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Accidental Discoveries in History: FOOD

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WikiCells - the edible food wrapping coming soon to a store near you!

WikiCells – the edible food wrapping coming soon to a store near you!

“What this power is I cannot say; all I know is that it exists and it becomes available only when a man is in that state of mind in which he knows exactly what he wants and is fully determined not to quit until he finds it.”

Alexander Graham Bell

Most inventions are the results of exploration, experimentation, blood, sweat and tears, and lots of sleepless nights.  But there are some moments of serendipity, those “Hmm.  That’s strange…” discoveries that are not lightly tossed aside but seen for their potential.  It’s taking the lemons life has thrown their way, tossing in a wet rag and a few copper and zinc coins, and coming up with a battery.

Here’s a line-up of a few of those wet rag-tossers of edible discoveries:

Coke

Who: John Pemberton, pharmacist, Colonel of the Confederate Army wounded in the Battle of Columbus, Georgia.

When: 1886

Why: Like so many wounded war veterans of his time, he had become addicted to morphine to handle the pain.  Being a pharmacist, he wanted to find a cure for the addiction.  Inadvertently, he ended up inventing what has become another addiction for untold millions:  Coca-Cola.  And like many elixirs of the time, his was touted as “a valuable brain tonic” that would relieve exhaustion, calm nerves and cure headaches.  But sadly, Pemberton died two years later and never saw his medicinal mixture give birth to the soft drink empire.

Saccharin

Who: Constantin Fahlberg, unhygienic chemist.

When: 1879

Why: He’d been trying to find ways to use coal tar; he went home for dinner, and noticed that his wife’s bread rolls were unusually sweet; no, she hadn’t changed her recipe – he just hadn’t washed his hands before eating.  He went back to his lab and taste-tested until he found the sweet source.  That’s just gross.

Cornflakes Cereal

Who: William Keith Kellogg, assisting his brother, Dr. John Harvey Kellogg, the superintendent of The Battle Creek Sanatarium in Michigan.

When: 1895

Why: One day while making bread dough with boiled wheat, he left it sitting while he helped his brother and when he returned to roll out the dough, it came out flaky.  He decided to bake it anyway, creating a crunchy and flaky snack.  It was a huge hit with the patients, and so he set out to manufacture it on a larger, and more intentional, scale.  He switched to using corn and launched the “Battle Creek Toasted Corn Flakes Company” in 1906; eventually he realized that his name was more catchy.

Brandy

Who: An intrepid soul.

When: Around the 12th Century

Why:  Concentrated alcoholic beverages have been around probably as long as alcohol has been transported; by evaporating the water from wine, it was more stable for transportation, and then reconstituted at the other end.  At some point someone decided to skip the rehydration phase and just go for it, and brandy (“burnt wine” – in the distillation process, a portion was lit to test the purity) was born.

Potato chips

Who: George Crum, Chef in Saratoga Springs, New York.

When: 1853

Why: The usual story says that he was trying to please an unhappy, picky customer; after several complaints that the potato was not thin enough or cooked enough, he sliced them paper-thin and fried them to a crisp.  The customer loved them, and the name “Saratoga Chips” persisted until the mid-20th century.

Chocolate Chip Cookies

Who:  Mrs. Ruth Graves Wakefield, owner of the Toll House Inn, in Whitman, Massachusetts.

When: 1930

Why: While making cookies one day, she ran out of regular baker’s chocolate and substituted broken pieces of semi-sweet chocolate, thinking they would melt into the batter.  They didn’t, and chocolate chips were born.  She sold the recipe to Nestle in exchange for a lifetime supply of chocolate chips (rather than patenting it and making millions!).  Every bag of Nestle chocolate chips in America has a variation of her original recipe printed on the packaging.

Popsicles

Who: Frank Epperson, 11 years old at the time, of Oakland, California.

When: 1905

Why: He left a mixture of powdered soda and water out on the porch, which happened to have a stir stick in it; that night the temperatures reached a record low, and the next morning he discovered his frozen fruit-flavoured drink; the “Epsicle” was born.  18 years later he patented that little Eureka moment, and the Popsicle became intentional.

Chewing Gum

Who: Thomas Adams

When: 1870

Why: Chewing gum has actually been around for over 5,000 years; Neolithic tribes used various tree saps, and the Aztecs used chicle as a basis for a gum-like substance.  But they didn’t patent it and market it.  So along came Thomas Adams:  Given a supply of chicle from Mexico, his original intention was to use it as a rubber substitute; it failed in that capacity, but instead he cut it into strips and marketed it as “Adams New York Chewing Gum” in 1871, becoming the first mass-produced chewing gum in the world.

Ice Cream Cones

Who: The modern, mechanized version: Frederick Bruckman, 1912

When: 1912

Why:  Edible cones, made from little waffles rolled, were mentioned in French cooking books as early as 1825.  Several Americans vie for the title of “Creator of the modern ice cream cone,” but all seem to appear around the same time, the 1904 World’s Fair and shortly thereafter, which tells me someone got the idea from someone, tried to patent it (unsuccessfully) and everyone else jumped on the idea claiming first dibs.  But as far as history goes, it’s no new idea – just necessity being the mother of invention.  Frederick Bruckman is credited with the modern ice cream cone, as he invented a machine for rolling them.

Champagne

Who:  Ah.  Now that’s a simple question with a thorny answer.  Not a French Benedictine Monk (Dom Pérignon); in reality, he did everything he could to make the wine less sparkly because it kept exploding in his winery.  In actual fact it was the English who recognized the added value of bubbly wine, exploding bottles and all.  The first to recognize the process, document it, and enjoy it, was Christopher Merret, English scientist.

When: 1662

Why:  Merret “was born in Gloucestershire in either 1614 or 1615 (the Champagne seems to have clouded his memory), studied at Oxford (a notorious training ground for heavy drinkers), and in 1661 translated and expanded an Italian treatise on bottle manufacture. It seems to be this that drew his attention to the question of exploding Champagne, because the following year he published a paper entitled ‘Some Observations Concerning the Ordering of Wines’. In this, he tried to explain why wine became bubbly, and identified the second fermentation in the bottle as the main cause. He also described adding sugar or molasses to wine to bring on this second fermentation deliberately. Sparkliness was a positive thing, Merret said, and could be produced in any wine, particularly now that England was making bottles that were capable of holding in the bubbles. Thus, while Dom Pérignon was trying to do away with the fizz, the Brits wanted more.” [1000 Years of Annoying the French (pp. 179-180). Random House UK. Kindle Edition.]

Sandwiches

Who: Just about everyone except John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich, an 18th-century English aristocrat.

When: from the 18th century known as a “sandwich;” from antiquity and various cultures from before history began to be recorded.

Why: In the 1700s, the Earl of Sandwich was often too busy to sit down for a proper meal, so he had his servants bring his meat placed between slices of bread to avoid greasy fingers from handling the meat directly.  People began asking for “the same as Sandwich.”  Throughout Asia, Africa, and South America, flatbread has long been used to scoop food from plate to mouth (as cutlery had not yet been invented, or was not widespread).  Those aristocrats could have very easily asked for “the same as savages,” and we would thus be eating savages today.  Cannibalistic, if you ask me…

Liquorice Allsorts

Who: Charlie Thompson, a sales representative of Geo. Bassett & Co.

When: 1899

Why: Charlie supposedly dropped a tray of samples he was showing a client in Leicester, mixing up the various sweets. He scrambled to re-arrange them, and the client loved the bright mix of colours and shapes, and Allsorts hit the shelves soon after.

Crepe Suzette

Who: Disputed; reputed to be fourteen year-old assistant waiter Henri Charpentier, at the Maitre at Monte Carlo’s Café de Paris.

When: 1895

Why:  Preparing desert for the English Prince of Wales (future King Edward VII), Henri accidentally caught the cordial of the crepe on fire.  Rather than start over he tasted it and thought it delicious, so he served it; the Prince asked for the dish to be named for one of his companions, Suzette (as Crepe in French is feminine, rather than masculine).

Worcestershire sauce

Who: John Wheeley Lea and William Henry Perrins, British chemists.

When: 1837

Why: The story goes that someone asked them to attempt a recipe for curry powder; they tried, and made it liquid; it was far too strong to be palatable, so they put it in a cellar barrel for a few years.  Looking to make space, they were going to dispense with the offensive product, but tried it again and found that it had fermented and become milder, and actually quite good thank you.  They began to market it, and it became a success.

Kool-Aid

Who: Edwin Perkins, innovator and entrepreneur, Hastings, Nebraska.

When: 1927

Why: Perkins’ father opened a general store in town where the boy was introduced to new and exciting food products such as Jell-O. One of the company’s offerings that proved most popular was a concentrated drink mix called Fruit Smack, which came in six flavours. A four-ounce bottle made enough for an entire family to enjoy at an affordable price. But shipping the bottles of syrup was costly and breakage was becoming a problem. In 1927 this prompted him to develop a method of removing the liquid from Fruit Smack so the residual powder could be re-packaged in envelopes; consumers would then only have to add water to enjoy the drink at home. Perkins designed and printed envelopes with a new name —Kool Ade —to package the powder with (later this spelling would change to “Kool-Aid”).  Because the packets were lightweight, shipping costs dropped; Perkins sold each Kool-Aid packet for a dime, wholesale by mail at first, to grocery, candy and other stores. By 1929, Kool-Aid was a nation-wide product.

Life Savers Candy

Who: Clarence Crane (Cleveland, Ohio), chocolate manufacturer

When: 1912

Why: During the summer of 1912, Mr. Crane invented a “summer candy” that could withstand heat better than chocolate. Since the mints looked like miniature life preservers, he called them Life Savers. After registering the trademark, Crane sold the rights to the peppermint candy to Edward Noble for $2,900. Noble created tin-foil wrappers to keep the mints fresh, instead of cardboard rolls. Pep-O-Mint was the first Life Saver flavour. Since then, many different flavours of Life Savers have been produced. The five-flavour roll first appeared in 1935.

The Art of Cookery, Chapter IV: A number of little dishes fit for a supper…

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Source:  Wikipedia

Sugarloaf. Source: Wikipedia

Hannah’s book continues.  The lengthy title sums up the chapter’s contents; unlike today where every word counts because people’s attention spans are spread as thin as butter on too many toasts, 18th century writers could take their time, and frequently did so.  There are quite a few interesting bits in this chapter:  Have you ever pickled hog’s ears?  Or even seen a recipe for it before now?  Not me.  And just how much space can there be inside a cock’s comb, to stuff?  The thought of stewing lettuce may seem very odd to us; but there are two things to consider:  One, eighteenth century English had an aversion to fresh fruits or vegetables; they considered them unsafe, and unhealthy.  Two, their lettuce was not the hybrid, water-retaining, chilled leaves we know of today; we still stew spinach, fry, boil and bake it, after all, and their lettuce was probably not much different.

Sugar was sold in solidly-packed “loafs”, or cones; Sugarloaf Mountain in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil was thus named because it resembled this traditional shape.

Enjoy!

Chapter IV:  To make a number of little dishes fit for a supper, or side dish. and little corner dishes for a great table; and the rest you have in the chapter for Lent.

Hog’s ears forced.

Take four hogs ears, and half boil them, or take them soused*; make a force-meat** thus:  take half a pound of beef-suet, as much crumbs of bread, an anchovy, some sage, boil and chop very find a little parsley; mix all together with the yolk of an egg, a little pepper, slit your ears very carefully to make a place for your stuffing, fill them, flour them, and fry them in fresh butter till they are of a fine brown; then pour out all the fat clean, and put to them half a pint of gravy, a glass of white wine, three tea-spoonfuls of mustard, a piece of butter as big as a nutmeg rolled in flour, a little pepper, a small onion whole; cover them close, and let them stew softly for half an hour, shaking your pan now and then.  When they are enough, lay them in your dish, and pour your sauce over them; but first take out the onion.  This makes a very pretty dish; but if you would make a fine large dish, take the feet, and cut all the meat in small thin pieces, and stew the ears.  Season with salt to your palate.

*Souse:  To pickle, steep in vinegar, preserved in salt and vinegar.

** Force-meat – a stuffing, with either meat or bread as a base.

To force cocks-combs.

Parboil your cocks-combs, then open them with a point of a knife at the great end:  take the white of a fowl, as much bacon and beef marrow, cut these small, and beat them fine in a marble mortar; season them with salt, pepper, and grated nutmeg, and mix it with an egg; fill the cocks-combs, and stew them in a little strong gravy softly for half an hour, then slice in some fresh mushrooms and a few pickled ones; then beat up the yolk of an egg in a little gravy, stirring it.  Season with salt.  When they are enough, dish them up in little dishes or plates.

To preserve cocks-combs.

Let them be well cleaned, then put them into a pot, with some melted bacon, and boil them a little; about half an hour after, add a little bay salt, some pepper, a little vinegar, a lemon sliced, and an onion stuck with cloves.  When the bacon begins to stick to the pot, take them up, put them into the pan you would keep them in, lay a clean linen cloth over them, and pour melted butter clarified over them, to keep them close from the air.  These make a pretty plate at a supper.

To preserve or pickle pigs feet and ears.

Take your feet and ears single, and wash them well, split the feet in two, put a bay leaf between every foot, put in almost as much water as will cover them.  When they are well steemed, add to them cloves, mace, whole pepper, and ginger, coriander-seed and salt, according to your discretion; put to them a bottle or two of Rhenish* wine, according to the quantity you do, half a score of bay-leaves, and a bunch of sweet-herbs.  Let them boil softly till they are very tender, then take them out of the liquor, lay them in an earthen pot, then strain the liquor over them; when they are cold, cover them down close, and keep them for use.

You should let them stand to be cold; skim off all the fat, and then put in the wine and spice.

They eat well cold; or at any time, heat them in the jelly, and thicken it with a little piece of butter rolled in flour, makes a pretty dish; or eat the ears, and take the feet clean out of the jelly, and roll it in the yolk of an egg, or melted butter, and then in crumbs of bread, and broil them; or fry them in fresh butter, lay the ears in the middle and the feet round, and pour the sauce over, or you may cut the ears in long slips, which is better:  and if you chuse it, make a good brown gravy to mix with them, a glass of white wine and some mustard, thickened with a piece of butter rolled in flour.

* Rhenish wine:  Wine from the Rhine valley in Germany; it could refer to either red or white.

To pickle ox-palates.

Take your palates, wash them well with salt and water, and put them in a pipkin with water and some salt; and when they are ready to boil, skim them well, and put to them pepper, cloves, and mace, as much as will give them a quick taste.  When they are boiled tender (which will require four or five hours) peel them and cut them into small pieces, and let them cool; then make the pickle of white wine and vinegar, an equal quantity; boil the pickle, and put in the spices that were boiled in the palates; when both the pickle and palates are cold, lay your palates in a jar, and put to them a few bay-leaves and a little fresh spice:  pour the pickle over them, cover them close, and keep them for use.

Of these you may at any time make a pretty little dish, either with brown sauce or white; or butter and mustard and a spoonful of white wine; or they are ready to put in made-dishes.

To stew cucumbers.

Pare twelve cucumbers, and slice them as thick as a crown-piece, and put them to drain, and then lay them in a coarse cloth till they are dry, flour them and fry them brown in butter; pour out the fat, then put to them some gravy, a little claret, some pepper, cloves, and mace, and let them stew a little, then roll a bit of butter in flour, and toss them up; season with salt:  you may add a very little mushroom pickle.

To ragoo cucumbers.

Take two cucumbers, two onions, slice them, and fry them in a little butter, then drain them in a sieve, put them into a sauce-pan, add six spoonfuls of gravy, two of white wine, a blade of mace:  let them stew five or six minutes; then take a piece of butter as big as a walnut rolled in flour, shake them together, and when it is thick, dish them up.

A fricasey of kidney beans.

Take a quart of the seed, when dry, soak them all night in river water, then boil them on a slow fire till quite tender; take a quarter of a peck* of onions, slice them thin, fry them in butter till brown; then take them out of the butter, and put them in a quart of strong draw’d gravy.  Boil them till you may mash them fine, then put in your beans, and give them a boil or two.  Season with pepper, salt and nutmeg.

* Peck:  A unit for measuring the amount of something dry such as grain or fruit, containing eight quarts.

To dress Windsor beans.

Take the seed, boil them till they are tender; then blanch them, and fry them in clarified butter.  Melt butter, with a drop of vinegar, and pour over them.  Stew them with salt, pepper, and nutmeg.

Or you may eat them with butter, sack*, sugar, and a little powder of cinnamon.

* Sack:  An antiquated wine term referring to white fortified wine imported from mainland Spain or the Canary Islands.

To make jumballs.

Take a pound of fine flour and a pound of fine powder-sugar, make them into a light paste, with whites of eggs beat fine; then add half a pint of cream, half a pound of fresh butter melted, and a pound of blanched almonds well  beat.  Knead them all together thoroughly, with a little rose-water, and cut out your jumballs in what figures you fancy; and either bake them in a gentle oven, or fry them in fresh butter, and they make a pretty side or corner dish.  You may melt a little butter with a spoonful of sack*, and throw fine sugar all over the dish.  If you make them in pretty figures, they make a fine little dish.

* Sack:  An antiquated wine term referring to white fortified wine imported from mainland Spain or the Canary Islands.

To make ragoo of onions.

Take a pint of little young onions, peel them, and take four large one, peel them and cut them very small; put a quarter of a pound of good butter into a stew-pan, when it is melted and done making a noise, throw in your onions, and fry them till they begin to look a little brown:  then shake in a little flour, and shake them round till they are thick; throw in a little salt, a little beaten pepper, a quarter of a pint of good gravy, and a tea-spoonful of mustard.  Stir all together, and when it is well tasted and of a good thickness pour it into your dish, and garnish it with fried crumbs of bread and raspings.  They make a pretty little dish, and are very good.  You may stew raspings in the room of flour, if you please.

A ragoo of oysters.

Open twenty large oysters, take them out of their liquor, save the liquor, and dip the oysters in a batter made thus:  take two eggs, beat them well, a little lemon-peel grated, a little nutmeg grated, a blade of made pounded fine, a little parsley chopped fine; beat all together with a little flour, have ready some butter or dripping in a stew-pan; when it boils, dip in your oysters, one by one, into the batter, and fry them of a fine brown; then with an egg-slice take them out, and lay them in a dish before the fire.  Pour the fat out of the pan, and shake a little flour over the bottom of the pan, then rub a little piece of butter, as big as a small walnut, all over with your knife, whilst it is over the fire; then pour in three spoonfuls of the oyster liquor strained, one spoonful of white wine; and a quarter of a pint of gravy; grate a little nutmeg, stir all together, throw in the oysters, give the pan a toss round, and when the sauce is of a good thickness, pour all into the dish, and garnish with raspings.

A ragoo of asparagus.

Scrape a hundred of grass* very clean, and throw it into cold water.  When you have scraped all, cut as far as is good and green, about an inch long, and take two heads of endive clean washed and picked, cut it very small, a young lettuce clean washed and cut small, a large onion peeled and cut small; put a quarter of a pound of butter into a stew-pan, when it is melted throw in the above things:  toss them about, and fry them ten minutes; then season them with a little pepper and salt, shake in a little flour, toss them about, then pour in half a pint of gravy.  Let them stew till the sauce is very thick and good; then pour all into your dish.  Save a few of the little tops of the grass to garnish the dish.

*Grass:  She’s referring to the asparagus thus.

A ragoo of livers.

Take as many livers as you would have for your dish.  A turkey’s liver and six fowls livers will make a pretty dish.  Pick the galls from them, and throw them into cold water; take the six livers, put them in a sauce-pan with a quarter of a pint of gravy, a spoonful of mushrooms, either pickled or fresh, a spoonful of catchup, a little bit of butter as big as a nutmeg rolled in flour; season them with pepper and salt to your palate.  Let them stew softly ten minutes:  in the mean while broil the turkey’s liver nicely, lay it in the middle, and the stewed livers round.  Pour the sauce all over, and garnish with lemon.

To ragoo cauliflowers.

Lay a large cauliflower in water, then pick it to piece, as if for pickling:  take a quarter of a pound of butter, with a spoonful of water, and melt it in a stew-pan, then throw in your cauliflowers, and shake them about often till they are quite tender; then shake in a little flour, and toss the pan about.  Season them with a little pepper and salt, pour in half a pint of good gravy, let them stew till the sauce is thick, and pour it all into a little dish.  Save a few little bits of cauliflower, when stewed in the butter, to garnish with.

Stewed peases and lettuce.

Take a quart of green peas, two nice lettuces clean washed and picked, cut them small across, put all into a sauce-pan, with a quarter of a pound of butter, pepper and salt to your palate; cover them close, and let them stew softly, shaking the pan often.  Let them stew ten minutes, then shake in a little flour, toss them round, and pour in half a pint of good gravy; put in a little bundle of sweet-herbs and an onion, with three cloves, and a blade of mace stuck in it.  Cover it close, and let them stew a quarter of an hour; then take out the onions and sweet-herbs, and turn it all into a dish.  If you find the sauce not thick enough, shake in a little more flour, and let it simmer, then take it up.

Cod-founds broiled with gravy.

Scald them in hot water, and rub them with salt well; blanch them, that is, take off the black dirty skin, then set them on in cold water, and let them simmer till they begin to be tender; take them out and flour them, and broil them on the grid-iron.  In the mean time take a little good gravy, a little mustard, a little bit of butter rolled in flour, give it a boil, season it with pepper and salt.  Lay the founds in your dish, and pour your sauce over them.

A forced cabbage.

Take a fine white-heart cabbage, about as big as a quarter of a peck, lay it in water two or three hours, then half boil it, set it in a cullender to drain, then very carefully cut out the heart, but take great care not to break off any of the outside leaves, fill it with force-meat* made thus:  take a pound of veal, half a pound of bacon, fat and lean together, cut them small, and beat them fine in a mortar, with four eggs boiled hard.  Season with pepper and salt, a little beaten mace, a very little lemon-peel cut fine, some parsley chopped fine, a very little thyme, and two anchovies:  when they are beat fine, take the crumb of a stale roll, some mushrooms, if you have them either pickled or fresh, together with the yolk of an egg, then fill the hollow part of the cabbage, and tie it with a packthread; then lay some slices of bacon to the bottom of a stew-pan or sauce-pan, and on that a pound of coarse lean beef, cut thin; put in the cabbage, cover it close, and let it stew over a slow fire, till the bacon begins to stick to the pan, shake in a little flour, then pour in a quart of broth, an onion stuck with cloves, two blades of mace, some whole pepper, a little bundle of sweet-herbs; cover it close, and let it stew very softly an hour and a half, put in a glass of red wine, give it a boil, then take it up, lay it in the dish, and strain the gravy and pour over:  untie it first.  This is a fine side-dish, and the next day make a fine hash, with a veal-steak nicely broiled and laid on it.

* Force-meat – a stuffing, with either meat or bread as a base.

Stewed red cabbage.

Take a red cabbage, lay it in cold water an hour, then cut it into thin slices across, and cut it into little pieces.  Put it into a stew-pan, with a pound of sausages, a pint of gravy, a little bit of ham or lean bacon; cover it close, and let it stew half an hour; then take the pan off the fire, and skim off the fat, shake in a little flour, and set it on again.  Let it stew two or three minutes, then lay the sausages in your dish, and pour the rest all over.  You may, before you take it up, put in half a spoonful of vinegar.

Savoys forced and stewed.

Take two savoys*, fill one with force-meat**, and the other without.  Stew them with gravy; season them with pepper and salt, and when they are enough take a piece of butter, as big as a large walnut, rolled in flour, and put in.  Let them stew till they are enough, and the sauce thick; then lay them in your dish, and pour the sauce over them.  These things are best done on a stove.

* Savoy – type of cabbage

** Force-meat – a stuffing, with either meat or bread as a base.

To force cucumbers.

Take three large cucumbers, scoop out the pith, fill them with fried oysters, seasoned with pepper and salt; put on the piece again you cut off, sew it with a coarse thread, and fry them in the butter the oysters are fried in:  then pour out the butter, and shake in a little flour, pour in half a pin of gravy, shake it round and put in the cucumbers.  Season it with a little pepper and salt; let them stew softly till they are tender, then lay them in a plate, and pour the gravy over them:  or you may force them with any sort of force-meat* you fancy, and fry them in hog’s lard, and then stew them in gravy and red wine.

** Force-meat – a stuffing, with either meat or bread as a base.

Fried sausages.

Take half a pound of sausages, and six apples; slice four about as thick as a crown, cut the other two in quarters, fry them with the sausages of a fine light brown, lay the sausages in the middle of the dish, and the apples round.  Garnish with the quartered apples.

