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Vintage Life Hack #4: How to Pull Out Long Nails

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Stinging Nettles: A Weed with a Bad Rap and a Great Sap!

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stinging nettle

Stinging nettles have gotten a bad rap, in my opinion.  True, they’ve not done much to endear themselves to hikers who get stung as they walk through undergrowth; but if you can get beyond first impressions, you’ll discover one of the power-packs of nature!  Stinging nettles have been around for thousands of years, and recipes for their use have been around for probably just as long. A fast-growing herb related to the mulberry, they grow everywhere (especially well in northern climates), and the list of their benefits reads more like a “Who’s Who” of remedies, from prostrate, arthritis, blood pressure (it balances both high and low!), to  iron and mineral deficiencies.  The younger the leaves, the more power and goodness they still have in them, so pick the top, new leaves for the best results.

It can be eaten raw straight off the plant:  “Taco”-fold the leaf by gripping it on the underside near the base of a young leaf and nipping it off with a pinch of the fingers, pop it in the mouth and chew; the juices from the leaf itself will neutralize any brief sting.  Also, if you’re out on a hike and get stung by the leaves inadvertently, take a leaf as described, chew it up and rub the juices onto the sting area; it will neutralize itself.  It can also be boiled for teas, soups (it boils down like spinach, so you’ll need a lot more than you think you will), or blended into a pesto, or pizza sauce; the variety of ways to eat it are endless.  Once the stingers have been neutralized (their own juices released through blending, boiling, or processing in any way needed), its health benefits are unprecedented as a common plant, free to be had!  Just a word to the wise:  If you let it grow in your own garden, eat it as-is if you’d like; but if you harvest from a public pathway, park or forest, washing it is a good idea; where there are humans, there could be traces of herbicides, or dogs… need I say more?

Click on the image for an interesting video on the subject.  When spring arrives, I’ll be looking for a fresh patch!

Here’s a recipe to get you inspired:

CREAM OF NETTLE & WATERCRESS SOUP

4 C. fresh watercress
1 C. fresh nettle leaves
4 C. of chicken stock
1 C. sour cream
1 clove garlic

Simmer the leaves in the stock until tender. Let cool. Blend in a mixer with clove of chopped garlic. Stir in sour cream, blend. Salt and pepper to taste.

Eidsborg Stave Church & the Vest-Telemark Museum

On our recent holiday/research trip through parts of Norway, we came across an amazing site:  Eidsborg Stave Church and the Vest-Telemark Museum.  We went to Eidsborg with the intention of seeing the outside of the Stavskyrkje (stave church) there on our way to the Heddal Stave Church; instead we spent swift hours there!  It started off with a private guided tour from a local guy (“local” meaning his family has lived in the area since the 1300s), who was both understandably proud of local history and knowledgeable, as well as enthusiastic.

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The Vest-Telemark Museum

The museum itself is modern, beautiful, excellently staffed and convenient, with free wireless connection, a cafe and a gift shop, but most importantly, an extensive exhibit of the history of Vest-Telemark.  The rural life from the late 1700s to 1900s is colourfully laid out, with printed information sheets at each station in Norwegian, English and German.  There’s a strong sense of pride in local culture, and you can breathe in the history of the place.  Literally.  The buildings on the property, some of which you can enter, live and breathe the lives of those who lived there; the musty smells of old leather, damp earth, mildew in the wooden and thatched walls and roofs, the smell of pine wood, the turfy aroma of the blackened pitch-coated walls of the Stave church itself, and the sight of dusty sunlight streaking in through wallboards into the barn, the smithy, a cottage, storehouse, stable, or the mill.  There was even a sauna, built around 1895 (saunas weren’t used back then as they are now; they were places to dry grains for storage, or to steam out fleas and lice from fur rugs and coats).

