thing in a house, and will serve for gravy, thickened with a piece of butter, red wine, catchup, or whatever you have a mind to put in, and is always ready for soups of most sorts.  If you have peas ready boiled, your soup will soon be made:  or take some of the broth and some vermicelli, boil it together, fry a French roll and put in the middle, and you have a good soup.  You may add a few truffles and morels, or celery stewed tender, and then you are always ready.

To bake a leg of beef.

Do it just in the same manner as before directed in the making gravy for soups, &c. and when it is baked, strain it through a coarse sieve.  Pick out all the sinews and fat, and put them into a sauce-pan with a few spoonfuls of the gravy, a little red wine, a little piece of butter rolled in flour, and some mustard, shake your sauce-pan often, and when the sauce is hot and thick, dish it up, and send it to table.  It is a pretty dish.

To bake an ox’s head.

Do just the same manner as the leg of beef is directed to be done in making the gravy for soups, &c. and it does full as well for the same uses.  If it should be too strong for any thing you want it for, it is only putting some hot water to it.  Cold water will spoil it.

To boil pickled pork.

Be sure you put it in when the water boils.  If a middling piece, an hour will boil it; if a very large piece, an hour and a half, or two hours.  If you boil pickled pork too long, it will go to a jelly.

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