Stewed cabbage and sausages fried is a good dish; then heat cold peas-pudding in the pan, lay it in the dish and the sausages round, heap the pudding in the middle, and lay the sausages all round thick up, edge-ways, and one in the middle at length.

Callops and eggs.

Cut either bacon, pickled beef, or hung mutton into thin slices; broil them nicely, lay them in a dish before the fire, have ready a stew-pan of water boiling, break as many eggs as you have collops, bream them one by one in a cup, and pour them into the stew-pan.  When the whites of the eggs begin to harden, and all look of a clear white, take them up one by one in an egg-slice, and lay them on the collops.

To dress cold fowl or pigeons.

Cut them in four quarters, beat up an egg or two, according to what you dress, grate a little nutmeg in, a little salt, some parsley chopped, a few crumbs of bread, beat them well together, dip them in this batter, and have ready some dripping hot in a stew-pan, in which fry them of a fine light brown:  have ready a little good gravy, thickened with a little flour, mixed with a spoonful of catchup; lay the fry in the dish, and pour the sauce over.  Garnish with lemon, and a few mushrooms, if you have any.  A cold rabbit eats well done thus.

To mince veal.

Cut your veal as fine as possible, but don’t chop it; grate a little nutmeg over it, shred a little lemon-peel very fine, throw a very little salt on it, drudge a little flour over it.  To a large plate of veal, take four or five spoonfuls of water, let it boil, then put in the veal, with a piece of butter as big as an egg, stir it well together; when it is all thorough hot, it is enough.  Have ready a very think piece of bread toasted brown, cut it into three-corner sippets*, lay it round the place, and pour in the veal.  Just before you pour it in, squeeze in half a lemon, or half a spoonful of vinegar.  Garnish with lemon.  You may put gravy in the room of water, if you love it strong, but it is better without.

*Sippet is the diminutive of sop, which was usually a small piece of bread to dip into a soup or broth.

To fry cold veal.

Cut it in pieces about as thick as half a crown, and as long as you please, dip them in the yolk of an egg, and then in crumbs of bread, with a few sweet-herbs, and shred lemon-peel in it; grate a little nutmeg over them, and fry them in fresh butter.  The butter must be hot, just enough to fry them in:  in the mean time, make a little gravy of the bone of the veal; when the meat is fried take it out with a fork, and lay it in a dish before the fire, then shake a little flour into the pan, and stir it round; then put in a little gravy, squeeze in a little lemon, and pour it over the veal.  Garnish with lemon.

To toss up cold veal white.

Cut the veal into little thin bits, put milk enough to it for sauce, grate in a little nutmeg, a very little salt, a little piece of butter rolled in flour:  to half a pint of milk, the yolks of two eggs well beat, a spoonful of mushroom-pickle, stir all together till it is thick; then pour it into your dish, and garnish with lemon.

Cold fowl skinned, and done this way, eats well; or the best end of a cold breast of veal; first fry it, drain it from the fat, then pour this sauce to it.

To hash cold mutton.

Cut your mutton with a very sharp knife in very little bits, as thin as possible; then boil the bones with an onions, a little sweet-herbs, a blade of mace, a very little whole pepper, a little salt, a piece of crust toasted very crisp; let it boil till there is just enough for a sauce, strain it, and put it into a sauce-pan, with a piece of butter rolled in flour; put in the meat, when it is very hot it is enough.  Have ready some thin bread toasted brown, cut three-corner-ways, lay them round the dish, and pour in the hash.  As to walnut-pickle, and all sorts of pickles, you must put in according to your fancy.  Garnish with pickles.  Some love a small onion peeled, and cut very small, and done in the hash.

To hash mutton like venison.

Cut it very thin as above; boil the bones as above; strain the liquor, where there is just enough for the hash, to a quarter of a pint of gravy put a large spoonful of red wine, an onion peeled and chopped fine, a very little lemon-peel shred fine, a piece of butter as big as a small walnut rolled in flour; put it into a sauce-pan with the meat, shake it all together, and when it is thoroughly hot, pour it into your dish.  Hash beef the same way.

To make collops of cold beef.

If you have any cold inside of a sirloin of beef, take off all the fat, cut it very thin in little bits, cut an onion very small, boil as much water as you think will do for sauce, season it with a little pepper and salt, and a bundle of sweet-herbs.  Let the water boil, then put in the meat, with a good piece of butter rolled in flour, shake it round, and stir it.  When the sauce is thick and the meat done, take out the sweet-herbs, and pour it into your dish.  They do better than fresh meat.

To make a florendine of veal.

Take two kidneys of a loin of veal, fat and all, and mince it very fine, then chop a few herbs and put to it, and add a few currants:  season it with cloves, mace, nutmeg, and a little salt, four or five yolks of eggs chopped fine, and some crumbs of bread, a pippin* or two chopped, some candied lemon-peel cut small, a little sack**, and orange flower-water.  Lay a sheet of puff paste at the bottom of your dish, and put in the ingredients, and cover it with another sheet of puff paste.  Bake it in a slack oven, scrape sugar*** on the top, and serve it up hot.

* Pippin:  Varieties of apples grown from the seed, or “pip.”

** Sack is an antiquated wine term referring to white fortified wine imported from mainland Spain or the Canary Islands.

*** Sugar was sold in “sugarloafs”, rounded cylindrical cones that had to be scraped, or pieces broken off with sugar nips.

To make Salamongundy.

Take two or three Roman or cabbage lettuces, and when you have washed them clean, swing them pretty dry in a cloth; then beginning at the open end, cut them cross-ways, as fin as a good big thread, and lay the lettuces so cut, about an inch thick, all over the bottom of a dish.  When you have thus garnished your dish, take two cold roasted pullets or chickens, and cut the flesh off the breasts and wings into slices, about three inches long, a quarter of an inch broad, and as thin as a shilling:  lay them upon the lettuce round the end to the middle of the dish, and the other towards the brim; then having boned and cut six anchovies, cut each into eight pieces, lay them all between each slice of the fowls, then cut the lean meat off the legs into dice, and cut a lemon into small dice; then mince the yolks of four eggs, three or four anchovies, and a little parsley, and make a round heap of these in your dish, piling it up in the form of a sugar-loaf, and garnish it with onions as big as the yolks of eggs, boiled in a good deal of water very tender and white.  Put the largest of the onions in the middle of the top of the salamongundy, and lay the rest all round the brim of the dish, as thick as you can lay them; then beat some salad oil up with vinegar, salt, and pepper, and pour over it all.  Garnish with grapes just scalded, or French beans blanched, or astertion-flowers*, and serve it up for a first course.

*Astertion:  meaning uncertain.  She most likely meant Nasturtium, an edible perennial flower.

Another way.

Mince two chickens, either boiled or roasted, very fine, or veal, if you please; also mince the yolks of hard eggs very small, and mince the whites very small by themselves; shred the pulp or two or three lemons very small, then lay in your dish a layer of mince-meat, and a layer of yolks of eggs, a layer of whites, a layer of anchovies, a layer of your shred lemon-pulp, a layer of pickles, a layer of sorrel, a layer of spinach, and shallots shred small.  When you have filled a dish with the ingredients, set an orange or lemon on the top; then garnish with horse-raddish scraped, barberries, and sliced lemon.  Beat up some oil, with the juice of lemon, salt, and mustard, thick, and serve it up for a second course, side-dish, or middle dish, for supper.

A third Salamongundy.

Mince veal or fowl very small, a pickled herring boned and picked small, cucumber minced small, apples minced small, an onion peeled and minced small, some pickled red cabbage chopped small, cold pork minced small, or cold duck or pigeons minced small, boiled parsley chopped fine, celery cut small, the yolks of hard eggs chopped small, and the whites chopped small, and either lay all the ingredients by themselves separate on saucers, or in heaps in a dish.  Dish them out with what pickles you have, and sliced lemon nicely cut; and if you can get astertion-flower*, lay them round it.  This is a find middle-dish for supper; but you may always make salamongundy of such things as you have, according to your fancy.  The other sorts you have in the chapter of fasts.

*Astertion:  meaning uncertain.  She most likely meant Nasturtium, an edible perennial flower.

To make little pasties.

Take the kidney of a loin of veal cut very fine, with as much of the fat, the yolks of two hard eggs, seasoned with a little salt, and half a small nutmeg.  Mix them well together, then roll it well in a puff-paste crust, make three of it, and fry them nicely in hog’s lard or butter.

They make a pretty little dish for change.  You may put in some carrots, and a little sugar and spice, with the juice of an orange, and sometimes apples, first boiled and sweetened, with a little juice of lemon, or any fruit you please.

Petit patties for garnishing of dishes.

Make a short crust, roll it thick, make them about as big as the bowl of a spoon, and about an inch deep:  take a piece of veal, enough to fill the patty, as much bacon and beef-suet, shred them all very fine, season them with pepper and salt, and a little sweet-herbs; put them into a little stew-pan, keep turning them about with a few mushrooms chopped small, for eight or ten minutes; then fill your petty patties, and cover them with some crust.  Colour them with the yolk of an egg, and bake them.  Sometime fill them with oysters for fish, or the melts of the fish pounded, and seasoned with pepper and salt; fill them with lobsters, or what you fancy.  They make fine garnishing, and give a dish a fine look:  if for a calf’s head, the brains seasoned is most proper, and some with oysters.

Ox-palate baked.

When you salt a tongue, cut off the root, and take some ox palates, wash them clean, cut them into six or seven pieces, put them into an earthen pot, just cover them with water, put in a blade or two of mace, twelve whole pepper-corns, three or  four cloves, a little bundle of sweet-herbs, a small onion, half a spoonful of raspings; cover it close with brown paper, and let it be well baked.  When it comes out of the oven, season it with salt to your palate.

Quote, Unquote

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Pietro Arentino, Line engraving.  Source:  Wiki Commons

Pietro Arentino, Line engraving. Source: Wiki Commons

“The art of pure line engraving is dying out.  We live at too fast a rate to allow for the preparation of such plates as our fathers appreciated.  If a picture catches the public fancy, the public must have an etched or a photogravure copy of it within a month or two of its appearance.  The days when engravers were wont to spend two or three years over a single place are for ever gone.” – Journal of the Institute of Jamaica, Volume 1, 1892

The History of the Ampersand & Other Ligatures

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Symbols The ampersand (&) may seem like a modern invention for lazy spellers, or a typesetter’s solution to limited space, or an English teacher’s pet peeve on exams; but it can actually be traced back to the 1st century Romans.  In English, “&” is pronounced “and” rather than its original Latin word “et” (meaning “and”).  Hannah Glasse’s writings show us that “etc.” was, in her time, written as “&c.” which may look strange to our modern sensibilities, but makes perfect sense when you know the origin of the ampersand.

There are many examples of ligature (characters consisting of two or more symbols combined into one) in use today; everyday symbols we use likely have quite a history.  Have you ever wondered about @, #, ©, ¶, or % ?  Or even “?” ?  And no, I’m not cussing.

Many currency symbols are a combination of words or letters:  The British pound symbol £ derives from the Roman word “Librae;” Libra was the basic Roman unit for weight, derived from the Latin word for “scales,” or “balance.”  “L” was the abbreviation (see, we aren’t the first generation of lazy spellers; but then again, you would be too if you had to chisel it into stone, or cure hides for scrolls).  The Pound Sterling has quite a pedigree, and is worth a read over at WikipediaEmoticons

Our modern language has added Emoticons to the list of ligature symbols; many computers automatically convert certain combinations of symbols into a different one altogether; :+-+) becomes ☺, ❤ becomes ♥; for more, see the attached images.

Our language is full of history; those little symbols, punctuation marks that we take for granted, that necessary “@” for connecting to the world… what would we do without it?  And a hundred years from now, teenagers will be surprised how old ☺ is.  They might even wonder what a computer keyboard with individual keys looked like.

The Art of Cookery Continued: Chapter II: Made Dishes, Part 4

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After this, there’s one more part of the longest chapter in Hannah Glasse’s 1747 “Art of Cookery”.  In this particular section there are a few interesting aspects:  “Raspings” were used as decoration, as thickener, as a way to keep something burning to the bottom of a pan (a “buffer” layer, so to speak) – and all it was was toasted bread, scraped.  So the next time you burn a piece of toast, just think of that unique opportunity presented.  Several new terms are explained, some of which were completely new to me and difficult to track down; collops, chitterlings, swerd, Canary, chine, Rocambole and scraig … you can’t accuse them of a boring language.  And if anyone finds out what a matelote is, please let me know.

Once again, some of her recipes prove why they haven’t stood the test of time; one combines pig’s feet and eels, with craw-fish thrown in for good measure… Another is “Calf’s Head Surprise” – need I say more?

The Art of Cookery Continued: Chapter II: Made Dishes, Part 4

Veal rolls.

Take ten or twelve little thin slices of veal, lay on them some force-meat* according to your fancy, roll them up, and tie them just across the middle with coarse thread, put them on a bird-spit, rub them over with the yolks of eggs, flour them, and baste them with butter.  Half an hour will do them.  Lay them into a dish, and have ready some good gravy, with a few truffles and morels, and some mushrooms.  Garnish with lemon.

* Force-meat – a stuffing, with either meat or bread as a base.

Olives of veal the French way.

Take two pounds of veal, some marrow, two anchovies, the yolks of two hard eggs, a few mushrooms, and some oysters, a little thyme, marjoram, parsley, spinach, lemon-peel, salt, pepper, nutmeg and mace, finely beaten; take your veal caul, lay a layer of bacon and a layer of the ingredients, roll it in the veal caul, and either roast it or bake it.  An hour will do either.  When enough, cut it into slices, lay it into your dish, and pour good gravy over it.  Garnish with lemon.

Scotch collops à la Francois.

Take a leg of veal, cut it very thin, lard it with bacon, then take half a pint of ale boiling, and pour over it till the blood is out, and then pour the ale into a bason; take a few sweet-herbs chopped small, strew them over the veal and fry it in butter, flour it a little till enough, then put it into a dish and pour the butter away, toast little thin pieces of bacon and lay round, pour the ale into the stew-pan with two anchovies and a glass of white wine, then beat up the yolks of two eggs and stir in, with a little nutmeg, some pepper, and a piece of butter, shake all together till thick, and then pour it into the dish.  Garnish with lemon.

* collops – a small piece of meat, either thin slices or minced meat of either beef, lamb or venison.

To make a savoury dish of veal.

Cut large collops out of a leg of veal, spread them abroad on a dresser, hack them with the back of a knife, and dip them in the yolks of eggs; season them with cloves, mace, nutmeg and pepper, beat fine; make force-meat* with some of your veal, beef-suet, oysters chopped, sweet-herbs shred fine, and the aforesaid spice, strew all these over your collops, roll and tie them up, put them on skewers, tie them to a spit, and roast them; to the rest of your force-meat add a raw egg or two, roll them in balls and fry them, put them in your dish with your meat when roasted, and make the sauce with strong broth, an anchovy, a shallot, a little white-wine, and some spice.  Let it stew, and thicken it with a piece of butter rolled in flour, pour the sauce into the dish, lay the meat in, and garnish with lemon.

* Force-meat – a stuffing, with either meat or bread as a base.

Scotch collops* larded.

Prepare a fillet of veal, cut into thin slices, cut off the skin and fat, lard them with bacon, fry them brown, then take them out, and lay them in a dish, pour out all the butter, take a quarter of a pound of butter and met it in the pan, then strew in a handful of flour; stir it till it is brown, and pour in three pints of good gravy, a bundle of sweet-herbs, and an onion, which you must take out soon; let it boil a little, then put in the collops, let them stew half a quarter of an hour, put in some force-meat** balls fried, the yolks of two eggs, a piece of butter, and a few pickled mushrooms; stir all together, for a minute or two till it is thick; and then dish it up.  Garnish with lemon.

* collops – a small piece of meat, either thin slices or minced meat of either beef, lamb or venison.

** Force-meat – a stuffing, with either meat or bread as a base.

To do them white.

After you have cut your veal in thin slices, lard it with bacon; season it with cloves, mace, nutmeg, pepper and salt, some grated bread, and sweet-herbs.  Stew the knuckle in as little liquor as you can, a bunch of sweet-herbs, some whole pepper, a blade of mace, and four cloves; then take a pint of the broth, stew the cutlets in it, and add to it a quarter of a pint of white wine, some mushrooms, a piece of butter rolled in flour, and the yolks of two eggs; stir all together till it is thick, and then dish it up.  Garnish with lemon.

Veal blanquets.

Roast a piece of veal, cut off the skin and nervous parts, cut it into little thin bits, put some butter into a stew-pan over the fire with some chopped onions, fry them a little, then add a dust of flour, stir it together, and put in some good broth, or gravy, and a bundle of sweet-herbs:  season it with spice, make it of a good taste, and then put in your veal, the yolks of two eggs beat up with cream and grated nutmeg, some chopped parsley, a shallot, some lemon-peel grated, and a little juice of lemon.  Keep it stirring one way; when enough, dish it up.

A shoulder of veal à la Piemontoise.

Take a shoulder of veal, cut off the skin that it may hang at one end, then lard the meat with bacon and ham, and season it with pepper, salt, mact, sweet-herbs, parsley and lemon-peel; cover it again with the skin, stew it with gravy, and when it is just tender take it up; then take sorrel, some lettuce chopped small, and stew them in some butter with parsley, onions and mushrooms:  the herbs being tender put to them some of the liquor, some sweetbreads* and some bits of ham.  Let all stew together a little while, then lift up the skin, lay the stewed herbs over and under, cover it with the skin again, wet it with melted butter, strew it over with crumbs of bread, and send it to the oven to brown; serve it hot, with some good gravy in the dish.  The French stew it over with parmesan before it goes to the oven.

*Culinary names for the thymus (throat, gullet, or neck) or the pancreas (also heart, stomach, or belly) especially of the calf (ris de veau) and lamb (ris d’agneau) (although beef and pork sweetbreads are also eaten).

A calf’s head surprise.

You must bone it, but not split it, cleanse it well, fill it with a ragoo (in the form it was before) made thus:  take two sweetbreads*, each sweetbread being cut into eight pieces, an ox’s palate boiled tender and cut into little pieces, some cocks-combs, half an ounce of truffles and morels, some mushrooms, some artichoke bottoms, and asparagus tops; stew all these in half a pint of good gravy, season it with two or three blades of mace, four cloves, half a nutmeg, a very little pepper, and some salt, pound all these together, and put them into the raggo:  when it has stewed about half an hour, take the yolks of three eggs beat up with two spoonfuls of cream and two of white wine, put it to the ragoo, keep it stirring one way for fear of turning, and stir in a piece of butter rolled in flour; when it is very thick and smooth fill the head, make a force-meat** with half a pound of veal, half a pound of beef-suet, as much crumbs of bread, a few sweet-herbs, a little lemon-peel, and some pepper, salt and mace, all beat fine together in a marble mortar; mix it up with two eggs, make a few balls, (about twenty) put them into the ragoo in the head, then fasten the head with fine wooden skewers, lay the force-meat over the head, do it over with the solks of two eggs, and send it to the oven to bake.  It will take about two hours baking.  You must lay pieces of butter all over the head, and then flour it.  When it is baked enough, lay it in your dish, and have a pint of good fried gravy.  If there is any gravy in the dish the head was baked in, put it to the other gravy, and boil it up; pour it into your dish, and garnish with lemon.  You may throw some mushrooms over the head.

*Culinary names for the thymus (throat, gullet, or neck) or the pancreas (also heart, stomach, or belly) especially of the calf (ris de veau) and lamb (ris d’agneau) (although beef and pork sweetbreads are also eaten).

** Force-meat – a stuffing, with either meat or bread as a base.

Sweetbreads* of veal à la Dauphine.

Take the largest sweetbreads you can get, open them in such a manner as you can stuff in force-meat**, three will make a fine dish; make your force-meat with a large fowl or young cock, skin it, and pick off all the flesh, take half a pound of fat and lean bacon, cut these very fine and beat them in a mortar; season it with an anchovy, some nutmeg, a little lemon-peel, a very little thyme, and some parsley:  mix these up with the yolk of an egg, fill your sweetbreads and fasten them with fine wooden skewers; take the stew-pan, lay layers of bacon at the bottom of the pan, season them with pepper, salt, mace, cloves, sweet-herbs, and a large onion sliced, upon that lay thin slices of veal, and then lay on your sweetbreads; cover it close, let it stand eight or ten minutes over a slow fire, and then pour in a quart of boiling water or broth; cover it close, and let it stew two hours very softly, then take out the sweetbreads, keep them hot, strain the gravy, skim all the fat off, boil it up till there is about half a pint, put in the sweetbreads, and give them two or three minutes stew in the gravy, then lay them in the dish, and pour the gravy over them.  Garnish with lemon.

*Culinary names for the thymus (throat, gullet, or neck) or the pancreas (also heart, stomach, or belly) especially of the calf (ris de veau) and lamb (ris d’agneau) (although beef and pork sweetbreads are also eaten).

** Force-meat – a stuffing, with either meat or bread as a base.

Another way to dress sweetbreads.

Do not put any water or gravy into the stew-pan, but put the same veal and bacon over the sweetbreads*, and season as under directed; cover them close, put fire over as well as under, and when they are enough, take out the sweetbreads, put in a ladleful of gravy, boil it, and strain it, skim off all the fat, let it boil till it jellies, and then put in the sweetbreads to glaze:  lay essence of ham in the dish, and lay the sweetbreads upon it; or make a very rich gravy with mushrooms, truffles and morels, a glass of white wine, and two spoonfuls of catchup.  Garnish with cocks-combs forced and stewed in the gravy.

Note, You may add to the first, truffles, morels, mushrooms, cocks-combs, palates, artichoke bottoms, two spoonfuls of white wine, two of catchup, or just as you please.

N.B. There are many ways of dressing sweetbreads: you may lard them with thin slips of bacon, and roast them with what sauce you please; or you may marinate them, but them into thin slices, flour them and fry them.  Serve them up with fried parsley, and either butter or gravy.  Garnish with lemon.

*Culinary names for the thymus (throat, gullet, or neck) or the pancreas (also heart, stomach, or belly) especially of the calf (ris de veau) and lamb (ris d’agneau) (although beef and pork sweetbreads are also eaten).

Calf’s chitterlings or àndouilles.

Take some of the largest calf’s guts, cleanse them, cut them in pieces proportionable to the length of the puddings you design to make, and tie one end to these pieces; then take some bacon, with a calf’s udder and chaldron blanched, and cut into dice or slices, put them into a stew-pan and season with fine spice pounded, a bay-leaf, some salt, pepper, and shallot cut small, and about half a pint of cream; toss it up, take off the pan, and thicken your mixture with four or five yolks of eggs and some crumbs of bread, then fill up your chitterlings* with the stuffing, keep it warm, tie the other end with packthread, blanch and boil them like hog’s chitterlings, let them grow cold in their own liquor before you serve them up; boil them over a moderate fire, and serve them up pretty hot.  These sort of andouilles, or puddings, must be made in summer, when hogs are seldom killed.

* Chitterling:  Guts, bowls, tripe, entrails

To dress calf’s chitterlings curiously.

Cut a calf’s nut in slices of its length, and the thickness of a finger, together with some ham, bacon, and the white of chickens, cut after the same manner; put the whole into a stew-pan, seasoned with salt, pepper, sweet-herbs, and spice, then take the guts cleansed, cut and divide them in parcels, and fill them with your slices; then lay in the bottom of a kettle or pan some slices of bacon and veal, season them with some pepper, salt, a bay leaf, and an onion, and lay some bacon and veal over them; then put in a pint of white wine, and let it stew softly, close covered with fire over and under it, if the pot or pan will allow it; then broil the puddings on a sheet of white paper, well buttered on the inside.

To dress a ham à la Braise.

Clear the knuckle, take off the swerd*, and lay it in water to freshen; then tie it about with a string, take slices of bacon and beef, beat and season them well with spice and sweet-herbs; then lay them in the bottom of a kettle with onions, parsnips and carrots sliced, with some chives and parsley; lay in your ham the fat side uppermost, and cover it with slices of beef and over that slices of bacon, then lay on some sliced roots and herbs, the same as under it:  cover it close, and stop it close with paste, but fire both over and under it, and let it stew with a very slow fire twelve hours; put it in a pan, drudge it well with grated bread, and brown it with a hot iron; then serve it upon a clean napkin:  garnish with raw parsley.