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The Eidsborg Stave Church

The church is typical stave construction:  The staves are corner pillars used to support the edifice, and the interior of the roof uses the same skeletal structure as the Viking longboats – if it works (and those ships worked better than anything on sea, river or lake for centuries), why change it?  The inside of the church is rich in history:  Carvings from the 1200s, intricately painted walls from the 1600s, a statue of the patron saint of travellers (St. Nicholas of Bari) watching from the corner (as an antique replica – the original is in an Oslo museum), and the dusty light of sunlight peering through small holes near the upper beams. The latter mainly served to provide a bit of light as well as fresh air:  Candles could only be afforded for the clergy, so it would have been extremely dark without those holes; sermons went on for hours back in olden days and there were no seats until the middle ages.  Everyone in the parish was required to come, punishment or humiliation being the course of the day if they failed to appear for service, and in the tiny space allowed inside the original church, it would have been standing room only, packed in like sardines.  If someone fainted from lack of fresh air, it probably wouldn’t have been noticed until everyone filed out.  Today there are pews, and it is used weekly as the parish church through the summer and autumn; it is closed for service during the colder months as heating it would cause decay of the paintings and interior woodwork.

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Details on the gallery

Wooden-shingle clad from the ground up, it gives the building the appearance of dragon’s scales, and having been coated with thick pitch for centuries, it looks quite as if it has been charcoaled; it smells wonderfully peaty, like a strong dark whiskey, and on a sunny day you can smell the aroma a good distance away.  The gallery along three sides of the church reveals many interesting details, from the wooden spikes used to nail the shingles to the roof to the outer curve of the stave pillars jutting out into the gallery.  It’s living, breathing history, and a pleasure to have been there.  It’s a place worth revisiting the next time we’re in the area.

The Liebster Award

liebster_awardI am very honoured to have the opportunity to pass on a wonderful blog award recently given to me: The Liebster Award recognizes blogs that currently have fewer than 200 followers.  My blogs are gradually reaching a wider audience, which is encouraging, but could certainly use more exposure – anyone who writes knows it’s nice to be heard, and if it’s appreciated by others, all the better!  And if, like me, you invest time and care into the research that goes in to making a blog worth reading, it’s reward in itself to know that others enjoy it, and benefit from the investment of time and energy!  Awards are a way of honouring that hard work, as well as a reciprocal form of networking.  So here’s a nod to a few small blogs that are worth noticing.

The Rules:

1. Thank the person who nominated you and link to their blog.

2. Answer the 10 questions given to you by the nominee before you.

3. You must nominate 10 blogs that interest you but have fewer than 200 followers and notify them of their nomination.

4. Pass on the ten questions for your nominees to answer (or come up with your own).

Thank you very much to Sarah Angleton over at thepracticalhistorian for nominating me!

Ten Questions:

WHAT WAS YOUR FIRST JOB?

Every summer holiday, I would find some way to earn money; one year I made a killing with fur-covered golf balls as “pet balls” (pet rocks were all the rage, and I added the golf balls to my stock):  My father worked in the police evidence department, and someone had robbed a fur coat store; rather than be caught with the evidence they had shredded the coats into small pieces.  We got a bag of the scraps (once they’d been released) and they were perfect for my pet scheme!  My first official job was in a Dunkin’ Donuts; the first week I worked there all I wanted to eat was Nacho chips to counter the sugary air I inhaled all morning…

WHY DID YOU START BLOGGING?

I started blogging because, as a writer, I had countless ideas and wanted an outlet, as well as a place to get the word out about my books.  To date I have five blogs, and I also run a forum fielding grammar/syntax/linguistic questions from (mainly) British writers, on a writers’ website called the Writer’s Workshop.

WHAT KIND OF FAMILY DID YOU GROW UP IN?

A typical middle-class Kansan family in Bible-belt America.  Think Superman, Ma & Pa Kent; those were my grandparents.

AS A CHILD, IS THIS WHERE YOU THOUGHT YOU’D BE AT THIS AGE?

Nope!  I thought I’d be in Scotland (I emigrated there in 1988); and I would still be there if I hadn’t met my Swiss husband in a Scottish castle (where we were living at the time).

WHAT IS YOUR FAVORITE PLACE TO VISIT?

The Scottish Highlands!  Norway comes in at a close second.

IF YOU COULD TRAVEL ANYWHERE IN THE WORLD, WHERE WOULD YOU GO?

As soon as Star Trek beaming technology becomes reality I’d like to take my husband back to Hawaii with me (I was at school there in ’86), to visit old friends.

WHAT’S THE MOST EXPENSIVE THING YOU’VE EVER PURCHASED?

Officially, my husband purchased it:  Our home.

CAT OR DOG PERSON?

Definitely cat.  All three of ours would ignore a dog until it went away.  I love all animals, but I don’t have to take a cat on a walk in the rain at 3 a.m. to do its business… I can continue writing!

WHAT’S YOUR FAVORITE MOVIE?

Ooh, that’s a tough one.  It depends on my mood.  I have an extensive collection, and study them with a writer’s eye.  Science Fiction, CGI, Rom-Coms, Historical, Action / Adventure, as well as Documentary… you name it.

WHAT’S YOUR FAVOURITE MUSIC?

At the moment, that would be a compilation of instrumental pieces from the Twilight Piano Series, and instrumental pieces from the various Twilight films.  It varies according to my mood, but I’ve listened to a lot less music since I started writing than ever before in my life!

 

I’d like to pass on this nomination to a few blogs that have caught my interest, but that don’t have a large following yet. A few are just getting launched, and others haven’t been found by their wider audience yet.  I decided to choose mainly historically- and archaeologically-focused sites:

  1. Electric PuppetMatrix White Rabbit
  2. Archaeotutor
  3. Dave Weldrake:  Heritage Education
  4. where in the hell am I
  5. The Prelusive Cat
  6. History and Archaeology Blog
  7. The Feast Bowl
  8. archaeologyntwales
  9. Surgically Surreal
  10. History Echoes

To my readers, enjoy perusing these little gems!  To the nominees, have fun exploring and being more exposed to the world of WordPress!  Just follow the white rabbit and see where it leads!

Avaldsnes – A Hidden Gem

I recently went to Norway on a holiday/research trip for a novel I’m in the process of writing; however, Norway seems to carry its dislike of small-talk into the arena of promotion and marketing, and as a result its museums and attractions are not as well advertised, marketed or signposted as they could be; we only found out about this little gem of a site because we happened to run into a Swiss friend in Haugesund, and he knew of the place!  I promised the curators to get the word out, so here’ goes, and with pleasure:

On the island of Karmøy, along the western coast of Norway, sits Avaldsnes.  With over 50,000 islands in Norway it wouldn’t seem to our modern minds, as dominated by cars and roads as we are, to be a significant location.  But Avaldsnes is rewriting Viking history.  It has long been a place from which to control shipping passages through the narrow neck of the Karmunsundet, also called the Seaway to the North, or in Norwegian “Nordvegen,” and it is the maritime route that eventually gave its name to the country.

The kings of sagas and lays have become real at Avaldsnes, the rich archaeological finds there making it one of the most important locations in Europe for the study of Viking history.  Avaldsnes was a royal seat; so it’s not surprising that some of the most important burials in Norway have been found here:  One of its ship burials was dated to the 8th century (making it much older than any other known such burials).  It was clearly a king’s burial, and the findings there have proven its political importance several hundred years before King Harald Fairhair unified Norway.

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St. Olav’s Church

Today there are three points of interest at Avaldsnes, all within walking distance from each other:  St. Olav’s church, built on the site of the oldest church in Norway, was commissioned by King Håkon Håkonson around 1250 AD as part of the royal manor complex.  On the north side of the church stands the Virgin Mary’s Sewing Needle, one of Norway’s tallest standing stones measuring in at 7.2 metres today, though it was originally much taller:  The local legend says that when the obelisk touches the wall of the church Doomsday will come; so over the years priests have climbed the stone in the dead of night to chip away any threatening pieces from the top, thus saving the world from annihilation.  This church was an important site for pilgrims on their way to Nidaros (the medieval name for Trondheim, the capital of the land’s first Christian kings and the centre of Norwegian spiritual life up until the Protestant Reformation); on the north side of the church is a sealed door which was originally the entrance for those pilgrims, as it is said that they had to enter any church with their backs to the north.