Note, If you eat it hot, make a ragoo thus:  take a veal sweetbread**, some livers of fowls, cocks-combs, mushrooms, and truffles; toss them up in a pint of good gravy, seasoned with spice as you like, thicken it with a piece of butter rolled in flour, and a glass of red wine; then brown your ham as above, and let it stand a quarter of an hour to drain the fat out; take the liquor it was stewed in, strain it, skim all the fat off, put it to the gravy, and boil it up.  It will do as well as the essence of ham.  Sometimes you may serve it up with a ragoo of crawfish, and sometimes with carp sauce.

* Swerd = skin

*Culinary names for the thymus (throat, gullet, or neck) or the pancreas (also heart, stomach, or belly) especially of the calf (ris de veau) and lamb (ris d’agneau) (although beef and pork sweetbreads are also eaten).

To roast a ham or gammon.

Take off the swerd, or what we call the skin, or rhind, and lay it in lukewarm water for two or three hours; then lay it in a pan, pour upon it a quart of canary*, and let it steep in it for ten or twelve hours.  When you have spitted it, put some sheets of white paper over the fat side, pour the canary in which it was soaked in the dripping-pan, and baste with it all the time it is roasting; when it is roasted enough, pull off the paper, and drudge it well with crumbled bread and parsley shred fine; make the fire brisk, and brown it well.  If you eat it hot, garnish it with rasping of bread; if cold, serve it on a clean napkin, and garnish it with green parsley for a second course.

* Canary:  She is most likely referring to a type of white wine from the Canary Islands; it was made from the Malvasia wine grape, and grown historically in the Mediterranean regions, Balearic islands, and Madeira.

To stuff a chine* of pork.

Make a stuffing of the fat leaf of pork, parsley, thyme, sage, eggs, crumbs of bread; season it with pepper, salt, shallot, and nutmeg, and stuff it thick; then roast it gently, and when it is about a quarter roasted, cut the skin in slips, and make your sauce with apples, lemon-peel, two or three cloves, and a blade of mace; sweeten it with sugar, put some butter in, and have mustard in a cup.

Chine:  A cut of meat including at least part of the backbone.

Various ways of dressing a pig.

First skin your pig up to the ears whole, then make a good plumb-pudding batter, with good beef fat, fruit, eggs, milk, and flour, fill the skin, and sew it up; it will look like a pig; but you must bake it, flour it very well, and rub it all over with butter, and when it is near enough, draw it to the oven’s mouth, rub it dry, and put it in again for a few minute; lay it in the dish, and let the sauce be small gravy and butter in the dish:  cut the other part of the pig into four quarters, roast them as you do lamb, throw mint and parsley on it as it roasts; then lay them on water-cresses, and have mint-sauce in a bason.

Any one of these quarters will make a pretty side-dish:  or take one quarter and roast, cut the other in steaks, and fry them fine and brown.  Have stewed spinach in the dish, and lay the roast upon it, and the fried in the middle.  Garnish with hard eggs and Seville oranges cut into quarters, and have some butter in a cup:  or for a change, you may have good gravy in the dish, and garnish with fried parsley and lemon; or you may make a ragoo of sweetbreads*, artichoke-bottoms, truffles, morels, and good gravy, and pour over them.  Garnish with lemon.  Either of these will do for a top dish of a first course, or bottom dishes at a second course.  You may fricasey it white for a second course at top, or a side-dish.

You may take a pig, skin him, and fill him with force-meat** made thus:  take two pounds of young pork, fat and all, two pounds of veal the same, some sage, thyme, parsley, a little lemon-peel, pepper, salt, mace, cloves, and a nutmeg;: mix them, and beat them fine in a mortar, then fill the pig, and sew it up.  You may either roast or bake it.  Have nothing but good gravy in the dish.  Or you may cut it into slices, and lay the head in the middle.  Save the head whole with the skin on, and roast it by itself:  when it is enough cut it in two, and lay it in your dish:  have ready some good gravy and dried sage rubbed in it, thicken it with a piece of butter rolled in flour, take out the brains, beat them up with the gravy, and pour them into the dish.  You may add a hard egg chopped, and put into the sauce.

Note, You may make a very good pie of it, as you may see in the directions for pies, which you may either make a bottom or side-dish.

You must observe in your white fricasey that you take off the fat; or you may make a very good dish thus:  take a quarter of pig skinned, cut it into chops, season them with spice, and wash them with the yolks of eggs, butter the bottom of a dish, lay these steaks on the dish, and upon every steak lay some force-meat the thickness of half a crown, made thus:  take half a pound of veal, and of fat pork the same quantity, chop them very well together, and beat them in a mortar fine; add some sweet-herbs and sage, a little lemon-peel, nutmeg, pepper and salt, and a little beaten mace; upon this lay a layer of bacon or ham, and then a bay-leaf; take a little fine skewer and stick just in about two inches long, to hold them together, then pour a little melted butter over them, and send them to the oven to bake; when they are enough lay them in your dish, and pour good gravy over them, with mushrooms, and garnish with lemon.

*Culinary names for the thymus (throat, gullet, or neck) or the pancreas (also heart, stomach, or belly) especially of the calf (ris de veau) and lamb (ris d’agneau) (although beef and pork sweetbreads are also eaten).

** Force-meat – a stuffing, with either meat or bread as a base.

A pig in jelly.

Cut it into quarters, and lay it into your stew-pan, put in one calf’s foot and the pig’s feet, a pint of Rhenish wine*, the juice of four lemons, and one quart of water, three or four blades of mace, two or three cloves, some salt, and a very little piece of lemon-peel; stove it, or do it over a slow fire two hours; then take it up, lay the pig into the dish you intended it for, then strain the liquor, and when the jelly is cold, skim off the fat, and leave the settling at the bottom.  Warm the jelly again, and pour over the pig; then serve it up cold in the jelly.

* Rhenish wine:  Wine from the Rhine valley in Germany; it could refer to either red or white.

T dress a pig the French way.

Spit your pig, lay it down to the fire, let it roast till it is thoroughly warm, then cut it off the spit, and divide it in twenty pieces.  Set them to stew in half a pint of white wine, and a pint of strong broth, seasoned with grated nutmeg, pepper, two onions cut small, and some stripped thyme.  Let it stew an hour, then put to it half a pint of strong gravy, a piece of butter rolled in flour, some anchovies, and a spoonful of vinegar, or mushroom pickle:  when it is enough, lay it in your dish, and pour the gravy over it, then garnish with orange and lemon.

To dress a pig au pere duillet .

Cut off the head, and divide it into quarters, lard them with bacon, season them well with mace, cloves, pepper, nutmeg, and salt.  Lay a layer of fat bacon at the bottom of a kettle, lay the head in the middle, and the quarters round; then put in a bay-leaf, one racambole*, an onion sliced, lemon, carrots, parsnips, parsley, and chives; cover it again with bacon, put in a quart of broth, stew it over the fire for an hour, and then take it up, put your pig into a stew-pan or kettle, pour in a bottle of white wine, cover it close, and let it stew for an hour very softly.  If you would serve it cold, let it stand till it is cold; then drain it well, and wipe it, that it may look white, and lay it in a dish with the head in the middle, and the quarters round, then throw some green parsley all over:  or any one of the quarters is a very pretty little dish, laid on water-cresses.  If you would have it hot, whilst your pig is stewing in the wine, take the first gravy it was stewed in, and strain it, skim off all the fat, then take a sweetbread** cut into five or six slices, some truffles, morels, and mushrooms; stew all together till they are enough, thicken it with the yolks of two eggs, or a piece of butter rolled in flour, and when your pig is enough take it out, and lay it in your dish; and put the wine it was stewed in to the ragoo; then pour all over the pig, and garnish with lemon.

*Racambole:  Rocambole is an alternative name for the shallot, or sand-leek, a type of wild onion.

*Culinary names for the thymus (throat, gullet, or neck) or the pancreas (also heart, stomach, or belly) especially of the calf (ris de veau) and lamb (ris d’agneau) (although beef and pork sweetbreads are also eaten).

A pig matelote.

Gut and scald your pig, cut off the head and pettytoes, then cut your pig in four quarters, put them with the head and toes into cold water; cover the bottom of a stew-pan with slices of bacon, and place over them the said quarters, with the pettytoes and the head cut in two.  Season the whole with pepper, salt, thyme, bay-leaf, an onion, and a bottle of white wine; lay over more slices of bacon, put over it a quart of water, and let it boil.  Take two large eels, skin and gut them, anc cut them about five or six inches long; when your pig is half done, put in your eels, then boil a dozen large craw-fish, cut off the claws, and take off the shells of the tails; and when your pig and eels are enough, lay first your pig and the pettytoes round it, but don’t put in the head (it will be a pretty dish cold), then lay your eels and craw-fish over them, and take the liquor they were stewed in, skim off all the fat, then add to it half a pint of strong gravy thickened with a little piece of burnt butter, and pour over it, then garnish with craw-fish and lemon.  This will do for a first course, or remove.  Fry the brains and lay round, and all over the dish.

To dress a pig like a fat lamb.

Take a fat pig, cut off his head, slit and truss him up like a lamb; when he is slit through the middle and skinned, parboil him a little, then throw some parsley over him, and roast it and drudge it.  Let your sauce be half a pound of butter and a pint of cream, stirred all together till it is smooth; then pour it over and send it to table.

To roast a pig with the hair on.

Draw your pig very clean at vent, then take out the guts liver, and lights; cut off his feet, and truss him, prick up his belly, spit him, lay him down to the fire, but take care not to scorch him:  when the skin begins to rise up in blisters, pull off the skin, hair and all:  when you have cleared the pig of both, scorch him down to the bones, and baste him with butter and cream or half a pound of butter, and a pint of milk, put it into the dripping-pan, and keep basting it well; then throw some salt over it, and drudge it with crumbs of bread till it is half an inch or an inch thick.  When it is enough, and of a fine brown, but not scorched, take it up, lay it in your dish, and let your sauce be good gravy, thickened with butter rolled in a little flour; or else make the following sauce:  take half a pound of butter and a pint of cream, put them on the fire, and keep them stirring one way all the time; when the butter is melted, and the sauce thickened, pour it into your dish.  Don’t garnish with any thing, unless some rasping of bread; and then with your fingers figure it as you fancy.

To roast a pig with the skin on.

Let your pig be newly killed, draw him, flay him, and wipe him very dry with a cloth; then make a hard meat with a pint of cream, the yolks of six eggs, grated bread, and beef-suet, seasoned with salt, pepper, mace, nutmeg, thyme and lemon-peel:  make of this a pretty stiff pudding, stuff the belly of the pig, and sew it up; then spit it, and lay it down to roast.  Let your dripping-pan be very clean, then pour into it a pint of red wine, grate some nutmeg all over it, then throw a little salt over, a little thyme, and some lemon-peel minced; when it is enough shake a little flour over it, and baste it with butter, to have a fine froth.  Take it up and lay it in a dish, cut off the head, take the sauce which is in your dripping-pan, and thicken it with a piece of butter; then take the brains, bruise them, mix them with the sauce, rub in a little dried sage, pour it into your dish, serve it up.  Garnish with hard eggs cut into quarters, and if you have not sauce enough, add half a pint of good gravy.

Note, You must take great care no ashes fall into the dripping-pan, which may be prevented by having a good fire, which will not want any stirring.

To make a pretty dish of a breast of venison.

Take half a pound of butter, flour your venison, and fry it of a fine brown on both sides; then take it up and keep it hot covered in the dish:  take some flour, and stir it into the butter till it is quite thick and brown (but take care it don’t burn) stir in half a pound of lump-sugar beat fine, and pour in as much red wine as will make it of the thickness of a ragoo; squeeze in the juice of a lemon, give it a boil up, and pour it over the venison.  Don’t garnish the dish, but send it to table.

To boil a haunch or neck of venison.

Lay it in salt for a week, then boil it in a cloth well floured; for every pound of venison allow a quarter of an hour for the boiling.  For sauce you must boil some cauliflowers, pulled into little sprigs in milk and water, some fine white cabbage, some turnips cut into dice, with some beetroot cut into long narrow pieces, about an inch and a half long, and half an inch thick:  lay a sprig of cauliflower, and some of the turnips mashed with some cream and a little butter; let your cabbage be boiled, and then beat in a saucepan with a piece of butter and salt, lay that next the cauliflower, then the turnips, then cabbage, and so on, till the dish is full; place the beetroot here and there, just as you fancy; it looks very pretty, and is a fine dish.  Have a little butter in a cup, if wanted.

Note, A leg of mutton cut venison fashion, and dressed the same way, is a pretty dish:  or a fine neck, with the scraig* cut off.  This eats well boiled or hashed, with gravy and sweet sauce the next day.

* Scraig:  Scrag, the lean end of a neck of veal

To boil a leg of mutton like venison.

Take a leg of mutton cut venison fashion, boil it in a cloth well floured; and have three or four cauliflowers boiled, pulled into sprigs, stewed in a saucepan with butter, and a little pepper and salt; then have some spinach picked and washed clean, put it into a saucepan with a little salt, covered close, and stewed a little while; then drain the liquor, and pour in a quarter of a pint of good gravy, and good piece of butter rolled in flour, and a little pepper and salt; when stewed enough lay the spinach in the dish, the mutton in the middle, and the cauliflower over it, then pour the butter the cauliflower was stewing in over it all:  but you are to observe in stewing the cauliflower, to melt your butter nicely, as for the sauce, before the cauliflower goes in.  This is a genteel dish for a first course at bottom.

To roast tripe.

Cut your trip in two square pieces, somewhat long, have a force-meat* made of crumbs of bread, pepper, salt, nutmeg, sweet-herbs, lemon-peel, and the yolks of eggs mixt all together; spread it on the fat side of the trip, and lay the other fat side next it; then roll it as light as you can, and tie it with a packthread; spit it, roast it, and baste it with butter; when roasted lay it in your dish, and for sauce melt some butter, and add what drops from the tripe.  Boil it together, and garnish with rasping**.

* Force-meat – a stuffing, with either meat or bread as a base.

**Raspings = dried bread crumbs, scraped or “rasped” from toasted bread.

To dress poultry

To roast a turkey.

The best way to roast a turkey is to loosen the skin on the breast of the turkey, and fill it with force-meat* thus:  take a quarter of a pound of beef-suet, as many crumbs of bread, a little lemon-peel, an anchovy, some nutmeg, pepper, parsley, and a little thyme.  Chop and beat them all together, mix them with the yolk of an egg, and stuff up the breast; when you have no suet, butter will do:  or you may make your force-meat thus:  spread bread and butter thin, and grate some nutmeg over it:  when you have enough roll it up, and stuff the breast of the turkey; then roast it of a fine brown, but be sure to pin some white paper on the breast till it is near enough.  You must have good gravy in the dish, and bread sauce made thus:  take a good piece of crumb, put it into a pint of water, with a blade or two of mace, two or three cloves, and some whole pepper.  Boil it up five or six times, then with a spoon take out the spice you had before put in, and then you must pour off the water (you may boil an onion in it if you please); then beat up the bread with a good piece of butter and a little salt; or onion-sauce, made thus:  take some onions, peel them and cut them into thin slices, and boil them half an hour in milk and water; then drain the water from them and beat them up with a good piece of butter; shake a little flour in, and stir it together with a little cream, if you have it, (or milk will do); put the sauce into boats, and garnish with lemon.

Another way to make sauce:  Take half a pint of oysters, strain the liquor, and put the oysters with the liquor into a sauce-pan, with a blade or two of mace; let them just lump, then pour in a glass of white wine, let it boil once, and thicken it with a piece of butter rolled in flour.  Serve this up in a bason by itself, with good gravy in the dish, for every body don’t love oyster-sauce. This makes a pretty side-dish for supper, or a corner-dish of a table for dinner.  If you chafe it in the dish, add half a pint of gravy to it, and boil it up together.  This sauce is good either with boiled or roasted turkies or fowls; but you may leave the gravy out, adding as much butter as will do for sauce, and garnishing with lemon.

* Force-meat – a stuffing, with either meat or bread as a base.

To make mock oyster sauce, either for turkies or fowls boiled.

Force the turkies or fowls as above, and make your sauce thus:  take a quarter of a pint of water, an anchovy, a blade or two of mace, a piece of lemon-peel, and five or six whole peppercorns.  Boil these together, then strain them, add as much butter with a little flour as will do for sauce; let it boil, and lay sausages round the fowl or turkey.  Garnish with lemon.

To make mushroom sauce for white fowls of all sorts.

Take a pint of mushrooms, wash and pick them very clean, and put them into a saucepan, with a little salt, some nutmeg, a blade of mace, a pint of cream, and a good piece of butter rolled in flour.  Boil these all together, and keep stirring them; then pour your sauce into your dish, and garnish with lemon.

Mushroom sauce for white fowls boiled.

Take half a pint of cream, and a quarter of a pound of butter, stir them together one way till it is thick; then add a spoonful of mushrooms pickle, pickled mushrooms, or fresh if you have them.  Garnish only with lemon.

To make celery-sauce, either for roasted or boiled fowls, turkies, partridges, or any other game.

Take a large bunch of celery, wash and pare it very clean, cut it into little thin bits, and boil it softly in a little water till it is tender; then add a little beaten mace, some nutmeg, pepper, and salt, thickened with a good piece of butter rolled in flour; then boil it up, and pour in your dish.  You may make it with cream thus:  boil your celery as above, and add some mace, nutmeg, a piece of butter as big as a walnut rolled in flour, and half a pint of cream; boil them all together, and you may add, if you will, a glass of white wine, and a spoonful of catchup.

To make brown celery-sauce.

Stew the celery as above, then add mace, nutmeg, pepper, salt, a piece of butter rolled in flour, with a glass of red wine, a spoonful of catchup, and half a pint of good gravy; boil all these together, and pour into the dish.  Garnish with lemon.

To stew a turkey or fowl in celery-sauce.

You must judge according to the largeness of your turkey or fowl, what celery or sauce you want.  Take a large fowl, put it into a saucepan or pot, and put to it one quart of good broth or gravy, a bunch of celery washed clean and cut small, with some mace, cloves, pepper, and allspice tied loose in a muslin rag; put in an onions and a sprig of thyme; let these stew softly till they are enough, then add a piece of butter rolled in flour; take up your fowl, and pour the sauce over it.  An hour will do for a large fowl, or a small turkey; but a very large turkey will take two hours to do it softly.  If it is overdone or dry it is spoiled; but you may be a judge of that, if you look at it now and then.  Mind to take out the onion, thyme, and spice, before you send it to table.

Note, A neck of veal done this way is very good, and will take two hours doing.

To make egg sauce, proper for roasted chickens.

Melt your butter thick and fine, chop two or three hard-boiled eggs fine, put them into a bason, pour the butter over them, and have good gravy in the dish.

Shalot-sauce for roasted fowls.

Take five or six shallots peeled and cut small, put them into a saucepan, with two spoonfuls of white wine, two or water, and two of vinegar; give them a boil up, and pour them into your dish, with a little pepper and salt.  Fowls roasted and laid on watercresses is very good, without any other sauce.

Shalot-sauce for a scrag of mutton boiled.

Take two spoonfuls of the liquor the mutton is boiled in, two spoonfuls of vinegar, two or three shallots cut fine, with a little salt; put it into a saucepan, with a piece of butter as big as a walnut rolled in a little flour; stir it together, and give it a boil.  For those who love shallot, it is the prettiest sauce that can be made to a scraig* of mutton.

* Scraig:  Scrag, the lean end of a neck of veal

To dress livers with mushroom-sauce.

Take some pickled or fresh mushrooms, cut small; both if you have them; and let the livers be bruised fine, with a good deal of parsley chopped small, a spoonful or two of catchup, a glass of white wine; and as much good gravy as will make sauce enough; thicken it with a piece of butter rolled in flour.  This does either for roasted or boiled.

A pretty little sauce.

Take the liver of a fowl, bruise it with a little of the liquor, cut a little lemon-peel fine, melt some good butter, and mix the liver by degrees; give it a boil, and pour it into the dish.

To make lemon-sauce for boiled fowls.

Take a lemon, pare off the rind, then cut it into slices, and cut it small; take all the kernels out, bruise the liver with two or three spoonfuls of gravy, then melt some butter, mix it all together, give them a boil, and cut in a little lemon-peel very small.

A German way of dressing fowls.

Take a turkey or fowl, stuff the breast with what force-meat* you like, and fill the body with roasted chestnuts peeled.  Roast it, and have some more roasted chestnuts, peeled, put them in half a pint of good gravy, with a little piece of butter rolled in flour; boil these together, with some small turnips and sausages cut in slices, and fried or boiled.  Garnish with chestnuts.

Note, you may dress ducks the same way.

* Force-meat – a stuffing, with either meat or bread as a base.

To dress a turkey or fowl, to perfection.

Bone them, and make a force-meat* thus:  take the flesh of a fowl, cut it small, then take a pound of veal, beat it in a mortar, with half a pound of beef-suet, as much crumbs of bread, some mushrooms, truffles and morels cut small, a few sweet-herbs and parsley, with some nutmeg, pepper, and salt, a little mace beaten, some lemon-peel cut fine; mix all these together, with the yolks of two eggs, then fill your turkey, and roast it.  This will do for a large turkey, and so in proportion for a fowl.  Let your sauce be a good gravy, with mushrooms, truffles and morels in it: then garnish with lemon, and for variety sake you may lard your fowl or turkey.

* Force-meat – a stuffing, with either meat or bread as a base.

To stew a turkey brown.

Take your turkey, after it is nicely picked and drawn, fill the skin of the breast with force-meat*, and put an anchovy, a shallot, and a little thyme in the belly, lard the breast with bacon, then put a good piece of butter in the stew-pan, flour the turkey, and fry it just of a fine brown; then take it out, and put it into a deep stew-pan, or little pot, that will just hold it, and put in as much gravy as will barely cover it, a glass of red wine, some whole pepper, mace, two or three cloves, and a little bundle of sweet-herbs; cover it close, and stew it for an hour, then take up the turkey, and keep it hot covered by the fire, and boil the sauce to about a pint, strain it off, add the yolks of two eggs, and a piece of butter rolled in flour; stir it till it is thick, and then lay your turkey in the dish, and pour your sauce over it.  You may have ready some little French loaves, about the bigness of an egg, cut off the tops, and take out the crumb; then fry them of a fine brown, fill them with stewed oysters, lay them round the dish, and garnish with lemon.

* Force-meat – a stuffing, with either meat or bread as a base.

To stew a turkey brown the nice way.

Bone it, and fill it with a force-meat* made thus:  take the flesh of a fowl, half a pound of veal, and the flesh of two pigeons, with a well-pickled or dry tongue, peel it, and chop it all together, then beat in a mortar, with the marrow of a beef bone, or a pound of the fat of a loin of veal; season it with two or three blades of mace, two or three cloves, and half a nutmeg dried at a good distance from the fire, and pounded, with a little pepper and salt:  mix all these together, fill your turkey, fry them of a fine brown, and put it into a little pot that will just hold it; lay four or five skewers at the bottom of the pot, to keep the turkey from sticking; put in a quart of good beef and veal gravy, wherein was boiled spice and sweet-herbs, cover it close, and let it stew half an hour; then put in a glass of red wine, one spoonful of catchup, a large spoonful of pickled mushrooms, and a few fresh ones, if you have them, a few truffles and morels, a piece of
butter as big as a walnut rolled in flour; cover it close, and let it stew half an hour longer; get the little French rolls ready fried, take some oysters, and strain the liquor from them, then put the oysters and liquor into a saucepan, with a blade of mace, a little white wine, and a piece of butter rolled in flour; let them stew till it is thick, then fill the loaves, lay the turkey in the dish, and pour the sauce over it.  If there is any fat on the gravy take it off, and lay the loaves on each side of the turkey.  Garnish with lemon when you have no loaves, and take oysters dipped in batter and fried.

Note, The same will do for any white fowl.

* Force-meat – a stuffing, with either meat or bread as a base.

A fowl à la braise.

Truss your fowl, with the leg turned into the belly, season it both inside and out, with beaten mace, nutmeg, pepper, and salt, lay a layer of bacon at the bottom of a deep stew-pan, then a layer of veal, and afterwards the fowl, then put in an onion, two or three cloves stuck in a little bundle of sweet-herbs, with a piece of carrot, then put at the top a layer of bacon, another of veal, and a third of beef, cover it close, and let it stand over the fire for two or three minutes, then pour in a pint of broth, or hot water; cover it close, and let it stew an hour, afterwards take up your fowl, strain the sauce, and after you have skimmed off the fat, thicken it with a little piece of butter.  You may add just what you please to the sauce.  A ragoo of sweet-herbs, cocks-combs, truffles and morels, or mushrooms, with force-meat* balls, looks very pretty, or any of the sauces above.