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Nordvegen Historic Centre

The next site is the Nordvegen Historic Centre; at first glance it is merely a circular stone monument, but it is actually a stairway leading down into the underground museum, built so as to not interfere with the landscape.  The exhibitions guide you (with a bit of modern technology) through 3,500 years of history through Avaldsnes, focusing on daily life, international contacts and cultural influences from those contacts.  Foreign trade and communication was a major factor at Avaldsnes, and archaeological evidence shows it to be a barometer to the prosperity and decline of European commerce as a whole.  The museum has a hands-on section, as well as a gift shop that’s well-stocked with books covering various aspects of Viking history.

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The Viking Farm

The third site is a hidden gem, located about 20 minutes’ walk from St. Olav’s:  The Viking farm.  The gravel path takes you along the shore, over two bridges and through a forest to a small island.  It’s well worth the hike as you come through the forest to find a Viking village, tucked behind a typical Telemark-style fence.  A 25-metre longhouse is the centrepiece, a reconstruction of a 950 AD house, and built of pine and oak, with windows of mica sheets.  The aroma of tar wafts from the house as you approach, being painted with pitch to weather-proof it; the smell reminds me of a dark peat-whiskey.  [The photo of the longhouse has one element missing to the trained eye:  The low stone wall which should surround the house, as insulation, is missing at the moment while boards are being repaired.]  Other buildings on the farm include pit houses (both woven twig walls as well as wattle and daub) used for activities such as weaving, cooking or food preparation, and other crafts necessary to daily life; a round house, a reconstruction of archaeological finds in Stavanger (which may be a missing link between temples and stave churches in their construction); various buildings of a smaller size, and at the shore is a 32-metre leidang boat house, representing a part of the naval defence system developed in the Viking Age; a settlement with a leidang was expected to man the ship with warriors and weapons when the king called upon them for aid.  When the boat house was vacant of its ship, it was used as a feasting hall, and the modern replica follows that example; it is often hired out for celebrations or festivals.

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The Leidang Boat House

Both the museum and the Viking farm have friendly and knowledgeable staff; the farm staff are all in hand-made period clothing and shoes; as a matter of fact one of the women was working on her dress while we were there, and she said it was linen; the total hours to make such a dress from start to finish would be around 600 hours – had it been leather, it would have taken much, much longer.  That is why clothing was very valuable, and most people only had the clothes on their back; you were considered wealthy if you had a change of clothing, even into the mid-eighteenth century in countries such as England.

If you are interested in Viking history, Avaldsnes is well worth the journey.  Take your time; we stayed overnight in the area to spread the visit out over two days, and we could have spent much more time there.  If you’re a natural introvert like me, you’ll need time to process the multitude of impressions, but that’s what we like – quality time, and quality input.  And then get the word out about these points of interest!

Loch Eriboll

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Loch Eriboll & region

Loch Eriboll & region

Loch Eriboll is a sea loch along the northern coast of Scotland, roughly 16 km (10 mi) long.  It’s been used probably as long as it’s existed as a safe anchor from the stormy seas off of Cape Wrath and the Pentland Firth.  Bronze Age remains can be found in the area, including the souterrain I wrote about recently.  There’s also a well preserved wheelhouse on a hillside above the west shore, and on the small peninsula jutting out into the loch, you’ll find the ruins of a small scale lime industry that developed there in the 19th century.  The shores around the area are fascinating, as the geological composition in that area is a conglomeration of an amazing variety, split along the eastern shore of the loch by the Moine Thrust.  Even along the roads you’ll find chunks of pink metamorphic rocks glittered with mica.

In 1945, thirty-three German U-boats surrendered in the deep loch, ending the Battle of the Atlantic.  Eilean Choraidh, the largest island in the loch, was used as target practice for aerial bombing due to its size and resemblance to the shape of a ship.  Along the western hills you can see words written with stones, near the settlement of Laid:  They are the names of warships, such as the Hood and Amethyst, arranged there by the sailors of those ships.

Loch Eriboll

Loch Eriboll, taken Summer 2012, © Stephanie Huesler

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Tràigh Allt Chàilgeag Beach, taken Summer 2012, © Stephanie Huesler

Not far from Loch Eriboll, on the way to Durness, is a treasure:  Tràigh Allt Chàilgeag is a beach of vertical walls of stones layered in colours ranging from black to pink.  When the tide is out the beach is endless, and when it’s in, climb the rocks!  The beach was created as the Ice Age sheets began to melt, pushing the walls of rocks upward as the island actually rose, no longer being held down by the massive weight of ice.

On a clear day, you can see the southern-most Orkney Isles, and the waters around the coast are still busy highways for ships of all sizes.

Skara Brae

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Skara Brae

Skara Brae

Skara Brae is probably the single most famous Neolithic settlement uncovered in the world.  It gives us the most complete picture of everyday life in that period of time, and has quite a few surprises:  Indoor running water?  Dressers and beds?  Yep.  They had storage rooms, and even toys for the kids.  There are some objects that they can’t figure out, but that just makes it all the more tantalizing.

Originally much farther from the shoreline, over the centuries erosion has eaten away at the land; Skara Brae will itself eventually succumb to the pounding Atlantic waves.

I was there in 1989 for the first time, and again in 2002; the first time I was there I was with a group of friends and we were given a private tour by the uncle of one of my friends, who just happened to work there.  It was an amazing way to see this prehistoric site, tourist-free and (back then) largely untainted by tourism.  In 2002 it was a different matter altogether; a tourist shop had sprung up, and we had to time our viewing between bus-loads of day-tourists from the South (Scotland).  Also on that second visit, the Atlantic winds were so strong we were literally leaning into the wind at 45° angles; if it had had a sudden lull, we would have been flung into the sunken dwellings; needless to say it was more of a nerve-wracking event than the first time around.

Skara Brae stone objectsIf you get a chance to go, do so; take at least a fortnight on Mainland Orkney; it is known as the Archaeologist’s treasure trove, and for good reason – just about any stone you turn over has some kind of historical significance there, and there are many sites to take in:  Maeshowe, Ness of Brodgar and the Ring of Brodgar, and chambered cairns to name a few, and even more modern sites such as Churchill Barrier, and sunken World War 2 vessels (some portions are visible in low tide) in the stretch of water between Scotland and the isles, the Pentland Firth, known as “The Sailor’s Nightmare”… there are several currents that flow and mix into this bottleneck, not only making for treacherous sailing but it can also make even the hardiest sailor lose his lunch.  Word to the wise:  When heading out of Thurso with the ferry to the Mainland (the largest island in the Orkney group), a) don’t eat yet (it usually leaves around lunch time, and believe me, you won’t keep it long if you eat…), and b) as soon as you get on the ferry head to the dining room and get a window-side table.  This is because they will not only fill up fast, but once you’re out of the relatively calm / wind-sheltered bay into the open Strait, you’ll be glad for a ring-side view from a wind-sheltered, spray-sheltered spot.

The History of the Ampersand & Other Ligatures

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Symbols The ampersand (&) may seem like a modern invention for lazy spellers, or a typesetter’s solution to limited space, or an English teacher’s pet peeve on exams; but it can actually be traced back to the 1st century Romans.  In English, “&” is pronounced “and” rather than its original Latin word “et” (meaning “and”).  Hannah Glasse’s writings show us that “etc.” was, in her time, written as “&c.” which may look strange to our modern sensibilities, but makes perfect sense when you know the origin of the ampersand.

There are many examples of ligature (characters consisting of two or more symbols combined into one) in use today; everyday symbols we use likely have quite a history.  Have you ever wondered about @, #, ©, ¶, or % ?  Or even “?” ?  And no, I’m not cussing.