* Force-meat – a stuffing, with either meat or bread as a base.

To force a fowl.

Take a good fowl, pick and draw it, slit the skin down the back, and take the flesh from the bones, mince it very small, and mix it with one pound of beef-suet shred, a pint of large oysters chopped, two anchovies, a shallot, a little grated bread, and some sweet-herbs; shred all this very well, mix them together, and make it up with the yolks of eggs, then turn all these ingredients on the bones again, and draw the skin over again, then sew up the back, and either boil the fowl in a bladder an hour and a quarter, or roast it, then stew some more oysters in gravy, bruise in a little of your force-meat*, mix it up with a little fresh butter, and a very little flour; then give it a boil, lay your fowl in the dish, and pour the sauce over it, garnishing with lemon.

* Force-meat – a stuffing, with either meat or bread as a base.

To roast a fowl with chestnuts.

First take some chestnuts, roast them very carefully, so as not to burn them, take off the skin, and peel them, take about a dozen of them cut small, and bruise them in a mortar; parboil the liver of the fowl, bruise it, cut about a quarter of a pound of ham or bacon, and pound it; then mix them all together, with a good deal of parsley chopped small, a little sweet-herbs, some mace, pepper, salt, and nutmeg; mix these together and put into your fowl, and roast it.  The best way of doing it is to tie the neck, and hang it up by the legs to roast with a string, and baste it with butter.  For sauce take the rest of the chestnuts peeled and skinned, put them into some good gravy, with a little white wine, and thicken it with a piece of butter rolled in flour; then take up your fowl, lay it in the dish, and pour in the sauce.  Garnish with lemon.

Pullets à la Saint Menehout.

After having trussed the legs in the body, slit them along the back, spread them open on a table, take out the thigh bone, and beat them with a rolling pin; then season them with pepper, salt, mace, nutmeg, and sweet-herbs; after that take a pound and a half of veal, cut it into thin slices, and lay it in a stew-pan of a convenient size to stew the pullets in:  cover it and set it over a stove or slow fire, and when it begins to cleave to the pan, stir in a little flour, shake the pan about till it be a little brown, then pour in as much broth as will stew the fowls, stir in together, put in a little whole pepper, an onions, and a little piece of bacon or ham; then lay in your fowls, cover them close, and let the stew half an hour; then take them out, lay them on the gridiron to brown on the inside, then lay them before the fire to do on the outside; strew them over with the yolk of an egg, some crumbs of bread, and baste them with a little butter:  let them be of a fine brown, and boil the gravy till there is about enough for sauce, strain it, and put a few mushrooms in, and a little piece of butter rolled in flour; lay the pullets in the dish, and pour in the sauce.  Garnish with lemon.

Note, You may brown them in the oven, or fry them, which you please.

Chicken surprize.

If a small dish, one large fowl will do; roast it, and take the lean from the bone, cut it in thin slices, about an inch long, toss it up with six or seven spoonfuls of cream, and a piece of butter rolled in flour, as big as a walnut.  Boil it up and set it to cool; then cut six or seven thin slices of bacon round, place them in a petty-pan, and put some force-meat* on each side, work them up in the form of a French-roll, with a raw egg in your hand, leaving a hollow place in the middle; put in your fowl, and cover them with some of the same force-meat, rubbing them smooth with your hand and raw egg; make them of the height and bigness of a French-roll, and throw a little fine grated bread over them.  Bake them three quarters or an hour in a gentle oven, or under a baking cover, till they come to a fine brown, and place them on your mazarine, that they may not touch one another, but place them so that they may not fall flat in the baking; or you may form them on your table with a broad kitchen knife, and place them on the thing you intend to bake them on.  You may put the leg of a chicken into one of the loaves your intend for the middle.  Let your sauce be gravy thickened with butter and a little juice of lemon.  This is a pretty side-dish for a first course, summer or winter, if you can get them.

* Force-meat – a stuffing, with either meat or bread as a base.

Mutton chops in disguise.

Take as many mutton chops as you want, rub them with pepper, salt, nutmeg, and a little parsley; roll each chop in half a sheet of white paper, well buttered on the inside, and rolled on each end close.  Have some hog’s lard, or beef-dripping boiling in a stew-pan, put in the steaks, fry them of a fine brown, lay them in your dish, and garnish with fried parsley; throw some all over, have a little good gravy in a cup, but take great care you do not break the paper, nor have any fat in the dish, but let them be well drained.

Chickens roasts with force-meat* and cucumbers.

Take two chickens, dress them very neatly, bread the breast-bone, and make force-meat thus:  take the flesh of a fowl, and of two pigeons, with some slices of ham or bacon, chop them all well together, take the crumb of a penny loaf soaked in milk and boiled, then set to cool; when it is cool mix it all together, season it with beaten mace, nutmeg, pepper, and a little salt, a very little thyme, some parsley, and a little lemon-peel, with the yolks of two eggs; then fill your fowls, spit them, and tie them at both ends; after you have papered the breast, take four cucumbers, cut them in two, and lay them in salt and water two or three hours before; then dry them, and fill them with some of the force-meat (which you must take care to save) and tie them with a packthread, flour them and fry them of a fine brown; when your chickens are enough, lay them in the dish and untie your cucumbers, but take care the meat do not come out; then lay them round the chicken with the fat side downwards, and the narrow end upwards.  You must have some rich fried gravy, and pour into the dish; then garnish with lemon.

Note, One large fowl done this way, with the cucumbers laid round it, looks very pretty, and is a very good dish.

* Force-meat – a stuffing, with either meat or bread as a base.

Chickens à la braise.

You must take a couple of fine chicken, lard them, and season them with pepper, salt, and mace; then lay a layer of veal in the bottom of a deep stew-pan, with a slice or two of bacon, an onion cut to pieces, a piece of carrot and a layer of beef; then lay in the chickens with the breast downward, and a bundle of sweet-herbs:  after that lay a layer of beef, and put in a quart of broth or water; cover it close, let it stew very softly for an hour after it begins to simmer.  In the mean time, get ready a ragoo thus:  take a good veal sweetbread*, or two, cut them small, set them on the fire, with a very little broth or water, a few cocks-combs, truffles and morels, cut small with an ox-palate, if you have it; stew them all together till they are enough; and when your chickens are done, take them up, and keep them hot; then strain the liquor they were stewed in, skim the fat off, and pour into your ragoo, add a glass of red wine, a spoonful of catchup, and a few mushrooms; then boil all together, with a few artichoke bottoms cut in four, and asparagus-tops.  If your sauce is not thick enough, take a little piece of butter rolled in flour, and when enough lay your chickens in the dish, and pour the ragoo over them.  Garnish with lemon.

Or you may make your sauce thus:  take the gravy the fowls were stewed in, strain it, skim off the fat, have ready half a pint of oysters, with the liquor strained, put them to your gravy with a glass of white wine, a good piece of butter rolled in flour; then boil them all together, and pour over your fowls.  Garnish with lemon.

*Culinary names for the thymus (throat, gullet, or neck) or the pancreas (also heart, stomach, or belly) especially of the calf (ris de veau) and lamb (ris d’agneau) (although beef and pork sweetbreads are also eaten).

To marinate fowls.

Take a fine large fowl or turkey, raise the skin from the breast-bone with your finger, then take a veal sweetbread* and cut it small, a few oysters, a few mushrooms, an anchovy, some pepper, a little nutmeg, some lemon-peel, and a little thyme; chop all together small, and mixt with the yolk of an egg, stuff it in between the skin and the flesh, but take great care you do not break the skin, and then stuff what oysters you please into the body of the fowl.  You may lard the breast of the fowl with bacon, if you chuse it.  Paper the breast, and roast it.  Make good gravy, and garnish with lemon.  You may add a few mushrooms to the sauce.

*Culinary names for the thymus (throat, gullet, or neck) or the pancreas (also heart, stomach, or belly) especially of the calf (ris de veau) and lamb (ris d’agneau) (although beef and pork sweetbreads are also eaten).

To broil chickens.

Slit them down the back, and season them with pepper and salt, lay them on a very clear fire, and at a great distance.  Let the inside lie next the fire till it is above half done:  then turn them, and take great care the fleshy side do not burn, throw some fine raspings of bread over it, and let them be of a fine brown, but not burnt.  Let your sauce be good gravy, with mushrooms, and garnish with lemon and the livers broiled, the gizzards cut, slashed, and broiled with pepper and salt.

Or this sauce; take a handful of sorrel, dipped in boiling water, drain it, and have ready half a pint of good gravy, a shallot shred small, and some parsley boiled very green; thicken it with a piece of butter rolled in flour, and add a glass of red wine, then lay your sorrel in heaps round the fowls, and pour the sauce over them.  Garnish with lemon.

Note, You may make just what sauce you fancy.

Pulled chickens.

Take three chickens, boil them just fit for eating, but not too much; when they are boiled enough, flay all the skin off, and take the white flesh off the bones, pull it into pieces about as thick as a large quill, and half as long as your finger.  Have ready a quarter of a pint of good cream and a piece of fresh butter about as big as an egg, stir them together till the butter is all melted, and then put in your chickens with the gravy that came from them, give them two or three tosses round on the fire, put them into a dish, and send them up hot.

Note, The leg makes a very pretty dish by itself, broiled very nicely with some pepper and salt; the livers being broiled and the gizzards broiled, cut, and slashed, and lay round the legs, with good gravy-sauce in the dish.  Garnish with lemon.

A pretty way of stewing chickens.

Take two fine chickens, half boil them, then take them up in a pewter, or silver dish, if you have one; cut up your fowls, and separate all the joint-bones one from another, and then take out the breast-bones.  If there is not liquor enough from the fowls, add a few spoonfuls of water they were boiled in, put in a blade of mace, and a little salt; cover it close with another dish, set it over a stove or chaffing-dish of coals, let it stew till the chickens are enough, and then send them hot to the tale in the same dish they were stewed in.

Note, This is a very pretty dish for any sick person, or for a lying-in lady.  For change it is better than butter, and the sauce is very agreeable and pretty.

N.B. You may do rabbits, partridges, or moor-game this way.

Chickens chiringrate.

Cut off their feet, break the breast-bone flat with a rolling pin, but take care you don’t break the skin; flour them, fry them of a fine brown in butter, then drain all the fat out of the pan, but leave the chickens in.  Lay a pound of gravy-beef cut very thin over your chickens, and a piece of veal cut very thin, a little mace, two or three cloves, some whole pepper, an onion, a little bundle of sweet-herbs, and a piece of carrot, and then pour in a quart of boiling water; cover it close, let it stew for a quarter of an hour, then take out the chickens and keep them hot:  let the gravy boil till it is quite rich and good, then strain it off and put it into your pan again, with two spoonfuls of red wine and a few mushrooms; put in your chickens to heat, then take them up, lay them into your dish, and pour your sauce over them.  Garnish with lemon, and a few slices of cold ham warmed in the gravy.

Note, You may fill your chickens with force-meat*, and lard them with bacon, and add truffles, morels, and sweetbreads** cut small, but then it will be a very high dish.

* Force-meat – a stuffing, with either meat or bread as a base.

**Culinary names for the thymus (throat, gullet, or neck) or the pancreas (also heart, stomach, or belly) especially of the calf (ris de veau) and lamb (ris d’agneau) (although beef and pork sweetbreads are also eaten).

Chickens boiled with bacon and celery.

Boil two chickens very white in a pot by themselves, and a piece of ham, or good thick bacon; boil two bunches of celery tender, then cut them about two inches long, all the white part, put it into a saucepan with half a pint of cream, a piece of butter rolled in flour, and some pepper and salt; set it on the fire, and shake it often:  when it is thick and fine, lay your chickens in the dish and pour your sauce in the middle, that the celery may lie between the fowls, and garnish the dish all round with slices of ham or bacon.

Note, if you have cold ham in the house, that, cut into slices and broiled, does full as well, or better, to lay round the dish.

Chickens with tongues.  A good dish for a great deal of company.

Take six small chickens boiled very white, six hogs tongues, boiled and peeled, a cauliflower boiled very white in milk and water whole, and a good deal of spinach boiled green; then lay your cauliflower in the middle, the chickens close all round, and the tongues round them with the roots outward, and the spinach in little heaps between the tongues.  Garnish with little pieces of bacon toasted, and lay a little piece on each of the tongues.

Scotch chickens.

First wash your chickens, dry them in a clean cloth, and singe them, then cut them into quarters; put them into a stew-pan or saucepan, and just cover them with water, put in a blade or two of mace and a little bundle of parsley; cover them close, and let them stew half an hour, then chop half a handful of clean washed parsley, and throw in, and have ready six eggs, whites and all, beat fine.  Let your liquor boiled up, and pour the egg all over them as it boils; then send all together hot in a deep dish, but take out the bundle of parsley first.  You must be sure to skim them well before you put in your mace, and the broth will be fine and clear.

Note, This is also a very pretty dish for sick people, but the Scotch gentlemen are very fond of it.

To marinate chickens.

Cut two chickens into quarters, lay them in vinegar for three or four hours, with pepper, salt, a bay-leaf, and a few cloves, make a very thick batter, first with half a pint of wine and flour, then the yolks of two eggs, a little melted butter, some grated nutmeg and chopped parsley; beat all very well together, dip your fowls in the batter, and fry them in a good deal of hog’s lard, which must first boil before you put your chickens in.  Let them be of a fine brown, and lay them in your dish like a pyramid, with fried parsley all round them.  Garnish with lemon, and have some good gravy in boats or basons.

To stew chickens.

Take two chickens, cut them into quarters, wash them clean, and then put them into a saucepan; put to them a quarter of a pint of water, half a pint of red wine, some mace, pepper, a bundle of sweet-herbs, an onions, and a few raspings; cover them close, let them stew half an hour, then take a piece of butter about as big as an egg rolled in flour, put in, and cover it close for five or six minutes, shake the saucepan about, then take out the sweet-herbs and onion.  You may take the yolks of two eggs, beat and mixed with them; if you don’t like it, leave them out.  Garnish with lemon.

Ducks à la mode.

Take two fine ducks, cut them into quarters, fry them in butter a little brown, then pour out all the fat, and throw a little flour over them; and half a pint of good gravy, a quarter of a pint of red wine, two shallots, an anchovy, and a bundle of sweet-herbs; cover them close, and let them stew a quarter of an hour; take out the herbs, skim off the fat, and let your sauce be as thick as cream; send it to table, and garnish with lemon.

To dress a wild duck the best way.

First half roast it, then lay it in a dish, carve it, but leave the joints hanging together, throw a little pepper and salt, and squeeze the juice of a lemon over it, turn it on the breast, and press it hard with a plate, and add to its own gravy, two or three spoonfuls of gravy, cover it close with another dish, and set over a stove ten minutes, then send it to table hot in the dish it was done in, and garnish with lemon.  You may add a little red wine, and a shallot cut small, if you like, but it is apt to make the duck eat hard, unless you first heat the wine and pour it in just as it is done.

To boil a duck or rabbit with onions.

Boil your duck or rabbit in a good deal of water; be sure to skim your water, for there will always rise a scum, which if it boils down will discolour your fowls, &c.  They will take about half an hour boiling; for sauce, your onions must be peeled, and throw them into water as you peel them, then cut them into thin slices, boil them in milk and water, and skim the liquor.  Half an hour will boil them.  Throw them into a clean sieve to drain them, put them into a saucepan and chop them small, shake in a little flour, put to them two or three spoonfuls of cream, a good piece of butter, stew all together over the fire till they are thick and fine, lay the duck or rabbit in the dish, and pour the sauce all over; if a rabbit, you must cut off the head, cut it in two, and lay it on each side of the dish.

Or you may make this sauce for a change:  take one large onion, cut it small, half a handful of parsley clean washed and picked, chop it small, a lettuce cut small, a quarter of a pint of good gravy, a good piece of butter rolled in a little flour; add a little juice of lemon, a little pepper and salt, let all stew together for half an hour, then add two spoonfuls of red wine.  This sauce is most proper for a duck; lay your duck in the dish, and pour your sauce over it.

To dress a duck with green pease.

Put a deep stew-pan over the fire, with a piece of fresh butter; singe your duck and flour it, turn it in the pan two or three minutes, then pour out all the fat, but let the duck remain in the pan; put to it half a pint of good gravy, a pint of pease, two lettuces cut small, a small bundle of sweet-herbs, a little pepper and salt, cover them close, and let them stew for half an hour, now and then give the pan a shake; when they are just done, grate in a little nutmeg, and put in a very little beaten mace, and thicken it either with a piece of butter rolled in flour, or the yolk of an egg bet up with two or three spoonfuls of cream; shake it all together for three or four minutes, take out the sweet-herbs, lay the duck in the dish, and pour the sauce over it.  You may garnish with boiled mint chopped, or let it alone.

To dress a duck with cucumbers.

Take three or four cucumbers, pare them, take out the seeds, cut them into little pieces, lay them in vinegar for two or three hours before, with two large onions peeled and sliced, then do your duck as above; then take the duck out, and put in the cucumbers and onions, first drain them in a cloth, let them be a little brown, shake a little flour over them; in the mean time let your duck be stewing in the saucepan with half a pint of gravy for a quarter of an hour, then add to it the cucumbers and onions, with pepper and salt to your palate, a good piece of butter rolled in flour, and two or three spoonfuls of red wine; shake all together, and let it stew together for eight or ten minutes, then take up your duck and pour the sauce over it.

Or you may roast your duck, and make this sauce and pour over it, but then a quarter or a pint of gravy will be enough.

To dress a duck à la braise.

Take a duck, lard it with little pieces of bacon, season it inside and out with pepper and salt, lay a layer of bacon cut thin, in the bottom of a stew-pan, and then a layer of lean beef cut thin, then lay your duck with some carrot, an onions, a little bundle of sweet-herbs, a blade or two or mace, and lay a thin layer of beef over the duck; cover it close, and set it over a slow fire for eight or ten minutes, then take off the cover and shake in a little flour, give the pan a shake, pour in a pint of small broth, or boiling water; give the pan a shake or two, cover it close again, and let it stew half an hour, then take off the cover, take out the duck and keep it hot, let the sauce boil till there is about a quarter of a pint or little better, then strain it and put it into the stew-pan again, with a glass of red wine; put in your duck, shake the pan, and let it stew four or five minutes; then lay your duck in the dish and pour the sauce over it, and garnish with lemon.  If you love your duck very high, you may fill it with the following ingredients:  take a veal sweetbread* cut in eight or ten pieces, a few truffles, some oysters, a little sweet-herbs and parsley chopped fine, a little pepper, salt, and beaten mace; fill your duck with the above ingredients, tie both ends tights, and dress as above; or you may fill it with force-meat** made thus:  take a little piece of veal, take all the skin and fat off, beat in a mortar, with as much suet, and an equal quantity of crumbs of bread, a few sweet-herbs, some parsley chopped, a little lemon-peel, pepper, salt, beaten mace, and nutmeg, and mix it up with the yolk of an egg.

You may stew an ox’s palate tender, and cut it into pieces, with some artichoke bottoms cut into four, and tossed up in the sauce.  You may lard your duck or let it alone, just as you please; for my part I think it best without.

*Culinary names for the thymus (throat, gullet, or neck) or the pancreas (also heart, stomach, or belly) especially of the calf (ris de veau) and lamb (ris d’agneau) (although beef and pork sweetbreads are also eaten).

** Force-meat – a stuffing, with either meat or bread as a base.

To boil ducks the French way.

Let your ducks be larded, and half roasted, then take them off the spit, put them into a large earthen pipkin, with half a pint of red wine, and a pint of good gravy, some chestnuts, first roasted and peeled, half a pint of large oysters, the liquor strained, and the beards taken off, two or three little onions minced small, a very little stripped thyme, mace, pepper and a little ginger beat fine; cover it close, and let them stew half an hour over a slow fire, and the crust of a French roll grated when you put in your gravy and wine; when they are enough take them up, and pour the sauce over them.

To dress a goose with onions or cabbage.

Salt the goose for a week, then boil it.  It will take an hour.  You may either make onion-sauce as we do for ducks, or cabbage boiled, chopped and stewed in butter, with a little pepper and salt; lay the goose in the dish, and pour the sauce over it.  It eats very good with either.

Directions for roasting a goose.

Take sage, wash it, pick it clean, chop it small, with pepper and salt; roll them with butter, and put them into the belly; never put onion into any thing, unless you are sure every body loves it; take care that your goose be clean picked and washed.  I think the best way is to scald a goose, and then you are sure it is clean, and not so strong:  let your water be scalding hot, dip in your goose for a minute, then all the feathers will come off clean:  when it is quite clean wash it with cold water, and dry it with a cloth; roast it and baste it with butter, and when it is half done throw some flour over it, that it may have a fine brown.  Three quarters of an hour will do it at a quick fire, if it is not too large, otherwise it will require an hour.  Always have good gravy in a bason, and apple-sauce in another.

A green goose.

Never put any seasoning into it, unless desired.  You must either put good gravy, or green-sauce in the dish, made thus:  Take a handful of sorrel, beat it in a mortar, and squeeze the juice out, add to it the juice of an orange or lemon, and a little sugar, heat it in a pipkin, and pour it into your dish; but the best way is to put gravy in the dish, and green-sauce in a cup or boat.  Or made thus:  take half a pint of the juice of sorrel, a spoonful of white wine, a little grated nutmeg, a little grated bread; boil these a quarter of an hour softly, then strain it, and put it into the saucepan again, and sweeten it with a little sugar, give it a boil, and pour it into a dish or bason; some like a little piece of butter rolled in flour, and put into it.

A dry a goose.

Get a fat goose, take a handful of common salt, a quarter of an ounce of salt-petre*, a quarter of a pound of coarse sugar, mix all together, and rub your goose very well:  let it lie in this pickle a fortnight, turning and rubbing it every day, then roll it in bran, and hang it up in a chimney where wood-smoke is for a week.  If you have not that conveniency, send it to the baker’s the smoke of the over will dry it; or you may hang it in your own chimney, not too near the fire, but make a fire under it, and lay horse-dung and saw dust on it, and that will smother and smoke-dry it; when it is well dried keep it in a dry place, you may keep it two or three months or more; when you boil it put in a good deal of water, and be sure to skim it well.

Note, You may boil turnips, or cabbage boiled and stewed in butter or onion-sauce.

* Saltpeter is a nitrate compound used as a food preservative.

To dress a goose in ragoo.

Flat the breast down with a cleaver, then press it down with your hand, skin it, dip it into scalding water, let it be cold, lard it with bacon, season it well with pepper, salt, and a little beaten mace, then flour it all over, take a pound of good beef-suet cut small, put it into a deep stew-pan, let it be melted, then put in your goose, let it be brown on both sides; when it is brown put in a pint of boiling water, an onion or two, a bundle of sweet-herbs, a bay-leaf, some whole pepper, and a few cloves; cover it close, and let it stew softly till it is tender.  About half an hour will do it, if small; if a large one, three quarters of an hour.  In the mean time make a ragoo, boil some turnips almost enough, some carrots and onions quite enough; cut them all into little pieces, put them into a sauce-pan with half a pint of good beef gravy, a little pepper and salt, a piece of butter rolled in flour, and let this stew altogether a quarter of an hour.  Take the goose and drain it well, then lay it in the dish, and pour the ragoo over it.

Where the onion is disliked, leave it out.  You may add cabbage boiled and chopped small.

A goose à la mode.

Take a large fine goose, pick it clean, skin it, and cut it down the back, bone it nicely, take the fat off, then take a dried tongue, boil it and peel it:  take a fowl, and do it in the same manner as the goose, season it with pepper, salt, and beaten mace, roll it round the tongue, season the goose with the same, put the tongue and fowl in the goose, and sew the goose up again in the same form it was before; put it into a little pot that will just hold it, put to it two quarts of beef-gravy, a bundle of sweet-herbs and an onion; put some slices of ham, or good bacon, between the fowl and goose; cover it close, and let it stew an hour over a good fire:  when it begins to boil let it do very softly, then take up your goose and skim off all the fat, strain it, put in a glass of red wine, two spoonfuls of catchup, a veal sweetbread* cut small, some truffles, morels, and mushrooms, a piece of butter rolled in flour, and some pepper and salt, if wanted; put in the goose again, cover it close, and let it stew half an hour longer, then take it up and pour the ragoo over it.  Garnish with lemon.

Note, This is a very fine dish.  You must mind to save the bones of the goose and fowl, and put them into the gravy when it is first set on, and it will be better if you roll some beef-marrow between the tongue and the fowl, and between the fowl and goose, it will make them mellow and eat fine.  You may add six or seven yolks of hard eggs whole in the dish, they are a pretty addition.  Take care to skim off the fat.

*Culinary names for the thymus (throat, gullet, or neck) or the pancreas (also heart, stomach, or belly) especially of the calf (ris de veau) and lamb (ris d’agneau) (although beef and pork sweetbreads are also eaten).

To stew giblets.

Let them be nicely scalded and picked, break the two pinion bones in two, cut the head in two, and cut off the nostrils; cut the liver in two, the gizzard in four, and the neck in two; slip off the skin of the neck, and make a pudding with two hard eggs chopped fine, the crumbs of a French roll steeped in hot milk two or three hours, then mix it with the hard egg, a little nutmeg, pepper, salt, and a little sage chopped fine, a very little melted butter, and stir it together; tie one end of the skin, and fill it with ingredients, tie the other end tight, and put all together in the sauce-pan, with a quart of good mutton broth, a bundle of sweet-herbs, an onion, some whole pepper, mace, two or three cloves tied up loose in a muslin rag, and a very little piece of lemon-peel; cover them close, and let them stew till quite tender, then take a small French roll toasted brown on all sides, and put it into the sauce-pan, give it a shake, and let it stew till there is just gravy enough to eat with them, then take out the onion, sweet-herbs, and spice, lay the roll in the middle, the giblets round, the pudding cut into slices and laid round, and then pour the sauce over all.

Another way.

Take the giblets clean picked and washed, the feet skinned and bill cut off, the head cut in two, the pinion bones broke into two, the liver cut in two, the gizzard cut into four, the pipe pulled out of the neck, the neck cut in two:  put them into a pipkin with half a pint of water, some whole pepper, black and white, a blade of mace, a little sprig of thyme, a small onion, a little crust of bread, then cover them close, and set them on a very slow fire.  Wood-embers is best.  Let them stew till they are quite tender, then take out the herbs and onions, and pour them into a little dish.  Season them with salt.

To roast pigeons.

Fill them with parsley clean washed and chopped, and some pepper and salt rolled in butter; fill the bellies, tie the neck-end close, so that nothing can run out, put a skewer through the legs, and have a little iron on purpose, with six hooks to it, and on each hook hang a pigeon; fasten one end of the string to the chimney, and the other end to the iron (this is what we call the poor man’s spit) flour them, baste them with butter, and turn them gently for fear of hitting the bars.  They will roast nicely, and be full of gravy.  Take care how you take them off, not to lose any of the liquor.  You may melt a very little butter, and put into the dish.  Your pigeons ought to be quite fresh, and not too much done.  This is by much the best way of doing them, for then they will swim in their own gravy, and a very little melted butter will do.

When you roast them on a spit all the gravy runs out, or if you stuff them and broil them whole you cannot save the gravy so well, though they will be very good with parsley and butter in the dish, or split and broiled with pepper and salt.

To boil pigeons.

Boil them by themselves, for fifteen minutes, then boil a handsome square piece of bacon and lay in the middle; stew some spinach to lay round, and lay the pigeons on the spinach.  Garnish your dish with parsley laid in a plate before the fire to crisp.  Or you may lay one pigeon in the middle, and the rest round, and the spinach between each pigeon, and a slice of bacon on each pigeon.  Garnish with slices of bacon and melted butter in a cup.

To à la daube pigeons.

Take a large sauce-pan, lay a layer of bacon, then a layer of veal, a layer of coarse beef, and another little layer of veal, about a pound of veal and a pound of beef cut very thin, a piece of carrot, a bundle of sweet-herbs, on onion, some black and white pepper, a blade or two of mace, four or five cloves, a little crust of bread toasted very brown.  Cover the sauce-pan close, set it over a slow fire for five or six minutes, shake in a little flour, then pour in a quart of boiling water, shake it round, cover it close, and let it stew till the gravy is quite rich and good, then strain it off and skim off all the fat.  In the mean time stuff the bellies of the pigeons with force-meat*, made thus:  take a pound of veal, a pound of beef-suet, beat both in a mortar fine, an equal quantity of crumbs of bread, some pepper, salt, nutmeg, beaten mace, a little lemon-peel cut small, some parsley cut small, and a very little thyme stripped; mix all together with the yolk of an egg, fill the pigeons, and flat the breast down, flour them and fry them in fresh butter a little brown:  then pour the fat clean out of the pan, and put to the pigeons the gravy, cover them close, and let them stew a quarter of an hour, or till you think they are quite enough; then take them up, lay them in a dish, and pour in your sauce:  on each pigeon lay a bay-leaf, and on the leaf a slice of bacon.  You may garnish with a lemon notched, or let it alone.

Note, You may leave out the stuffing, they will be very rich and good without it, and it is the best way of dressing them for a fine made dish.

* Force-meat – a stuffing, with either meat or bread as a base.

Pigeons au poir.

Make a good force-meat* as above, cut off the feet quite, stuff them in the shape of a pear, roll them in the yolk of an egg, and then in crumbs of bread, stick the leg at the top, and butter a dish to lay them in; then send them to an oven to bake, but do not let them touch each other.  When they are enough, lay them in a dish, and pour in good gravy thickened with the yolk of an egg, or butter rolled in flour:  do not pour your gravy over the pigeon.  You may garnish with lemon.  It is a pretty genteel dish:  or, for change, lay one pigeon in the middle, the rest round, and stewed spinach between; poached eggs on the spinach.  Garnish with notched lemon and orange cut into quarters, and have melted butter in boats.

* Force-meat – a stuffing, with either meat or bread as a base.

Pigeons stoved.

Take a small cabbage lettuce, just cut out the heart and make a force-meat* as before, only chop the heart of the cabbage and mix with it; then you must fill up the place, and tie it across with a packthread; fry it of a light brown in fresh butter, pour out all the fat, lay the pigeons round, flat them with your hand, season them a little with pepper, salt, and beaten mace (take great care not to put too much salt), pour in half a pint of Rhennish** wine, cover it close, and let it stew about five or six minutes; then put in half a pint of good gravy, cover them close, and let them stew half an hour.  Take a good piece of butter rolled in flour, shake it in:  when it is fine and thick take it up, untie it, lay the lettuce in the middle, and the pigeons round:  squeeze in a little lemon juice, and pour the sauce all over them.  Stew a little lettuce, and cut it into pieces for garnish with pickled red cabbage.

Note, Or for change, you may stuff your pigeons with the same force-meat, and cut two cabbage lettuces into quarters, and stew as above:  so lay the lettuce between each pigeon, and one in the middle, with the lettuce round it, and pour the sauce all over them.

* Force-meat – a stuffing, with either meat or bread as a base.

** Rhenish wine:  Wine from the Rhine valley in Germany; it could refer to either red or white.

Pigeons surtout.

Force your pigeons as above, then lay a slice of bacon on the breast, and a slice of veal beat with the back of a knife, and seasoned with mace, pepper, and salt, tie it on with a small packthread, or two little fine skewers is better; spit them on a fine bird spit, roast them and baste with a piece of butter, then with the yolk of an egg, and then baste them again with crumbs of bread, a little nutmeg and sweet-herbs; when enough lay them in your dish, have good gravy ready, with truffles, morels, and mushrooms, to pour into your dish.  Garnish with lemon.

The Art of Cookery Continued: Chapter II: Made Dishes, Part 3

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curds and whey

Selling curds and whey

Chapter two is by far the longest chapter in Hannah Glasse’s cookery book; it shows just how much emphasis was placed on meats on the eighteenth century table.  In this section there are quite a few unusual terms, all of which I’ve added explanations for:  Force-meat and sweetbread (both meats), burnt butter, astertium and broom-buds, mushroom powder, neat and pippen, just to name a few.  So, without further ado:

To fry beef steaks.

Take rump steaks, beat them very well with a roller, fry them in half a pint of ale that is not bitter, and whilst they are frying cut a large onion small, a very little thyme, some parsley shred small, some grated nutmeg, and a little pepper and salt; roll all together in a piece of butter, and then in a little flour, put this into the stew-pan, and shake all together.  When the steaks are tender, and the sauce of a fine thickness, dish it up.

A second way to fry beef steaks.

Cut the lean by itself, and beat them well with the back of a knife, fry them in just as much butter as will moisten the pan, pour out the gravy as it runs out of the meat, turn them often, do them over a gentle fire, then fry the fat by itself and lay upon the meat, and put to the gravy a glass of red wine, half an anchovy, a little nutmeg, a little beaten pepper, and a shallot cut small; give it two or three little boils, season it with salt to your palate, pour it over the steaks, and send them to table.

Another way to do beef steaks.

Cut your steaks, half broil them, then lay them in a stew-pan, season them with pepper and salt, just cover them with gravy and a piece of butter rolled in flour.  Let them stew for half an hour, beat up the yolks of two eggs, stir all together for two or three minutes, and then serve it up.

A pretty side-dish of beef.

Roast a tender piece of beef, lay fat bacon all over it, and roll it in paper, baste it, and when it is roasted cut about two pounds in thin slices, lay them in a stew-pan, and take six large cucumbers, peel them, and chop them small, lay over them a little pepper and salt, stew them in butter for about ten minutes, then drain out the butter, and shake some flour over them; toss them up, pour in half a pint of gravy, let them stew till they are thick, and dish them up.

To dress a fillet of beef.

It is the inside of a sirloin.  You must carefully cut it all out from the bone, grate some nutmeg over it, a few crumbs of bread, a little pepper and salt, a little lemon-peel, a little thyme, some parsley shred small, and roll it up tight; tie it with a packthread, roast it, put a quart of milk and a quarter of a pound of butter into the dripping-pan, and baste it; when it is enough, take it up, untie it, leave a little skewer in it to hold it together, have a little good gravy in the dish, and some sweet sauce in a cup.  You may baste it with red wine and butter, if you like it better; or it will do very well with butter only.

Beef steaks rolled.

Take three or four beef steaks, flat them with a cleaver, and make a force-meat* thus; take a pound of veal beat fine in a mortar, the flesh of a large fowl thus cut small, half a pound of cold ham chopped small, the kidney-fat of a loin of veal chopped small, a sweetbread** cut in little pieces, an ounce of truffles and morels first stewed and then cut small, some parsley, the yolks of four eggs, a nutmeg grated, a very little thyme, a little lemon-peel cut fine, a little pepper and salt, and half a pint of cream:  mix all together, lay it on your steaks, roll them up firm, of a good size, and put a little skewer into them, put them into the stew-pan, and fry them of a nice brown; then pour all the fat quite out, and put in a pint of good fried gravy (as in “To make gravy,”  Chapter I), put one spoonful of catchup, two spoonfuls of red wine, a few mushrooms, and let them stew for a quarter of an hour.  Take up the steaks, cut them in two, lay the cut side uppermost, and pour the sauce over it.  Garnish with lemon.

Note, Before you put the force-meat into the beef, you are to stir it all together over a slow fire for eight or ten minutes.

* Force-meat – a stuffing, with either meat or bread as a base.

**Sweetbread:  Culinary names for the thymus (throat, gullet, or neck) or the pancreas (also heart, stomach, or belly) especially of the calf (ris de veau) and lamb (ris d’agneau) (although beef and pork sweetbreads are also eaten).

To stew a rump of beef.

Having boiled it till it is little more than half enough, take it up, and peel off the skin:  take salt, pepper, beaten mace, grated nutmeg, a handful of parsley, a little thyme, winter-savory, sweet-marjoram, all chopped fine and mixed, and stuff them in great hold in the fat and lean, the rest spread over it, with yolks of two eggs; save the gravy that runs out, put to it a pint of claret, and put the meat in a deep pan, pour the liquor in, cover it close, and let it bake two hours, then put it into the dish, pour the liquor over it, and sent it to table.

Another way to stew a rump of beef.

You must cut the meat off the bone, lay it in your stew pan, cover it with water, put in a spoonful of whole pepper, two onions, a bundle of sweet herbs, some salt, and a pint of red wine; cover it close, set it over a stove or slow fire for four hours, shaking it sometimes, and turning it four or five times; make gravy as for soup, put in three quarts, keep it stirring till dinner is ready:  take ten or twelve turnips, cut them into slices the broad way, then cut them into four, flour them, and fry them brown in beef dripping.  Be sure to let your dripping boil before you put them in; then drain them well from the fat, lay the beef in your soup-dish, toast a little bread very nice and brown, cut in three corner dice, lay them into the dish, and the turnips likewise; strain in the gravy, and send it to table.  If you have the convenience of a stove, put the dish over it for five or six minutes; it gives the liquor a fine flavour of the turnips, makes the bread eat better, and is a great addition.  Season it with salt to your palate.

Portugal beef.

Take a rump of beef, cut it off the bone, cut it across, flour it, fry the thin part brown in butter, the thick end stuff with suet, boiled chesnuts, an anchovy, an onion, and a little pepper.  Stew it in a pan of strong broth, and when it is tender, lay both the fried and stewed together in your dish, cut the friend in two and lay on each side of the stewed, strain the gravy it was stewed in, put to it some pickled gerkins chopped, and boiled chestnuts, thicken it with a piece of burnt butter*, give it two or three boils up, season it with salt to your palate, and pour it over the beef.  Garnish with lemon.

* burnt butter:  Melt the butter on a gentle heat in a small saucepan until nutty brown.

To stew a rump of beef, or the briscuit, the French way.

Take a rump of beef, put it into a little pot that will hold it, cover it with water, put on the cover, let it stew an hour; but if the briscuit, two hours.  Skim it clean, then slash the meat with a knife to let out the gravy, put in a little beaten pepper, some salt, four cloves, with two or three large blades of mace beat fine, six onions sliced, and half a pint of red wine; cover it close, let it stew an hour, then put in two spoonfuls of capers or astertium-buds* pickled, or broom-buds**, chop them;  two spoonfuls of vinegar, and two of verjuice; boil fix cabbage lettuces in water, then put them in a pot, put in a pint of good gravy, let all stew together for half an hour, skim all the fat off, lay the meat into the dish, and pour the rest over it, have ready some pieces of bread cut three corner ways, and fried crisp, stick them about the meat, and garnish them.  When you put in the cabbage, put with it a good piece of butter rolled in flour.

* astertium-buds pickled:  She must mean “Nasturtium” buds, of a flowering plant; for more information, see the culinary section under “Tropaeolum” at Wikipedia.

**broom-buds:  She may be referring to either the Spartium plant, or the broom shrub, which was used raw or pickled, even though it is now known to be potentially toxic, effecting the heart and / or causing problems during pregnancy!

To stew beef gobbets.

Get any piece of beef, except the leg, cut it in pieces about the bigness of a pullet’s egg, put them in a stew-pan, cover them with water, let them stew, skim them clean, and when they have stewed an hour, take mace, cloves, and whole pepper tied in a muslin rag loose, some celery cut small, put them into the pan with some salt, turnips and carrots, pared and cut in slices, a little parsley, a bundle of sweet-herbs, and a large crust of bread.  You may put in an ounce of barley or rice, if you like it.  Cover it close, and let it stew till it is tender, take out the herbs, spices, and bread, and have ready fried a French roll cut in four.  Dish up all together, and send it to table.

Beef royal.

Take a sirloin of beef, or a large rump, bone it and beat it very well, then lard it with bacon, season it all over with salt, pepper, mace, cloves, and nutmeg, all beat fine, some lemon-peel cut small, and some sweet-herbs; in the mean time make a strong broth of the bones, take a piece of butter with a little flour, brown it, put in the beef, keep it turning often till it is brown, then strain the broth, put all together into a pot, put in a bay-leaf, a few truffles, and some ox palates cut small; cover it close, and let it stew till it is tender, take out the beef, skim off all the fat, pour in a pint of claret, some fried oysters, an anchovy, and some gerkins shred small; boil all together, put in the beef to warm, thicken your sauce with a piece of butter rolled in flour, or mushroom powder**, or burnt butter**.  Lay your meat in the dish, pour the sauce over it, and send it to table.  This may be eat either hot or cold.

* mushroom powder:  Dried mushrooms ground to a powder in a mortar, used as flavouring.  This is still used in Asian cuisine, and you might be able to find it in a good Asian supermarket or health food store in the Vegetarian section.

**burnt butter:  Melt the butter on a gentle heat in a small saucepan until nutty brown.

A tongue and udder forced.

First parboil your tongue and udder, blanch the tongue and stick it with cloves; as for the udder, you must carefully raise it, and fill it with force-meat made with veal:  first wash the inside with the yolk of an egg, then put in the force-meat*, tie the ends close and spit them, roast them, and baste them with butter when enough, have good gravy in the dish, and sweet sauce in a cup.  Note, For variety, you may lard the udder.

** Force-meat – a stuffing, with either meat or bread as a base.

To fricasey neat’s tongues.

Take neats tongues, boil them tender, peel them, cut them into thin slices, and fry them in fresh butter; then pour out the butter, put in as much gravy as you shall want for sauce, a bundle of sweet herbs, an onion, some pepper and salt, and a blade or two of mace; simmer all together half an hour, then take out your tongue, strain the gravy, put it with the tongue in the stew-pan again, beat up the yolks of two eggs with a glass of white wine, a little grated nutmeg, a piece of butter as big as a walnut rolled in flour, shake all together for four or five minutes, dish it up, and send it to table.

Neat is an Old English word for an ox, bullock or cow, from the Proto-Germanic word “nautam,” meaning a possession of value.

To force a tongue.

Boil it till it is tender; let it stand till it is cold, then cut a hole at the root end of it, take out some of the meat, chop it with as much beef suet, a few pippins*, some pepper and salt, a little mace beat, some nutmeg, a few sweet herbs, and the yolks of two eggs; chop it all together, stuff it, cover the end with a veal caul** or buttered paper, roast it, baste it with butter, and dish it up.  Have for sauce good gravy, a little melted butter, the juice of an orange or lemon, and some grated nutmeg; boil it up, and pour it into the dish.

* Pippin:  Varieties of apples grown from the seed, or “pip.”

** Caul :  The membrane.

To stew neat’s tongues whole.

Take two tongues, let them stew in water just to cover them for two hours, then peel them, put them in again with a pint of strong gravy, half a pint of white wine, a bundle of sweet-herbs, a little pepper and salt, some mace, cloves, and whole pepper tied in a muslin rag, a spoonful of capers chopped, turnips and carrots sliced, and a piece of butter rolled in flour; let all stew together very softly over a slow fire for two hours, then take out the spice and sweet-herbs, and send it to table.  You may leave out the turnips and carrots, or boil them by themselves, and lay them in a dish, just as you like.

To fricasey ox palates.

After boiling your palates very tender, (which you must do by setting them on in cold water, and letting them do softly) then blanch them and scrape them clean; take mace, nutmeg, cloves and pepper beat fine, rub them all over with those, and with crumbs of bread; have ready some butter in a stew-pan, and when it is hot put in the palates; fry them brown on both sides, then pour out the fat, and put to them some mutton or beef gravy, enough for sauce, an anchovy, a little nutmeg, a little piece of butter rolled in flour, and the juice of a lemon:  let it simmer all together for a quarter of an hour, dish it up, and garnish with lemon.

To roast ox palates.

Having boiled your palates tender, blanch them, cut them into slices about two inches long, lard half with bacon, then have ready two or three pigeons and two or three chicken-peepers, draw them, truss them, and fill them with force-meat*; let half of them be nicely larded, spit them on a bird-spit; spit them thus:  a bird, a palate, a sage-leaf, and a piece of bacon and so on, a bird, a palate, a sage-leaf, and a piece of bacon.  Take cocks-combs and lamb stones, parboiled and blanched, lard them with little bits of bacon, large oysters parboiled, and each one larded with one piece of bacon, put these on a skewer with a little piece of bacon and a sage-leaf between them, tie them on to a spit and roast them, then beat up the yolks of three eggs, some nutmeg, a little salt and crumbs of bread; baste them with these all the time they are a-roasting, and have ready two sweetbreads** each cut in two, some artichoke-bottoms cut into four and fried, and then rub the dish with shallots: lay the birds in the middle, piled upon one another, and lay the other things all separate by themselves round about in the dish.  Have ready for sauce a pint of good gravy, a quarter of a pint of red wine, an anchovy, the oyster liquor, a piece of butter rolled in flour; boil all these together and pour into the dish, with a little juice of lemon.  Garnish your dish with lemon.

* Force-meat – a stuffing, with either meat or bread as a base.

**Culinary names for the thymus (throat, gullet, or neck) or the pancreas (also heart, stomach, or belly) especially of the calf (ris de veau) and lamb (ris d’agneau) (although beef and pork sweetbreads are also eaten).

To dress a leg of mutton à la royale.

Having taken off all the fat, skin, and shank-bone, lard it with bacon, season it with pepper and salt, and a round piece of about three or four pounds of beef or leg of veal, lard it, have ready some hog’s lard boiling, flour your meat, and give it a colour in the lard, then take the meat out and put it into a pot, with a bundle of sweet herbs, some parsley, an onion stuck with cloves, two or three blades of mace, some whole pepper, and three quarts of water; cover it close, and let it boil very softly for two hours, mean while get ready a sweetbread* split, cut into four, and broiled, a few truffles and morels stewed in a quarter of a pint of strong gravy, a glass of red wine, a few mushrooms, two spoonfuls of catchup, and some asparagus-tops; boil all these together, then lay the mutton in the middle of the dish, cut the beef or veal into slices, make a rim round your mutton with the slices, and pour the ragoo over it; when you have taken the meat out of the pot, skim all the fat off the gravy; strain it, and add as much to the other as will fill the dish.  Garnish with lemon.

*Culinary names for the thymus (throat, gullet, or neck) or the pancreas (also heart, stomach, or belly) especially of the calf (ris de veau) and lamb (ris d’agneau) (although beef and pork sweetbreads are also eaten).

A leg of mutton à la hautgout*

Let it hang a fortnight in an airy place, then have ready some cloves of garlic, and stuff it all over, rub it with pepper and salt; roast it, have ready some good gravy and red wine in the dish, and sent it to table.

*high taste

To roast a leg of mutton with oysters.

Take a leg about two or three days killed, stuff it all over with oysters, and roast it.  Garnish with horse-raddish.

To roast a leg of mutton with cockles.

Stuff it all over with cockles, and roast it.  Garnish with horse-raddish.

A shoulder of mutton in epigram.

Roast it almost enough, then very carefully take off the skin about the thickness of a crown-piece, and the shank-bone with it at the end; then season that skin and shank-bone with pepper and salt, a little lemon-peel cut small, and a few sweet-herbs and crumbs of bread, then lay this on the gridiron, and let it be of a fine brown; in the mean time take the rest of the meat and cut it like a hash about the bigness of a shilling; have the gravy and put to it, with a few spoonfuls of strong gravy, half an onion cut fine, a little nutmeg, a little pepper and salt, a little bundle of sweet-herbs, some gerkins cut very small, a few mushrooms, two or three truffles cut small, two spoonfuls of wine, either red or white, and throw a little flour over the meat:  Let all these stew together very softly for five or six minutes, but be sure it do not boil; take out the sweet-herbs, and put the hash into the dish, lay the broiled upon it, and send it to table.

a harrico* of mutton.

Take a neck or loin of mutton, cut it into six pieces, flour it, and fry it brown on both sides in the stew-pan, then pour out all the fat; put in some turnips and carrots cut like dice, two dozen of chestnuts blanched, two or three lettuces cut small, six little round onions, a bundle of sweet-herbs, some pepper and salt, and two or three blades of mace; cover it close, and let it stew for an hour, then take off the fat and dish it up.

*From what I have been able to find, which isn’t much, it must come from the Old English word hnecca “neck, nape, back of the neck” (a fairly rare word)

To French a hind-saddle of mutton.

It is the two rumps.  Cut off the rump, and carefully lift up the skin with a knife:  begin at the broad end, but be sure you do not crack it nor take it quite off:  then take some slices of ham or bacon chopped fine, a few truffles, some young onions, some parsley, a little thyme, sweet-marjoram, winter savoury, a little lemon-peel, all chopped fine, a little mace and two or three cloves beat fine, half a nutmeg, and a little pepper and salt; mix all together, and throw over the meat where you took off the skin, then lay on the skin again, and fasten it with two fine skewers at each side, and roll it in well buttered paper.  It will take three hours doing:  then take off the paper, baste the meat, strew it all over with crumbs of bread, and when it is of a fine brown take it up.  For sauce take six large shallots, cut them very fine, put them into a saucepan with two spoonfuls of vinegar, and two of white wine; boil them for a minute or two, pour it into the dish, and garnish with horse raddish.

Another French way, called St. Menehout.

Take the hind saddle of mutton, take off the skin, lard it with bacon, season it with pepper, salt, mace, cloves beat, and nutmeg, sweet-herbs, young onions, and parsley, all chopped fine; take a large oval or a large gravy-pan, lay layers of bacon, and then layers of beef all over the bottom, lay in the mutton, then lay layers of bacon on the mutton, and then a layer of beef, put in a pint of wine, and as much good gravy as will stew it, put in a bay-leaf, and two or three shallots, cover it close, put fire over and under it, if you have a close pan, and let it stand stewing for two hours; when done, take it out, strew crumbs of bread all over it, and put it into the oven to brown, strain the gravy it was stewed in, and boil it till there is just enough for sauce, lay the mutton into a dish, pour the sauce in, and serve it up.  You must brown it before a fire, if you have not an oven.

Cutlets à la Maintenon.  A very good dish.

Cut your cutlets handsomely, beat them thin with your cleaver, season them with pepper and salt, make a force-meat* with veal, beef, suet, spice and sweet-herbs, rolled in yolks of eggs, roll force-meat round each cutlet, within two inches of the top of the bone, then have as many half sheets of white paper as cutlets, roll each cutlet in a piece of paper, first buttering the paper well on the inside, dip the cutlets in melted butter and them in crumbs of bread, lay each cutlet on half a sheet of paper cross the middle of it, leaving about an inch of the bone out, then close the two ends of your paper as you do a turnover tart, and cut off the paper that is too much; broil your mutton cutlets half an hour, your veal cutlets three quarters of an hour, and then take the paper off and lay them round in the dish, with the bone outwards.  Let your sauce be good gravy thickened, and serve it up.

** Force-meat – a stuffing, with either meat or bread as a base.

To make a mutton hash.

Cut your mutton in little bits as think as you can, strew a little flour over it, have ready some gravy (enough for sauce) wherein sweet-herbs, onion, pepper and salt, have been boiled; strain it, put in your meat, with a little piece of butter rolled in flour, and a little salt, a shallot cut fine, a few capers and gerkins chopped fine, and a blade of mace:  toss all together for a minute or two, have ready some bread toasted and cut into thin sippets, lay them round the dish, and pour in your hash.  Garnish your dish with pickles and horse-raddish.

Note, Some love a glass of red wine, or walnut pickle.  You may put just what you will into a hash.  If the sippets are toasted it is better.

*Sippet is the diminutive of sop, which was usually a small piece of bread to dip into a soup or broth.

To dress a pig’s petty-toes.

Put your petty-toes into a saucepan with half a pint of water, a blade of mace, a little whole pepper, a bundle of sweet-herbs, and an onion.  Let them boil five minutes, then take out the liver, lights, and heart, mince them very fine, grate a little nutmeg over them, and shake a little flour on them; let the feet do till they are tender, then take them out and strain the liquor, put all together with a little salt, and a piece of butter as big as a walnut, shake the saucepan often, let it simmer five or six minutes, then cut some toasted sippets and lay round the dish, lay the mince-meat and sauce in the middle, and the petty-toes split round it.  You may add the juice of half a lemon, or a very little vinegar.

A second way to roast a leg of mutton with oysters.

Stuff a leg of mutton with mutton suet, salt, pepper, nutmeg, and the yolks of eggs; then roast it, stick it all over with cloves, and when it is about half done, cut off some of the under-side of the fleshy end in little bits, put these into a pipkin with a pint of oysters, liquor and all, a little salt and mace, and half a pint of hot water:  stew them till half the liquor is wasted, then put in a piece of butter rolled in flour, shake all together, and when the mutton is enough take it up; pour this sauce over it, and send it to table.

To dress a leg of mutton to eat like venison.

Take a hind-quarter of mutton, and cut the leg in the shape of a haunch of venison, save the blood of the sheep and steep it in for five or six hours, then take it out and roll it in three or four sheets of white paper well-buttered on the inside, tie it with a packthread, and roast it, basting it with good beef-dripping or butter.  It will take two hours at a good fire, for your mutton must be fat and thick.  About five or six minutes before you take it up, take off the paper, baste it with a piece of butter, and shake a little flour over it to make it have a fine froth, and then have a little good drawn gravy in a bason, and sweet-sauce in another.  Don’t garnish with any thing.

To dress mutton the Turkish way.

First cut your meat into thin slices, then wash it in vinegar, and put it into a pot or saucepan that has a close cover to it, put in some rice, whole pepper, and three or four whole onions; let all these stew together, skimming it frequently; when it is enough, take out the onions, and season it with salt to your palate, lay the mutton in the dish, and pour the rice and liquor over it.

Note, The neck or leg are the best joins to dress this way:  Put in to a leg four quarts of water, and a quarter of a pound of rice; to a neck two quarts of water, and two ounces of rice.  To every pound of meat allow a quarter of an hour, being close covered.  If you put in a blade or two of mace, and a bundle of sweet-herbs, it will be a great addition.  When it is just enough put in a piece of butter, and take care the rice don’t burn to the pot.  In all these things you should lay skewers at the bottom of the pot to lay your meat on, that it may not stick.

A shoulder of mutton with a ragoo of turnips.

Take a shoulder of mutton, get the blade-bone taken out as neat as possible, and in the place put a ragoo, done thus:  take one or two sweetbreads*, some cocks-combs, half an ounce of truffles, some mushrooms, a blade or two of mace, a little pepper and salt; stew all these in a quarter of a pint of good gravy, and thicken it with a piece of butter rolled in flour, or yolks of eggs, which you please:  let it be cold before you put it in, and fill up the place where you took the bone out just in the form it was before, and sew it up tight:  take a large deep stew-pan, or one of the round deep copper pans with two handles, lay at the bottom thin slices of bacon, then slices of veal, a bundle of parsley, thyme, and sweet-herbs, some whole pepper, a blade or two of mace, three or four cloves, a large onion, and put in just think gravy enough to cover the meat; cover it close, and let it stew two hours, then take eight or ten turnips, pare them, and cut them into what shape you please, put them into boiling water, and let them be just enough, throw them into a sieve to drain over the hot water, that they may keep warm, then take up the mutton, drain it from the fat, lay it in a dish, and keep it hot covered; strain the gravy it was stewed in, and take off all the fat, put in a little salt, a glass of red wine, two spoonfuls of catchup, and a piece of butter rolled in flour, boil together till there is just enough for sauce, then put in the turnips, give them a boil up, pour them over the meat, and sent it to table.  You may fry the turnips of a light brown, and toss them up with the sauce; but that is according to your palate.

Note, For a change you may leave out the turnips, and add a bunch of celery cut and washed clean, and stewed in a very little water, till it is quite tender, and the water almost boiled away.  Pour the gravy, as before directed, into it, and boil it up till the sauce is good:  or you may leave both these out, and add truffles, morels, fresh and pickled mushrooms, and artichoke-bottoms.

N.B. A shoulder of veal without the knuckle, first fried, and then done just as the mutton, eats very well.  Don’t garnish your mutton, but garnish your veal with lemon.

*Culinary names for the thymus (throat, gullet, or neck) or the pancreas (also heart, stomach, or belly) especially of the calf (ris de veau) and lamb (ris d’agneau) (although beef and pork sweetbreads are also eaten).

To stuff a leg or shoulder of mutton.

Take a little grated bread, some beef suet, the yolks of hard eggs, three anchovies, a bit of onion, some pepper and salt, a little thyme and winter savoury, twelve oysters, and some nutmeg grated; mix all these together, shred them very fine, work them up with raw eggs like a paste, stuff your mutton under the skin in the thickest place, or where you please, and roast it:  for sauce, take some of the oyster liquor, some claret, one anchovy, a little nutmeg, a bit of an onion, and a few oysters; stew all these together, then take out your onion, pour sauce under your mutton, and send it to table.  Garnish with horse-raddish.

Sheep rumps with rice.

Take six rumps, put them into a stew-pan with some mutton gravy, enough to fill it, stew them about half an hour, take them up and let them stand to cool, then put into the liquor a quarter of a pound of rice, an onion stuck with cloves, and a blade or two of mace; let it boil till the rice is as thick as a pudding, but take care it don’t stick to the bottom, which you must do by stirring it often:  in the mean time take a clean stew-pan, put a piece of butter into it; dip your rumps in the yolks of eggs beat, and then in crumbs of bread with a little nutmeg, lemon-peel, and a very little thyme in it, fry them in the butter of a fine brown, then take them out, lay them in a dish to drain, pour out all the fat, and toss the rice into that pan; stir it all together for a minute or two, then lay the rice into the dish, lay the rumps all round upon the rice, have ready four eggs boiled hard, cut them into quarters, lay them round the dish with friend parsley between them, and send it to table.

To make lamb and rice.

Take a neck and loin of lamb, half roast it, take it up, cut it into steaks, then take half a pound of rice, put it into a quart of good gravy, with two or three blades of mace, and a little nutmeg.  Do it over a stove or slow fire till the rice begins to be thick; then take it off, stir in a pound of butter, and when that is quite melted stir in the yolks of six eggs; first beat, then take a dish and butter it all over, take the steaks and put a little pepper and salt over them, dip them in a little melted butter, lay them into the dish, pour the gravy which comes out of them over them, and then the rice; beat the yolks of three eggs and pour all over, send it to the oven, and bake it better than half an hour.

Baked mutton chops.

Take a loin or neck of mutton, cut it into steaks, put some pepper and salt over it, butter your dish and lay in your steaks; then take a quart of milk, six eggs beat up fine, and four spoonfuls of flour; beat your flour and eggs in a little milk first, and then put the rest to it, put in a little beaten ginger, and a little salt.  Pour this over the steaks, and send it to the over; an hour and an half will bake it.

A forced leg of lamb.

Take a large leg of lamb, cut a long slit on the back side, but take great care you don’t deface the other side; then chop the meat small with marrow, half a pound of beef-suet, some oysters, an anchovy unwashed, an onion, some sweet-herbs, a little lemon peel, and some beaten mace and nutmeg; beat all these together in a mortar, stuff it up in the shape it was before, sew it up, and rub it over with the yolks of eggs beaten, spit it, flour it all lover, lay it to the fire, and baste it with butter.  An hour will roast it.  You may bake it, if you please, but then you must butter the dish, and lay the butter over it:  cut the loin into steaks, season them with pepper, salt, and nutmeg, lemon-peel cut fine, and a few sweet-herbs; fry them in fresh butter of a fine brown, then pour out all the butter, put in a quarter of a pint of white wine, shake it about, and put in half a pint of strong gravy, wherein good spice has been boiled, a quarter of a pint of oysters and the liquor, some mushrooms and a spoonful of the pickle, a piece of butter rolled in flour, and the yolk of an egg beat; stir all these together till it is thick, then lay your leg of lamb in the dish, and the loin around it; pour the sauce over it, and garnish with lemon.

To fry a loin of lamb.

Cut the loin into thin steaks, put a very little pepper and salt, and a little nutmeg on them, and fry them in fresh butter; when enough, take out the steaks, lay them in a dish before the fire to keep hot, then pour out the butter, shake a little flour over the bottom of the pan, pour in a quarter of a pint of boiling water, and put in a piece of butter; shake all together, give it a boil or two up, pour it over the steaks, and send it to table.

Note, You may do mutton the same way, and add two spoonfuls of walnut-pickle.

Another way of frying a neck or loin of lamb.

Cut into thin steaks, beat them with a rolling pin, fry them in half a pint of ale, season them with a little salt, and cover them close; when enough, take them out of the pan, lay them in a plate before the fire to keep hot, and pour all out of the pan into a bason; then put in half a pint of white wine, a few capers, the yolks of two eggs beat, with a little nutmeg and a little salt; add to this the liquor they were fried in, and keep stirring it one way all the time till it is thick, then put in the lamb, keep shaking the pan for a minute or two, lay the steaks into the dish, pour the sauce over them, and have some parsley in a plate before the fire a-crisping.  Garnish your dish with that and lemon.

To make a ragoo of lamb.

Take a fore-quarter of lamb, cut the knuckle-bone off, lard it with little thin bits of bacon, flour it, fry it of a fine brown, and then put it into an earthen pot or stew-pan; put to it a quart of broth or good gravy, a bundle of herbs, a little mace, two or three cloves, and a little whole pepper; cover it close, and let it stew pretty fast for half an hour, pour the liquor all out, strain it, keep the lamb hot in the pot till the sauce is ready.  Take half a pint of oysters, flour them, fry them brown, drain out all the fat clean that you fried them in, skim all the fat off the gravy, then pour it into the oysters, put in an anchovy, and two spoonfuls of either red or white wine; boil all together, till there is just enough for sauce, add some fresh mushrooms (if you can get them) and some pickled onions, with a spoonful of the pickle, or the juice of half a lemon.  Lay your lamb in the dish, and pour the sauce over it.  Garnish with lemon.

To stew a lamb’s, or calf’s head.

First wash it, and pick it very clean, lay it in water for an hour, take out the brains, and with a sharp penknife carefully take out the bones and the tongue, but be careful you do not bread the meat; then take out the two eyes, and take two pounds of veal and two pounds of beef-suet, a very little thyme, a good piece of lemon-peel minced, a nutmeg grated, and two anchovies: chop all very well together, grate two stale rolls, and mix all together with the yolks of four eggs:  save enough of this meat to make about twenty balls, take half a pint of fresh mushrooms clean peeled and washed, or pickled cockles; mix all these together, but first stew your oysters, and put to it two quarts of gravy, with a blade or two of mace.  It will be proper to tie the head with packthread, cover it close, and let it stew two hours:  in the mean time beat up the brains with some lemon-peel cut fine, a little parsley chopped, half a nutmeg grated, and the yolk of an egg; have some dripping boiling, fry half the brains in little cakes, and fry the balls, keep them both hot by the fire; take half an ounce of truffles and morels, then strain the gravy the head was stewed in, put the truffles and morels to it with the liquor, and a few mushrooms; boil all together, then put in the rest of the brains that are not fried, stew them together for a minute or two, pour it over the head, and lay the fried brains and balls around it.  Garnish with lemon.  You may fry about twelve oysters.

To dress veal à la Bourgoise.

Cut pretty thick slices of veal, lard them with bacon, and season them with pepper, salt, beaten mace, cloves, nutmeg, and chopped parsley, then take the stew-pan and cover the bottom with slices of fat bacon, lay the veal upon them, cover it, and set it over a very slow fire for eight or ten minutes, just to be hot and no more, then brisk up your fire and brown your veal on both sides, then shake some flour over it and brown it; pour in a quart of good broth or gravy, cover it close, and let it stew gently till it is enough; when enough, take out the slices of bacon, and skim all the fat off clean, and beat up the yolks of three eggs with some of the gravy; mix all together, and keep it stirring one way till it is smooth and thick, then take it up, lay your meat in the dish, and pour the sauce over it.  Garnish with lemon.

A disguised leg of veal and bacon.

Lard your veal all over with slips of bacon and a little lemon-peel, and boil it with a piece of bacon:  when enough, take it up, cut the bacon into slices, and have ready some dried sage and pepper rubbed fine, rub it over the bacon, lay the veal in the dish and the bacon round it, strew it all over with fried parsley, and have green sauce in cups, made thus:  take two handfuls of sorrel, pound it in a mortar, and squeeze out the juice, put it into a sauce-pan with some melted butter, a little sugar, and the juice of lemon.  Or you may make it thus:  beat two handfuls of sorrel in a mortar, with two pippins* quartered, squeeze the juice out, with the juice of a lemon or vinegar, and sweeten it with sugar.

* Pippin:  Varieties of apples grown from the seed, or “pip.”

A pillaw of veal.

Take a neck or breast of veal, half roast it, then cut it into six pieces, season it with pepper, salt, and nutmeg:  take a pound of rice, put to it a quart of broth, some mace, and a little salt, do it over a stove or very slow fire till it is thick, but butter the bottom of the dish or pan you do it in:  beat up the yolks of six eggs and stir into it, then take a little round deep dish, butter it, lay some of the rice at the bottom, then lay the veal on a round heap, and cover it all over with rice, wash it over with the yolks of eggs, and bake it an hour and a half, then open the top and pour in a pint of rich good gravy.  Garnish with a Seville orange cut in quarters, and send it to table hot.

Bombarded veal.

You must get a fillet of veal, cut out of it five lean pieces as thick as your hand, round them up a little, then lard them very thick on the round side with little narrow thin pieces of bacon, and lard five sheeps tongues being first boiled and blanched), lard them here and there with very little bits of lemon-peel, and make a well-seasoned force-meat* of veal, bacon, ham, beef-suet, and an anchovy beat well; make another tender force-meat of veal, beef-suet, mushrooms, spinach, parsley, thyme, sweet-marjoram, winter savory, and green onions.  Season with pepper, salt, and mace; beat it well, make a round ball of the other force-meat and stuff in the middle of this, roll it up in a veal caul, and bake it; what is left, tie up like a Bologna sausage, and boil it, but first rub the caul with the yolk of an egg; put the larded veal into a stew-pan with some good gravy, and when it is enough skim off the fat, put in some truffles and morels, and some mushrooms.  Your force-meat being baked enough, lay it in the middle, the veal round it, and the tongues fried, and laid in between, the boiled cup into slices, and fried, and throw all over.  Pour on them the sauce.  You may add artichoke-bottoms, sweetbreads**, and cocks-combs, if you please.  Garnish with lemon.

* Force-meat – a stuffing, with either meat or bread as a base.

**Culinary names for the thymus (throat, gullet, or neck) or the pancreas (also heart, stomach, or belly) especially of the calf (ris de veau) and lamb (ris d’agneau) (although beef and pork sweetbreads are also eaten).

The Art of Cookery Continued: Chapter II: Made Dishes, Part 2

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One cooking technique that is described a few times in this chapter is touched on briefly in Hannah’s recipe for roasting a turkey “the genteel way”:  It was to gut the bird, or animal part (sometimes even the skull), cook the removed bits in some form, and then re-stuff the carcass to make it appear as if it were whole.  It was about presentation of the final dish on the dining table, and eighteenth century dining presentations were elaborate, to say the least.  The American holidays use the same idea, in stuffing a turkey; it’s just that our modern sensibilities find it more tasteful to serve it without feet and head!  In that time and age, however, every part of the animal was used; you’ll even find quite a few recipes calling for cox-combs…

To collar a breast of mutton.

Do it the same way, and it eats very well.  But you must take off the skin.

Another way to dress a breast of mutton.

Collar it as before, roast it, and baste it with half a pint of red wine, and when that is all soaked in, baste it well with butter, have a little good gravy, set the mutton upright in the dish, pour in the gravy, have a sweet sauce as for venison, and send it to table.  Don’t garnish the dish, but be sure to take the skin off the mutton.

The inside of a sirloin of beef is very good done this way.  If you don’t like the wine, a quart of milk, and a quarter of a pound of butter, put into the dripping-pan, does full as well to baste it.

To force a leg of lamb.

With a sharp knife carefully take out all the meat, and leave the skin whole and the fat on it, make the lean you cut out into the force-meat thus:  to two pounds of meat, add three pounds of beef-suet cut fine, and beat in a marble mortar till it is very fine, and take away all the skin of the meat and suet, when mix with it four spoonfuls of grated bread, eight or ten cloves, five or six large blades of mace dried and beat find, half a large nutmeg grated, a little pepper and salt, a little lemon-peel cut fine, a very little thyme, some parsley and four eggs; mix all together, put into the skin again just as it was, in the same shape, sew it up, roast it, baste it with butter, cut the loin into steaks and fry it nicely, lay the leg in the dish and the loin round it, with stewed cauliflower (see “to dress cauliflowers”) all round upon the loin; pour a pint of good gravy into the dish, and send it to table.  If you don’t like the cauliflower, it may be omitted.

To boil a leg of lamb.

Let the leg be boiled very white.  An hour will do it.  Cut the loin into steaks, dip them into a few crumbs of bread and egg, fry them nice and brown, boil a good deal of spinach and lay in the dish; put the leg in the middle, lay the loin round it, cut an orange in four and garnish the dish, and have butter in a cup.  Some love the spinach boiled, then drained, put into a sauce-pan with a good piece of butter, and stewed.

To force a large fowl.

Cut the skin down the back, and carefully flip it up so as to make out all the meat, mix it with one pound of beef-suet, cut it small, and beat them together in a marble mortar:  take a pint of large oysters cut small, two anchovies cut small, one shallot cut fine, a few sweet-herbs, a little pepper, a little nutmeg grated, and the yolks of four eggs; mix altogether and lay this on the bones, draw over the skin and sew up the back, pout the fowl into a bladder, boil it an hour and a quarter, stew some oysters in a good gravy thickened with a piece of butter rolled in flour, take the fowl out of the bladder, lay it in your dish and pour the sauce over it.  Garnish with lemon.

It eats much better roasted with the same sauce.

To roast a turkey the genteel way.

First cut it down the back, and with a sharp penknife bone it, then make your force-meat thus:  Take a large fowl, or a pound of veal, as much grated bread, half a pound of suet cut and beat very fine, a little beaten mace, two cloves, half a nutmeg grated, about a large tea-spoonful of lemon-peel, and the yolks of two eggs; mix all together, with a little pepper and salt, fill up the places where the bones came out, and fill the body, that it may look just as it did before, sew up the back, and roast it.  You may have oyster-sauce, celery sauce, or just as you please; but good gravy in the dish, and garnish with lemon, is as good as any thing.  Be sure to leave the pinions* on.

*pinion:  She is either referring to the wings, or to the bindings one might have used in the sewing up and “make it look just as it did before” – process.

To stew a turkey or fowl.

First let your pot be very clean, lay four clean skewers at the bottom, lay your turkey or fowl upon them, put in a quart of gravy, take a bunch of celery, cut it small, and wash it very clean, put it into your pot, with two or three blades of mace, let it stew softly till there is just enough for sauce, then add a good piece of butter rolled in flour, two spoonfuls of red wine, two of catchup, and just as much pepper and salt as will season it, lay your fowl or turkey in the dish, pour the sauce over and sent it to table.  If the fowl or turkey is enough before the sauce, take it up, and keep it up till the sauce is boiled enough, then put it in, let it boil a minute or two, and dish it up.

To stew a knuckle of veal.

Be sure to let the pot or saucepan be very clean, lay at the bottom four clean wooden skewers, wash and clean the knuckle very well, then lay it in the pot with two or three blades of mace, a little whole pepper, a little piece of thyme, a small onion, a crust of bread, and two quarts of water.  Cover it down close, make it boil, then only let it simmer for two hours, and when it is enough take it up; lay it in a dish, and strain the broth over it.

Another way to stew a knuckle of veal.

Clean it as before directed, and boil it till there is just enough for sauce, add one spoonful of catchup, one of red wine, and one of walnut pickle, some truffles and morels, or some dried mushrooms cut small; boil it all together, take up the knuckle, lay it in a dish, pour the sauce over it, and send it to table.

Note, It eats very well done as the turkey, before directed.

To ragoo a piece of beef.

Take a large piece of the flank, which has fat at the top cut square, or any piece that is all meat, and has fat at the top, but no bones.  The rump does well.  Cut all nicely off the bone (which makes fine soup), then take a large stew-pan, and with a good piece of butter fry it a little brown all over, flouring your meat well before you put it into the pan, then pour in as much gravy as will cover it, made thus:  take about a pound of coarse beef, a little piece of veal cut small, a bundle of sweet-herbs, an onion, some whole black pepper and white pepper, two or three large blades of mace, four or five cloves, a piece of carrot, a little piece of bacon steeped in vinegar a little while, a crust of bread toasted brown; put to this a quart water, and let it boil till half is wasted.  While this is making, pour a quart of boiling water into the stew-pan, cover it close, and let it be stewing softly; when the gravy is done strain it, pour into the pan where the beef is, take an ounce of truffles and morels cut small, some fresh or dried mushrooms cut small, two spoonfuls of catchup, and cover it close.  Let all this stew till the sauce is rich and thick; then have ready some artichoke bottoms cut into four, and a few pickled mushrooms, give them a boil or two, and when your meat is tender and your sauce quite rich, lay the meat into a dish and pour the sauce over it.  You may add a sweetbread* cut in six pieces, a palate stewed tender cut into little pieces, some cocks-combs, and a few force meat balls.  These are a great addition, but it will be good without.

Note, For variety, when the beef is ready and the gravy put to it, add a large bunch of celery cut small and washed clean, two spoonfuls of catchup, and a glass of red wine.  Omit all the other ingredients.  When the meat and celery are tender, and the sauce is rich and good, serve it up.  It is also very good this way:  take six large cucumbers, scoop out the seeds, pare them, cut them into slices, and do them just as you do the celery.

 *Culinary names for the thymus (throat, gullet, or neck) or the pancreas (also heart, stomach, or belly) especially of the calf (ris de veau) and lamb (ris d’agneau) (although beef and pork sweetbreads are also eaten).

To force the inside of a sirloin of beef.

Take a sharp knife, and carefully lift up the fat of the inside, take out all the meat close to the bone, chop it small, take a pound of suet, and chop fine, about as many crumbs of bread, a little thyme and lemon peel, a little pepper and salt, half a nutmeg grated, and two shallots chopped fine; mix all together, with a glass of red wine, then put it into the same place, cover it with the skin and fat, skewer it down with fine skewers, and cover it with paper.  Don’t take the paper off till the meat is on the dish.  Take a quarter of a pint of red wine, two shallots shred small, boil them, and pour into the dish, with the gravy which comes out of the meat; it eats well.  Spit your meat before you take out the inside.

Another way to force a sirloin.

When it is quite roasted, take it up, and lay it in the dish with the inside uppermost, with a sharp knife lift up the skin, hack and cut the inside very fine, shake a little pepper and salt over it, with two shallots, cover it with the skin, and send it to table.  You may add red wine or vinegar, just as you like.

To force the inside of a rump of beef.

You may do it just in the same manner, only lift up the outside skin, take the middle of the meat, and do as before directed; put it into the same place, and with fine skewers put it down close.

A rolled rump of beef.

Cut the meat all off the bone whole, slit the inside down from top to bottom, but not through the skin, spread it open, take the flesh of two fowls and beef-suet, an equal quantity, and as much cold boiled ham, if you have it, a little pepper, an anchovy, a nutmeg grated, a little thyme, a good deal of parsley, a few mushrooms, and chop them all together, beat them in a mortar, with a half-pint bason full of crumbs of bread; mix all these together, with four yolks of eggs, lay it into the meat, cover it up, and roll it round, stick one skewer in, and tie it with a packthread cross and cross to hold it together; take a pot or large saucepan that will just hold it, lay a layer of bacon and a layer of beef cut in thin slices, a piece of carrot, some whole pepper, mace, sweet herbs, and a large onion, lay the rolled beef on it, just put water enough to the top of the beef; cover it close, and let it stew very softly on a slow fire for eight or ten house, but not to fast.  When you find the beef tender, which you will know by running a skewer into the meat, then take it up, cover it up hot, boil the gravy till it is good, then strain it off, and add some mushrooms chopped, some truffles and morels cut small, two spoonfuls of red or white wine, the yolks of two eggs and a piece of butter rolled in flour; boil it together, set the meat before the fire, baste it with butter, and throw crumbs of bread all over it:  when the sauce is enough, lay the meat into the dish and pour the sauce over it.  Take care the eggs do not curd.

To boil a rump of beef the French fashion.

Take a rump of beef, boil it half an hour, take it up, lay it into a large deep pewter dish or stew-pan, cut three or four gashes in it all along the side, rub the gashes with pepper and salt, and pour into the dish a pint of red wine, as much hot water, two or three large onions cut small, the hearts of eight or ten lettuces cut small, and a good piece of butter rolled in a little flour; lay the fleshy part of the meat downwards, cover it close, let it stew an hour and a half over a charcoal fire, or a very slow coal fire.  Observe that the butcher chops the bone so close, that the meat may lie as flat as you can in the dish.  When it is enough, take the beef, lay it in the dish, and pour the sauce over it.

Note,  When you do it in a pewter dish, it is best done over a chaffing-dish of hot coals, with a bit or two of charcoal to keep it alive.

Beef escarlot.

Take a briscuit of beef, half a pound of coarse sugar, two ounces of bay salt, a pound of common salt; mix all together, and rub the beef, lay it in an earthen pan, and turn it every day.  It may lie a fortnight in the pickle; then boil it, and serve it up either with savoys or pease pudding.

Note, It eats much finer cold, cut into slices, and sent to table.

Beef à la daub.

You may take a buttock or a rump of beef, lard it, fry it brown in some sweet butter, then put it into a pot that will just hold it; put in some broth or gravy hot, some pepper, cloves, mace, and a bundle of sweet-herbs, stew it four hours till it is tender, and season it with salt; take half a pint of gravy, two sweetbreads* cut into eight pieces, some truffles and morels, palates, artichoke bottoms, and mushrooms, boil all together, lay your beef into the dish; strain the liquor into the sauce, and boil all together.  If it is not thick enough, roll a piece of butter in flour, and boil in it; pour this all over the beef.  Take forcemeat rolled in pieces half as long as one’s finger; dip them into batter made with eggs, and fry them brown; fry some sippets** dipped into batter cut three corner-ways, stick them into the meat, and garnish with the force meat.

** Sippet is the diminutive of sop, which was usually a small piece of bread to dip into a soup or broth.

* Culinary names for the thymus (throat, gullet, or neck) or the pancreas (also heart, stomach, or belly) especially of the calf (ris de veau) and lamb (ris d’agneau) (although beef and pork sweetbreads are also eaten).

Beef à la mode in pieces.

You must take a buttock of beef, cut it into two-pound pieces, lard them with bacon, fry them brown, put them into a pot that will just hold them, put in two quarts of broth or gravy, a few sweet-herbs, an onion, some mace, cloves, nutmeg, pepper and salt; when that is done, cover it close, and stew it till it is tender, skim off all the fat, lay the meat in the dish, and strain the sauce over it.  You may serve it up hot or cold.

Beef à la mode, the French way.

Take a piece of the buttock of beef, and some fat bacon cut into little long bits, then take two tea-spoonfuls of salt, one teaspoonful of beaten pepper, one of beaten mace, and one of nutmeg; mix all together, have your larding pins ready, first dip the bacon in vinegar, then roll it in your spice, and lard your beef very thick and nice; put the meat into a pot with two or three large onions, a good piece of lemon-peel, a bundle of herbs, and three or four spoonfuls of vinegar; cover it down close, and put a wet cloth round the edge of the cover, that no steam can get out, and set it over a very slow fire:  when you think one side is done enough, turn the other, and cover it with the rind of the bacon; cover the pot close again as before, and when it is enough (which it will be when quite tender) take it up and lay it in your dish, take off all the fat from the gravy, and pour the gravy over the meat.  If you chuse your beef to be red, you may rub it with saltpetre overnight.

Note, You must take great care in doing your beef this way that your fire is very slow; it will at least take six hours doing, if the piece be any thing large.  If you would have the sauce very rich, boil half an ounce of truffles and morels in half a pint of good gravy, till they are very tender, and all a gill of pickled mushrooms, but fresh ones are best; mix all together with the gravy of the meat, and pour it over your beef.  You must mind and beat all your spices very fine; and if you have not enough, mix some more, according to the bigness of your beef.

Beef olives.

Take a rump of beef, cut it into steaks half a quarter long, about an inch thick, let them be square; lay on some good forcemeat made with veal, roll them, tie them once round with a hard knot, dip them in egg, crumbs of bread, and grated nutmeg, and a little pepper and salt.  The best way is to roast them, or fry them brown in fresh butter, lay them every one on a bay-leaf, and cover them over one with a piece of bacon toasted, have some good gravy, a few truffles and morels, and mushrooms; boil all together, pour into the dish, and send it to table.

Veal olives.

They are good done the same way, only roll them narrow at one end and broad at the other.  Fry them of a fine brown.  Omit the bay leaf, but lay little pieces of bacon about two inches long on them.  The same sauce.  Garnish with lemon.

Beef collops.

Cut them into thin pieces about two inches long, beat them with the back of a knife very well, grate some nutmeg, flour them a little, lay them in a stew-pan, put in as much water as you think will do for sauce, half an onion cut small, a little piece of lemon-peel cut small, a bundle of sweet-herbs, a little pepper and salt, a piece of butter rolled in a little flour.  Set them on a slow fire:  when they begin to simmer, stir them now and then; when they begin to be hot, ten minutes will do them, but take care they do not boil.  Take out the sweet-herbs, pour it into the dish, and send it to table.

Note, You may do the inside of a sirloin of beef in the same manner, the day after it is roasted, only do not beat them, but cut them thin.

N.B. You may do this dish between two pewter dishes, hang them between two chairs, take six sheets of white brown paper, tear them into slips, and burn them under the dish once piece at a time.

* collops – a small piece of meat, either thin slices or minced meat of either beef, lamb or venison.

To stew beef-steaks.

Take rump steaks, pepper and salt them, lay them in a stew-pan, pour in half a pint of water, a blade or two of mace, two or three cloves, a little bundle of sweet-herbs, an anchovy, a piece of butter rolled in flour, a glass of white wine, and an onion; cover them close, and let them stew softly till they are tender, then take out the steaks, flour them, fry them in fresh butter, and pour away all the fat, strain the sauce they were stewed in, and pour into the pan; toss it all up together till the sauce is quite hot and thick.  If you add a quarter of a pint of oysters, it will make it the better.  Lay the steaks into the dish, and pour the sauce over them.  Garnish with any pickle you like.

Plumbago vs. Graphite

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Pencil, Carpenter'sMy husband and I had a discussion tonight (as one does) about which came first – Plumbago, or Graphite.  Being the curious types, I had to find out before he went to bed (me, being the night owl).  Here’s the low-down:

The English term Plumbago came into the language via Latin for a type of black lead ore.  In the 1500s, a large deposit of this ore was found in Cumbria, England; this particular vein was so compact and pure that it could be sawn into sticks, and it holds the record to this day of being the only large-scale solid ore deposit.  It wasn’t long before its value was recognized, and subsequently monopolised by the Crown.  Long live the king and all that.  When the Crown had enough to last them awhile, they would flood the mines to prevent theft.  How clever is that?  Right.  The English folk have long been resourceful blokes, and they smuggled lead out for pencil production and a bit of dosh on the side.  I wonder how they drained the flooded mine shafts?

It was used as a strategic secret by the British to make smoother cannon balls:  They would take the native ore, in its powdery form, and smooth it to the insides of their cannon ball moulds, allowing them to slip the molten hot ball out of the form intact.  It gave them a great advantage over conventional (enemy) artillery as it was more aerodynamic, and could inflict more damage more accurately.  During the Battle of Trafalgar, so many French bodies were stacked on their decks that, when seen by the British officers boarding the conquered ships, it shocked even war-hardened military men.  But I digress.

In 1789 a German mineralogist, Abraham Gottlob Werner, coined the term Graphit, from the Greek word graphein, meaning “write”, because it was at length used in pencils.  The first sticks of lead were wrapped in strips of leather to support the soft lead.  England held the monopoly on that until a way was found to reconstitute powdered lead (by the Germans, as early as the mid-1660s).  The German word made it into English around 1796.

So there you have it:  Plumbago wins by a long shot over (the bow of) Graphite.

The Art of Cookery Continued: Chapter II: Made Dishes, Part 1

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Houmas House, rvfoodies-com

From rvfoodies.com, Houmas House, Lousianna – an 18th century kitchen

The next chapter of Hannah Glasse’s cook book is one of the longest; with most having no oven to bake in, it is little wonder that most cooked meats were either boiled, spitted and roasted, or booked in a stew-pan or sauteed.  They served every part of the animal, from entrails neatly presented to split skulls (with specific directions for how to lay the tongue most becomingly…).  I doubt many modern westerners would be able to stomach a large portion of the English haute cuisine (excuse the pun).  Here’s the first part of Chapter 2, “Made Dishes”:

To dress Scotch collops*.

Take veal, cut it thin, beat it well with the back of a knife or rolling pin, and grate some nutmeg over them ; dip them in the yolk of an egg, and fry them in a little butter till they are of a fine brown; then pour the butter from them, and have ready half a pint of gravy, a little piece of butter rolled in flour, a few mushrooms, a glass of white wine, the yolk of an egg, and a little cream mixed together.  If it wants a little salt, put it in.  Stir it together, and when it is of a fine thickness dish it up.  It does very well without the cream, if you have none; and very well without gravy, only put in just as much warm water, and either red or white wine.

[* collops – a small piece of meat, either thin slices or minced meat of either beef, lamb or venison.]

To dress white Scotch collops.

Do not dip them in egg, but fry them till they are tender, but not brown.  Take your meat out of the pan, and pour all out, then put in your meat again, as above, only you must put in some cream.

[* collops – a small piece of meat, either thin slices or minced meat of either beef, lamb or venison.]

To dress a fillet of veal with collops.

For an alteration, take a small fillet of veal, cut what collops you want, then take the udder and fill it with force-meat, roll it round, tie it with a pack thread across, and roast it; lay your collops in the dish, nd lay your udder in the middle.  Garnish your dishes with lemon.

[* collops – a small piece of meat, either thin slices or minced meat of either beef, lamb or venison.]

To make force-meat balls.

Now you are to observe, that force-meat balls are a great addition to all made dishes; made thus:  take half a pound of veal, and half a pound of suet, cut fine, and beat in a marble mortar or wooden bowl; have a few suet-herbs shred fine, a little mace dried and beat find, a small nutmeg grated, or half a large one, a little lemon peel cut very fine, a little pepper and salt, and the yolks of two eggs; mix all this well together, then roll them in little round balls, and some in little long balls; roll them in flour, and fry them brown.  If they are for anything of white sauce, put a little water on in a saucepan, and when the water boils put them in, and let them boil for a few minutes, but never fry them for white sauce.

Truffles and morels good in sauces and soups.

Take half an ounce of truffles and morels, simmer them in two or three spoonfuls of water for a few minutes, then put them with the liquor into the sauce.  They thicken both sauce and soup, and give it a fine flavour.

To stew ox-palates.

Stew them very tender; which must be done by putting them into cold water, and let them stew very softly over a slow fire till they are tender, then cut them into pieces and put them either into your made-dish or soup; and cocks-combs and artichoke-bottoms, cut small, and put into the made dish.  Garnish your dishes with lemon, sweetbreads* stewed or white dishes, and fried for brown ones, and cut in little pieces.

[*Culinary names for the thymus (throat, gullet, or neck) or the pancreas (also heart, stomach, or belly) especially of the calf (ris de veau) and lamb (ris d’agneau) (although beef and pork sweetbreads are also eaten).]

To ragoo a leg of mutton.

Take all the skin and fat off, cut it very thin the right way of the grain, then butter your stew-pan, and shake some flour into it; slice half a lemon and half an onion, cut them very small, a little bundle of sweet herbs, and a blade of mace.  Put all together with your meat into the pan, stir it a minute or two, and then put in six spoonfuls of gravy, and have ready an anchovy minced small; mix it with some butter and flour, stir it altogether for six minutes, and then dish it up.

To make a brown fricasey.

You must take your rabbits or chickens and skin them, then cut them into small pieces, and rub them over with yolks of eggs.  Have ready some grated bread, a little beaten mace, and a little grated nutmeg mixt together, and then roll them in it: put a little butter into your stew-pan, and when it is melted put in your meat.  Fry it of a fine brown, and take care they don’t stick to the bottom of the pan, then pour the butter from them, and pour in half a pint of gravy, a glass of red wine, a few mushrooms, or two spoonfuls of the pickle, a little salt (if wanted) and a piece of butter rolled in flour.  When it is of a fine thickness dish it up, and sent it to table.

To make a white fricasey.

You may take two chickens or rabbits, skin them and cut them into little pieces.  Lay them into warm water to draw out all the blood, and then lay them in a clean cloth to dry:  put them into a stew-pan with milk and water, stew them till they are tender, and then take a clean pan, put in half a pint of cream, and a quarter of a pound of butter; stir it together till the butter is melted, but you must be sure to keep it stirring all the time r it will be greasy, and then with a fork take the chickens or rabbits out of the stew-pan and put into the sauce-pan to the butter and cream.  Have ready a little mace dried and beat fine, a very little nutmeg, a few mushrooms, shake all together for a minute or two, and dish it up.  If you have no mushrooms a spoonful of the pickle does full as well, and gives it a pretty tartness.  This is a very pretty sauce for a breast of veal roasted.

To fricasey chickens, rabbits, lamb, veal, &c.

Do them the same way.

A second way to make a white fricasey.

You must take two or three rabbits or chickens, skin them, and lay them in warm water, and dry them with a clean cloth.  Put them into a stew-pan with a blade or two of mace, a little black and white pepper, an onions, a little bundle of sweet-herbs, and do but just cover them with water:  stew them till they are tender, then with a fork take them out, strain the liquor, and put them into the pan again with half a pint of the liquor and half a pint of cream, the yolk of two eggs beat well, half a nutmeg grated, a glass of white wine, a little piece of butter rolled in flour, and a gill* of mushrooms; keep stirring all together, all the while one way, till it is smooth and of a fine thickness, and then dish it up.  Add what you please.

[*liquid measure (commonly a half-pint)]

A third way of making a white fricasey.

Take three chickens, skin them, cut them into small pieces; that is, every joint asunder; lay them in warm water, for a quarter of an hour, take them out and dry them with a cloth, then put them into a stew-pan with milk and water, and boil them tender:  take a pint of good cream, a quarter of a pound of butter, and stir it till it is thick, then let it stand till it is cool, and put to it a little beaten mace, half a nutmeg grated, a little salt, a gill* of white wine, and a few mushrooms; stir all together, then take the chickens out of the stew-pan, throw away what they are boiled in, clean the pan and put in the chickens and sauce together:  keep the pan shaking round till they are quite hot, and dish them up.  Garnish with lemon.  They will be very good without wine.

[*liquid measure (commonly a half-pint)]

To fricasey rabbits, lamb, sweetbreads, or tripe.

Do the same way.

Another way to fricasey tripe.

Take a piece of double tripe, cut it into slices two inches long, and half an inch broad, put them into your stew-pan, and sprinkle a little salt over them; then put in a bunch of sweet-herbs, a little lemon-peel, an onion, a little anchovy pickle, and a bay-leaf; put all these to the tripe, then put in just water enough to cover them, and let them stew till the trip is very tender:  then take out the tripe and strain the liquor out, shred a spoonful of capers, and put to them a glass of white wine, and half a pint of the liquor they are stewed in.  Let it boil a little while, then put in your tripe, and beat the yolks of three eggs; put into your eggs a little mace, two cloves, a little nutmeg dried and beat fine, a small handful of parsley picked and shred fine, a piece of butter rolled in flour, and a quarter of a pint of cream:  mix all these well together, and put them into your stew-pan, keep them stirring one way all the while, and when it is of a fine thickness and smooth, dish it up, and garnish the dish with lemon.  You are to observe that all sauces which have eggs or cream in, you must keep stirring one way all the while they are on the fire, or they would turn to curds.  You may add white walnut pickle, or mushrooms, in the room of capers, just to make your sauce a little tart.

To ragoo hogs feet and ears.

Take your feet and ears out of the pickle they are soused in, or boil them till they are tender, then cut them into little long thin bits about two inches long, and about a quarter of an inch thick:  put them into your stew-pan with half a pint of good gravy, a glass of white wine, a good deal of mustard, a good piece of butter rolled in flour, and a little pepper and salt:  stir all together till it is of a fine thickness, and then dish it up.

Note, they make a very pretty dish fried with butter and mustard, and a little good gravy, if you like it.  Then only cut the feet and ears in two.  You may add half an onions, cut small.

To fry tripe.

Cut your tripe into pieces about three inches long, dip them in the yolk of an egg and a few crums of bread, fry them of a fine brown, and then take them out of the pan and lay them in a dish to drain.  Have ready a arm dish to put them in, and send them to table, with butter and mustard in a cup.

To stew tripe.

Cut it just as you do for frying, and set on some water in a sauce-pan, with two or three onions cut into slices, and some salt.  When it boils, put in your tripe.  Ten minutes will boil it.  Send it to table with the liquor in the dish, and the onions.  Have butter and mustard in a cup, and dish it up.  You may put in as many onions as you like to mix with your sauce, or leave them quite out, just as you please.  Put a little bundle of sweet-herbs, and a piece of lemon-peel into the water, when you put in your tripe.

A fricasey of pigeons.

Take eight pigeons, new killed, cut them into small pieces, and put them into a stew-pan with a pint of claret and a pint of water.  Season your pigeons with salt and pepper, a blade or two of mace, an onion, a bundle of sweet-herbs, a good piece of butter just rolled in a very little flour:  cover it close, and let them stew till there is just enough for sauce, and then take out the onions and sweet-herbs, beat up the yolks of three eggs, grate half a nutmeg in, and with your spoon push the meat all to one side of the pan and the gravy to the other side, and stir in the eggs; keep them stirring for fear of turning to curds, and when the sauce is fine and thick shake all together, put in half a spoonful of vinegar, and give them a shake; then put the meat into the dish, pour the sauce over it, and have ready some slices of bacon toasted, and fried oysters; throw the oysters all over, and lay the bacon round.  Garnish with lemon.

A fricasey of lamb-stones and sweetbreads.

Have ready some lamb-stones blanched, parboiled and sliced, and flour two or three sweetbreads*; if very thick, cut them in two, the yolks of six hard eggs whole; a few pistachio-nut kernels, and a few large oysters:  fry these all of a fine brown, then pour out all the butter, and add a pint of drawn gravy, the lamb-stones, some asparagus tops about an inch long, some grated nutmeg, a little pepper and salt, two shallots shred small, and a glass of white wine.  Stew all these together for ten minutes, then add the yolks of six eggs beat very fine, with a little white wine, and a little beaten mace; stir altogether till it is of a fine thickness, and then dish it up.  Garnish with lemon.

[*Culinary names for the thymus (throat, gullet, or neck) or the pancreas (also heart, stomach, or belly) especially of the calf (ris de veau) and lamb (ris d’agneau) (although beef and pork sweetbreads are also eaten).]

To hash a calf’s head.

Boil the head almost enough, then take the best half and with a sharp knife take it nicely from the bone, with the two eyes.  Lay it in a little deep dish before a good fire, and take great care no ashes fall into it, and then hack it with a knife cross and cross:  grate some nutmeg all over, a very little pepper and salt, a few sweet herbs, some crumbs of bread, and a little lemon-peel chopped very fine, baste it with a little butter, then baste it again, and pour over it the yolks of two eggs; keep the dish turning that it may be all brown alike:  cut the other half and tongue into little thin bits, and set on a pint of drawn gravy in a sauce-pan, a little bundle of sweet-herbs, an onions, a little pepper and salt, a glass of red wine, and two shallots; boil all these together, a few minutes, then strain it through a sieve, and put it into a clean stew-pan with the hash.  Flour the meat before you put it in, and put in a few mushrooms, a spoonful of the pickle, two spoonfuls of catchup, and a few truffles and morels; stir all these together for a few minutes, then beat up half the brains, and stir into the stew-pan, and a little piece of butter rolled in flour.  Take the other half of the brains and beat them up with a little lemon-peel cut fine, a little nutmeg grated, a little beaten mace, a little thyme shred small, a little parsley, the yolk of an egg, and have some good dripping boiling in a stew-pan; then fry the brains in little cakes, about as big as a crown-piece.  Fry about twenty oysters dipped in the yolk of an egg, toast some slices of bacon, fry a few force-meat balls, and have ready a hot dish; if pewter, over a few clear coals; if china, over a pan of hot water.  Pour in your hash, then lay in your toasted head, throw the force-meat-balls over the hash, and garnish the dish with fried oysters, the fried brains, and lemon; throw the rest over the hash, lay the bacon round the dish, and send it to table.

To hash a calf’s head white.

Take half a pint of gravy, a large wine-glass of white wine, a little beaten mace, a little nutmeg, and a little salt; throw into your hash a few mushrooms, a few truffles and morels first parboiled, a few artichoke bottoms, and asparagus tops, if you have them, a good piece of butter rolled in flour, the yolks of two eggs, half a pint of cream, and one spoonful of mushroom catchup; stir it all together very carefully till it is of a fine thickness; then pour it into sour dish, and lay the other half of the head as before-mentioned, in the middle, and garnish it as before directed, with fried oysters, brains, lemon, and force-meat balls fried.

To bake a calf’s head.

Take the head, pick it and wash it very clean; take an earthen dish large enough to lay the head on, rub a little piece of butter all over the dish, then lay some long iron skewers across the top of the dish, and lay the head atop them; skewer up the meat in the middle that it don’t lie on the dish, then grate some nutmeg all over it, a few sweet herbs shred small, some crumbs of bread, a little lemon-peel cut fine, and then flour it all over:  stick pieces of butter in the eyes and all over the head, and flour it again.  Let it be well baked, and of a fine brown; you may throw a little pepper and salt over it, and put into the dish a piece of beef cut small, a bundle of sweet-herbs, an onion, some whole pepper, a blade of mace, two cloves, a pint of water, and boil the brains with some sage.  When the head is enough, lay it on a dish, and set it to the fire to keep warm, then stir all together in the dish, and boil it in a sauce-pan; strain it off, put it into the sauce-pan again, add a piece of butter rolled in flour, and the sage in the brains chopped fine, a spoonful of catchup, and two spoonfuls of red wine; boil them together, take the brains, beat them well, and mix then with the sauce:  pour it into the dish, and send it to table.  You must bake the tongue with the head, and don’t cut it out.  It will lie the handsomer in the dish.

To bake a sheep’s head.

Do it the same way, and it eats very well.

To dress a lamb’s head.

Boil the head and pluck tender but don’t let the liver be too much done.  Take the head up, hack it cross and cross with a knife, grate some nutmeg over it, and lay it in a dish, before a good fire; then grate some crumbs of bread, some sweet-herbs rubbed, a little lemon-peel chopped fine, a very little pepper and salt, and baste it with a little butter:  then throw a little flour over it, and just as it is done do the same, baste it and drudge it.  Take half the liver, the lights*, the heart and tongue, chop them very small, with six or eight spoonfuls of gravy or water; first shake some flour over the meat, and stir it together, then put in the gravy or water, a good piece of butter rolled in a little flour, a little pepper and salt, and what runs from the head in the dish; simmer all together a few minutes, and add half a spoonful of vinegar, pour it into your dish, lay the head in the middle of the mince-meat,  have ready the other half of the liver cut thin, with some slices of bacon broiled, and lay round the head.  Garnish the dish with lemon, and send it to table.

[*lights = lungs]

To ragoo a neck of veal.

Cut a neck of veal into steaks, flatten them with a rolling-pin, season them with salt, pepper, cloves and mace, lard them with bacon, lemon-peel and thyme, dip them in the yolks of eggs, make a sheet of strong cap-paper up at the four corners in the form of a dripping-pan; pin up the corners, butter the paper and also the gridiron, and set it over a fire of charcoal; put in your meat, let it do leisurely, keep it basting and turning to keep in the gravy; and when it is enough have ready half a pint of strong gravy, season it high, put in mushrooms and pickles, force-meat balls dipped in the yolks of eggs, oysters stewed and fried, to lay round and at the top of your dish, and then serve it up.  If for a brown ragoo, put in red wine.  If for a white one, put in white wine, with the yolks of eggs beat up with two or three spoonfuls of cream.

To ragoo a breast of veal.

Take your breast of veal, put it into a large stew-pan, put in a bundle of sweet-herbs, an onions, some black and white pepper, a blade or two of mace, two or three cloves, a very little piece of lemon peel, and just cover it with water:  when it is tender take it up, bone it, put in the bones, boil it up till the gravy is very good, then strain it off, and if you have a little rich beef gravy add a quarter of a pint, put in half an ounce of truffles and morels, a spoonful or two of catchup, two or three spoonfuls of white wine, and let them all boil together:  in the mean time flour the veal, and fry it in butter till it is of a fine brown, then drain out all the butter and pour the gravy you are boiling to the veal, with a few mushrooms:  boil all together till the sauce is rich and thick, and cut the sweetbread* into four.  A few force-meat balls is proper in it.  Lay the veal in the dish, and pour the sauce all over it.  Garnish with lemon.

[*Culinary names for the thymus (throat, gullet, or neck) or the pancreas (also heart, stomach, or belly) especially of the calf (ris de veau) and lamb (ris d’agneau) (although beef and pork sweetbreads are also eaten).]

Another way to ragoo a breast of veal.

You may bone it nicely, flour it, and fry it of a fine brown, then pour the fat out of the pan, and the ingredients as above, with the bones; when enough, take it out, and strain the liquor, then put in your meat again, with the ingredients, as before directed.

A breast of veal in hodge-podge.

Take a breast of veal, cut the briscuit into little pieces, and every bone asunder, then flour it, and put half a pound of good butter into a stew-pan; when it is hot, throw in the veal, fry it all over of a fine light brown, and then have ready a tea-kettle of water boiling; pour it in the stew-pan, fill it up and stir it round, throw in a pint of green peas, a fine lettuce whole, clean washed, two or three blades of mace, a little whole pepper tied in a muffin rag, a little bundle of sweet herbs, a small onion stuck with a few cloves, and a little salt.  Cover it close, and let it stew an hour, or till it is boiled to your palate, if you would have soup made of it; if you would only have sauce to eat with the veal, you must stew it till there is just as much as you would have for sauce, and season it with salt to your palate; take out the onions, sweet-herbs and spice, and pour it altogether into your dish.  It is a fine dish.  If you have no pease, pare three or four cucumbers, scoop out the pulp, and cut it into little pieces, and take four or five heads of celery, clean washed, and cut the white part small; when you have no lettuces, take the little hearts of savoys, or the little young sprouts that grow on the old cabbage-stalks about as big as the top of your thumb.

Note, if you would make a very fine dish of it, fill the inside of your lettuce with force-meat, and tie the top close with a thread; stew it till there is but just enough for sauce, set the lettuce in the middle, and the veal round, and pour the sauce all over it.  Garnish your dish with rasped bread, made into figures with your fingers.  This is the cheapest way of dressing a breast of veal to be good, and serve a number of people.

To collar a breast of veal.

Take a very sharp knife, and nicely take out all the bones, but take great care you do not cut the meat through; pick all the fat and meat off the bones, then grate some nutmeg all over the inside of the veal, a very little beaten mace, a little pepper and salt, a few sweet-herbs shred small, some parsley, a little lemon-peel shred small, a few crumbs of bread and the bits of fat picked off the bones; roll it up tight, stick one skewer in to hold it together, but do it clever, that it stands upright in the dish: tie a packthread across it to hold it together, spit it, then roll the caul* all round it, and roast it.  An hour and a quarter will do it.  When it has been about an hour at the fire take off the caul, dredge it with flour, baste it well with fresh butter, and let it be of a fine brown.  Four sauce take two penny-worth of gravy beef, cut it and hack it well, then flour it, fry it a little brown, then pour into your stew pan some boiling water, stir it well together, then fill your pan two parts full of water, put in an onion, a bundle of sweet herbs, a little crust of bread toasted, two or three blades of mace, four cloves, some whole pepper, and the bones of the veal.  Cover it close, and let it stew till it is quite rich and thick; then strain it, boil it up with some truffles and morels, a few mushrooms, a spoonful of catchup, two or three bottoms of artichokes, if you have them; add a little salt, just enough to season the gravy, take the packthread off the veal, and set it upright in the dish; cut the sweetbread* into four, and broil it of a fine brown, with a few force-meat-balls fried; lay these round the dish, and pour in the sauce.  Garnish the dish with lemon, and send it to table.

[*Caul :  The membrane.

*Culinary names for the thymus (throat, gullet, or neck) or the pancreas (also heart, stomach, or belly) especially of the calf (ris de veau) and lamb (ris d’agneau) (although beef and pork sweetbreads are also eaten).]

The Art of Cookery Continued: Chapter I: Of Roasting, Boiling, &c.

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Briglia_Old_cook_with_a_spit

Cook with a spit

Below is the entire chapter I of Hannah’s definitive work.  Her tone comes through loud and clear – she was writing to the “lower” servants – there was a clear hierarchy even within those ranks of society, and she makes it clear which position she sees herself in.  Some of the things that landed on the 18th century plates of England would turn our stomachs today, such as whole woodchucks and snipes with nothing removed.  Parts of animals that we today view with either disgust, or relegate to the “sausage material” category were served with flair and a side dish of gravy.  I would suggest that you avoid eating while reading these directions…

Chapter I:  Of Roasting, Boiling, &c.

 

That professed cooks will find fault with touching upon a branch of cookery which they never thought worth their notice, is what I expect:  however, this I know, it is the most necessary part of it; and few servants there are, that know how to roast and boil to perfection.

I do not pretend to teach professed cooks, but my design is to instruct the ignorant and unlearned (which will likewise be of great use in all private families) and in so plain and full a manner, that the most illiterate and ignorant person, who can but read, will know how to do everything in cookery well.

I shall first begin with roast and boiled of all sorts, and must desire the cook to order her fire according to what she is to dress; if anything very little or thin, then a pretty little brisk fire, that it may be done quick and nice; if a very large joint, then be sure a good fire be laid to cake.  Let it be clear at the bottom; and when your meat is half done, move the dripping pan and spit a little from the fire, and stir up a good brisk fire; for according to the goodness of your fire, your meat will be done sooner or later.

BEEF

If beef, be sure to paper the top, and baste it well all the time it is roasting, and throw a handful of salt on it.  When you see the smoke draw to the fire, it is near enough; then take off the paper, baste it well, and drudge it with a little flour to make a fine froth.  Never salt your roast meat before you lay it to the fire, for that draws out all the gravy.  If you would keep it a few days before you dress it, dry it very well with a clean cloth, then flour it all over, and hang it where the air will come to it; but be sure always to mind that there is no damp place about it, if there is you must dry it well with a cloth.  Take up your meat, and garnish your dish with nothing but horseradish.

MUTTON and LAMB

As to roasting mutton; the loin, the saddle of mutton (which is the two loins) and the chine (which is the two necks) must be done as the beef above.  But all other sorts of mutton and lamb must be roasted with a quick clear fire, and without paper; baste it when you lay it down, and just before you take it up, drudge it with a little flour; but be sure not to use too much, for that takes away all the fine taste of the meat.  Some chuse to skin a loin of mutton, and roast it brown without paper: but that you may do just as you please, but be sure always to take the skin off a breast of mutton.

VEAL

As to veal, you must be careful to roast it of a fine brown; if a large joint, a very good fire; if a small joint, a pretty little brisk fire; if a fillet or loin, be sure to paper the fat, that you lose as little of that as possible.  Lay it some distance from the fire till it is soaked, then lay it near the fire.  When you way it down, baste it well with good butter; and when it is near enough, baste it again, and drudge it with a little flour.  The breast you must roast with the caul on till it is enough; and skewer the sweetbread on the backside of the breast.  When it is high enough, take off the caul, baste it, and drudge it with a little flour.

PORK

Pork must be well done, or it is apt to surfeit.  When you roast a loin, take a sharp penknife and cut the skin across, to make the crackling eat the better.  The chine you must not cut at all.  The best way to roast a leg, is first to parboil it, then skin it and roast it; baste it with butter, then take a little sage, shred it fine, a little pepper and salt, a little nutmeg, and a few crumbs of bread; throw these over it all the time it is roasting, then have a little drawn gravy to put in the dish with the crumbs that drop from it.  Some love the knuckle fluffed with onion and sage shred small, with a little pepper and salt, gravy and apple-sauce to it.  This they call a mock goose.  The spring, or hand of pork, if very young, roasted like a pig, eats very well, otherwise it is better boiled.  The sparerib should be basted with a little bit of butter, a very little dust of flour, and some sage shred small:  but we never make any sauce to it but apple-sauce.  The best way to dress pork grifkins is to roast them, baste them with a little butter and crumbs of bread, sage, and a little pepper and salt.  Few eat anything with these but mustard.

To roast a pig.

Spit your pig and lay it to the fire, which must be a very good one at each end, or hang a flat iron in the middle of the grate.  Before you lay your pig down, take a little sage shred small, a piece of butter as big as a walnut, and a little pepper and salt; put them into the pig and sew it up with coarse thread, then flour it all over well, and keep flouring it till the eyes drop out, or you find the crackling hard.  Be sure to save all the gravy that comes out of it, which you must do by setting basons or pans under the pig in the dripping pan, as soon as you find the gravy begins to run.  When the pig is enough, stir the fire up brisk; take a coarse cloth, with about a quarter of a pound of butter in it, and rub the pig all over till the crackling is quite crisp, and then take it up.  Lay it in your dish, and with a sharp knife cut off the head, and then cut the pig in two, before you draw out the spit.  Cut the ears off the head and lay at each end, and cut the under-jaw in two and lay on each side; melt some good butter, take the gravy you saved and put into it, boil it, and pour it into the dish with the brains bruised fine, and the sage mixed all together, and then send it to table.

Different sorts of sauce for a pig.

Now you are to observe there are several ways of making sauce for a pig.  Some don’t love any sage in the pig, only a crust of bread; but then you should have a little dried sage rubbed and mixed with the gravy and butter.  Some love bread-sauce in a bason; made thus:  take a pint of water, put in a good piece of crumb of bread, a blade of mace, and a little whole pepper; boil it for about five or six minutes, and then pour the water off:  take out the spice, and beat up the bread with a good piece of butter.  Some love a few currants boiled in it, a glass of wine, and a little sugar:  but that you must do just as you like it.  Others take half a pint of good beef gravy, and the gravy which comes out of the pig, with a piece of butter rolled in flour, two spoonfuls of catchup, and boil them all together; then take the brains of the pig and bruise them fine, with two eggs boiled hard and chopped; put all these together, with the sage in the pig, and pour into your dish.  It is a very good sauce.  When you have not gravy enough comes out of your pig with the butter for sauce, take about half a pint of veal gravy and add to it:  or stew the petty-toes, and take as much of that liquor as will do for the sauce, mixed with the other.

To roast the hind quarter of pig, lamb-fashion.

At the time of the year when house-lamb is very dear, take the hind quarter of a large pig; take off the skin and roast it, and it will eat like lamb with mint-sauce, or with a salad, or Seville-orange.  Half an hour will roast it.

To bake a pig.

If you should be in a place where you cannot roast a pig, lay it in a dish, flour it all over well, and rub it over with butter, butter the dish you lay it in, and put it into an oven.  When it is enough draw it out of the oven’s mouth, and rub it over with a buttery cloth; then put it into the over again till it is dry, take it out, and lay it in a dish:  cut it up, take a little veal gravy, and take off the fat in a dish it was baked in, and there will be some good gravy at the bottom; put that to it, with a little piece of butter rolled in flour; boil it up, and put it into the dish with the brains and sage in the belly.  Some love a pig brought whole to the table, then you are only to put what sauce you like into the dish.

To melt butter.

In melting of butter you must be very careful; let your saucepan be well tinned, take a spoonful of cold water, a little dust of flour, and your butter cut into pieces:  be sure to keep shaking your pan one way, for fear it should oil; when it is all melted, let it boil, and it will be smooth and fine.  A silver pan is best, if you have one.

To roast geese, turkies, &c.

When you roast a goose, turkey, or fowls of any sort, take care to singe them with a piece of what paper, and baste them with a piece of butter; drudge them with a little flour, and when the smoke begins to draw to the fire, and the look plump, base them again, and drudge them with a little flour, and take them up.

Sauce for a goose.

For a goose make a little good gravy, and put it into a bason by itself, and some apple-sauce in another.

Sauce for a turkey.

For a turkey good gravy in the dish, and either bread or onion-sauce in a bason.

Sauce for fowls.

To fowls you should put good gravy in the dish, and either bread or egg-sauce in a bason.

Sauce for ducks.

For ducks a little gravy in the dish, and onion in a cup, if liked.

Sauce for pheasants and partridges.

Pheasants and partridges should have gravy in the dish, and bread-sauce in a cup.

Sauce for larks.

Larks, roast them, and for sauce have crumbs of bread done thus:  take a saucepan or stew pan and some butter; when melted, have a good piece of crumb of bread, and rub it in a clean cloth to crumbs, then throw it into your pan; keep stirring them about till they are brown, then throw them into a sieve to drain, and lay them round your larks.

To roast woodcocks and snipes.

Put them on a little spit; take a round of a three-penny loaf and toast it brown, then lay it in a dish under the birds, baste them with a little butter, and let the trale drop on the toast.  When they are roasted put the toast in the dish, lay the woodcocks on it, and have about a quarter of a pine of gravy; pour it into the dish, and set it over a lamp or chafing dish for three minutes, and send them to table.  You are to observe we never take anything out of a woodcock or snipe.

To roast a pigeon.

Take some parsley shred fine, a piece of butter as big as a walnut, a little pepper and salt; tie the neck-end tight; tie a string round the legs and rump, and fasten the other end to the top of the chimney-piece.  Baste them with butter, and when they are enough lay them in the dish, and they will swim with gravy.  You may put them on a little spit, and then tie both ends close.

To broil a pigeon.

When you broil them, do them in the same manner, and take care your fire is very clear, and set your gridiron high, that they may not burn, and have a little melted butter in a cup.  You may split them, and broil them with a little pepper and salt:  and you may roast them only with a little parsley and butter in a dish.

Directions for geese and ducks.

As to geese and ducks, you should have some sage shred fine, and a little pepper and salt, and put them into the belly; but never put anything into wild ducks.

To roast a hare.

Take your hare when it is cased, and make a pudding; take a quarter of a pound of sewet (suet), and as much crumbs of bread, a little parsley shred find, and about as much thyme as will like on a sixpence, when shred; an anchovy shred small, a very little pepper and salt, some nutmeg, two eggs, and a little lemon-peel.  Mix all these together, and put it into the hare.  Sew up the belly, spit it, and lay it to the fire, which must be a good one.  Your dripping-pan must be very clean and nice.  Put in two quarts of milk and half a pound of butter into the pan:  keep basting it all the while it is roasting, with the butter and milk, till the whole is used, and your hare will be enough.  You may mix the liver in the pudding, if you like it.  You must first parboil it, and then chop it fine.

Different sorts of sauce for a hare.

Take for sauce, a pint of cream and half a pound of fresh butter; put them in a saucepan, and keep stirring it with a spoon till the butter is melted, and the sauce is thick; then take up the hare, and pour the sauce into the dish.  Another way to make sauce for a hare, is to make good gravy, thickened with a little piece of butter rolled in flour, and pour it into your dish.  You may leave the butter out, if you don’t like it, and have some currant jelly warmed in a cup, or red wine and sugar boiled to a syrup; done thus:  take half a pint of red wine, a quarter of a pound of sugar, and set over a slow fire to simmer for about a quarter of an hour.  You may do half the quantity, and put it into your sauce boat or bason.

To broil steaks.

First have a very clear brisk fire:  let your gridiron be very clean; put it on the fire, and take a chafing-dish with a few hot coals out of the fire.  Put the dish on it which is to lay your steaks on, then take fine rump steaks about half an inch thick; put a little pepper and salt on them, lay them on the gridiron, and (if you like it) take a shallot or two, or a fine onion and cut it fine; put it into your dish.  Don’t turn your steaks till one side is done, then when you turn the other side there will soon be fine gravy lie on the stop of the steak, which you must be careful not to lose.  When the steaks are enough, take them carefully off into your dish, that none of the gravy be lost; then have ready a hot dish and cover, and carry them hot to table, with the cover on.

Directions concerning the sauce for steaks.

If you love pickles or horse-raddish (horseradish) with steaks, never garnish your dish, because both the garnishing will be dry, and the steaks will be cold, but lay those things on little places, and carry to table.  The great nicety is to have them hot and full of gravy.

General directions concerning broiling.

As to mutton and pork steaks, you must keep them turning quick on the gridiron, and have your dish ready over a chafing-dish of hot coals, and carry them to table covered hot.  When you broil fowls or pigeons, always take care your fire is clear; and never baste anything on the gridiron, for it only make it smoked and burnt.

General directions concerning boiling.

As to all sorts of boiled meats, allow a quarter of an hour to every pound; be sure the pot is very clean, and skim it well, for everything will have a scum rise, and if that boils down it makes the meat black.  All sorts of fresh meat you are to put in when the water boils, but salt meat when the water is cold.

To boil a ham.

When you boil a ham, put it into a copper, if you have one; let it be about three or four hours before it boils, and keep it well skimmed all the time; then if it is a small one, one hour and a half will boil it, after the copper begins to boil; and if a large one, two hours will do; for you are to consider the time it has been heating in the water, which softens the ham, and makes it boil the sooner.

To boil a tongue.

A Tongue, if salt, put it in the pot overnight, and don’t let it boil till about three hours before dinner, and then boil all that three hours; if fresh out of the pickle, two hours, and put it in when the water boils.

To boil fowls and house-lamb.

Fowls and house lamb boil in a pot by themselves, in a good deal of water, and if any scum arises take it off.  They will be both sweeter and whiter than if boiled in a cloth.  A little chicken will be done in fifteen minutes, a large chicken in twenty minutes, a good fowl in half an hour, a little turkey or goose in an hour, and a large turkey in an hour and a half.

Sauce for a boiled turkey.

The best sauce to a boiled turkey is this:  take a little water or mutton gravy, if you have it, a blade of mace, an onion, a little bit of thyme, a little bit of lemon-peel, and an anchovy;  boil all these together, strain them through a sieve, melt some butter and add to them, fry a few sausages and lay round the dish.  Garnish your dish with lemon.

Sauce for a boiled goose.

Sauce for a boiled goose must be either onions or cabbage, first boiled, and then stewed in butter for five minutes.

Sauce for boiled ducks or rabbits.

To boiled ducks or rabbits, you must pour boiled onions over them, which do thus:  take the onions, peel them, and boil them in a great deal of water; shift your water, then let them boil about two hours, take them up and throw them into a cullender to drain, then with a knife chop them on a board; put them into a sauce pan, just shake a little flour over them, put in a little milk or cream, with a good piece of butter; set them over the fire, and when the butter is melted they are enough.  But if you would have onions sauce in half an hour, take your onions, peel them, and cut them into this slices, put them into milk and water, and when the water boils they will be done in twenty minutes, then throw them into a cullender to drain, and chop them and put them into a saucepan; shake in a little flour, with a little cream if you have it, and a good piece of butter; stir all together over the fire till the butter is melted, and they will be very fine.  This sauce is very good with roast mutton, and it is the best way of boiling onions.

To roast venison.

Take a haunch of venison, and spit it.  Take four sheets of white paper, butter them well, and roll about your venison, then tie your paper on with a small string, and baste it very well all the time it is roasting.  If your fire is very good and brisk, two hours will do it; and, if a small haunch, an hour and a half.  The neck and shoulder must be done in the same manner, which will take an hour and a half, and when it is enough to take off the paper, and drudge it with a little flour just to make a froth; but you must be very quick, for fear the fat should melt.  You must not put any sauce in the dish but what comes out of the meat, but have some very good gravy and put into your sauce-boat or bason.  You must always have sweet sauce with your venison in another bason.  If it is a large haunch, it will take two hours and a half.

Different sorts of sauce for venison.

You may take either of these sauces for venison.  Currant jelly warmed; or half a pint of red wine, with a quarter of a pound of sugar, simmered over a clear fire for five or six minutes; or half a pint of vinegar, and a quarter of a pound of sugar, simmered till it is a syrup.

To roast mutton, venison fashion.

Take a hind-quarter of fat mutton, and cut the leg like a haunch; lay it in a pan with the backside of it down, pour a bottle of red wine over it, and let it lie twenty-four hours, then spit it, and baste it with the same liquor and butter all the time it is roasting at a good quick fire, and an hour and a half will do it.  Have a little good gravy in a cup, and sweet sauce in another.  A good fat neck of mutton eats finely done thus.

To keep venison or hares sweet, or to make them fresh when they stink.

If your venison is very sweet, only dry it with a cloth, and hang it where the air comes.  If you would keep it any time, dry it very well with clean cloths, rub it all over with beaten ginger, and hang it in any airy place, and it will keep a great while.  If it stinks, or is musty, take some lukewarm water, and wash it clean:  then take fresh milk and water lukewarm, and wash it again; then dry it in clean cloths very well, and rub it all over with beaten ginger, and hang it in an airy place.  When you roast it, you need only wipe it with a clean cloth, and paper it, as before-mentioned.  Never do anything else to venison, for all other things spoil your venison, and take away the fine flavour, and this preserved it better than anything you can do.  A hare you may manage just the same way.

To roast a tongue or udder.

Parboil it first, then roast it, stick eight or ten cloves about it; baste it with butter, and have some gravy and sweet sauce.  An udder eats very well done the same way.

To roast rabbits.

Baste them with good butter, and drudge them with a little flour.  Half an hour will do them, at a very quick clear fire, and, if they are very small, twenty minutes will do them.  Take the liver, with a little bunch of parsley, and boil them, and then chop them very fine together.  Melt some good butter, and put half the liver and parsley into the butter; pour it into the dish, and garnish the dish with the other half.  Let your rabbits be done of a fine light brown.

To roast a rabbit hare fashion.

Lard a rabbit with bacon; roast it as you do a hare, and it eats very well.  But then you must make gravy-sauce; but if you don’t lard it, white sauce.

Turkies, pheasants, &c. may be larded.

You may lard a turkey or pheasant, or any thing, just as you like it.

To roast a fowl pheasant fashion.

If you should have but one pheasant, and want two in a dish, take a large full-grown fowl, keep the head on, and truss it just as you do a pheasant; lard it with bacon, but don’t lard the pheasant, and nobody will know it.

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