Many currency symbols are a combination of words or letters:  The British pound symbol £ derives from the Roman word “Librae;” Libra was the basic Roman unit for weight, derived from the Latin word for “scales,” or “balance.”  “L” was the abbreviation (see, we aren’t the first generation of lazy spellers; but then again, you would be too if you had to chisel it into stone, or cure hides for scrolls).  The Pound Sterling has quite a pedigree, and is worth a read over at WikipediaEmoticons

Our modern language has added Emoticons to the list of ligature symbols; many computers automatically convert certain combinations of symbols into a different one altogether; :+-+) becomes ☺, ❤ becomes ♥; for more, see the attached images.

Our language is full of history; those little symbols, punctuation marks that we take for granted, that necessary “@” for connecting to the world… what would we do without it?  And a hundred years from now, teenagers will be surprised how old ☺ is.  They might even wonder what a computer keyboard with individual keys looked like.

The Art of Cookery Continued: Chapter II: Made Dishes, Part 4

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After this, there’s one more part of the longest chapter in Hannah Glasse’s 1747 “Art of Cookery”.  In this particular section there are a few interesting aspects:  “Raspings” were used as decoration, as thickener, as a way to keep something burning to the bottom of a pan (a “buffer” layer, so to speak) – and all it was was toasted bread, scraped.  So the next time you burn a piece of toast, just think of that unique opportunity presented.  Several new terms are explained, some of which were completely new to me and difficult to track down; collops, chitterlings, swerd, Canary, chine, Rocambole and scraig … you can’t accuse them of a boring language.  And if anyone finds out what a matelote is, please let me know.

Once again, some of her recipes prove why they haven’t stood the test of time; one combines pig’s feet and eels, with craw-fish thrown in for good measure… Another is “Calf’s Head Surprise” – need I say more?

The Art of Cookery Continued: Chapter II: Made Dishes, Part 4

Veal rolls.

Take ten or twelve little thin slices of veal, lay on them some force-meat* according to your fancy, roll them up, and tie them just across the middle with coarse thread, put them on a bird-spit, rub them over with the yolks of eggs, flour them, and baste them with butter.  Half an hour will do them.  Lay them into a dish, and have ready some good gravy, with a few truffles and morels, and some mushrooms.  Garnish with lemon.

* Force-meat – a stuffing, with either meat or bread as a base.

Olives of veal the French way.

Take two pounds of veal, some marrow, two anchovies, the yolks of two hard eggs, a few mushrooms, and some oysters, a little thyme, marjoram, parsley, spinach, lemon-peel, salt, pepper, nutmeg and mace, finely beaten; take your veal caul, lay a layer of bacon and a layer of the ingredients, roll it in the veal caul, and either roast it or bake it.  An hour will do either.  When enough, cut it into slices, lay it into your dish, and pour good gravy over it.  Garnish with lemon.

Scotch collops à la Francois.

Take a leg of veal, cut it very thin, lard it with bacon, then take half a pint of ale boiling, and pour over it till the blood is out, and then pour the ale into a bason; take a few sweet-herbs chopped small, strew them over the veal and fry it in butter, flour it a little till enough, then put it into a dish and pour the butter away, toast little thin pieces of bacon and lay round, pour the ale into the stew-pan with two anchovies and a glass of white wine, then beat up the yolks of two eggs and stir in, with a little nutmeg, some pepper, and a piece of butter, shake all together till thick, and then pour it into the dish.  Garnish with lemon.

* collops – a small piece of meat, either thin slices or minced meat of either beef, lamb or venison.

To make a savoury dish of veal.

Cut large collops out of a leg of veal, spread them abroad on a dresser, hack them with the back of a knife, and dip them in the yolks of eggs; season them with cloves, mace, nutmeg and pepper, beat fine; make force-meat* with some of your veal, beef-suet, oysters chopped, sweet-herbs shred fine, and the aforesaid spice, strew all these over your collops, roll and tie them up, put them on skewers, tie them to a spit, and roast them; to the rest of your force-meat add a raw egg or two, roll them in balls and fry them, put them in your dish with your meat when roasted, and make the sauce with strong broth, an anchovy, a shallot, a little white-wine, and some spice.  Let it stew, and thicken it with a piece of butter rolled in flour, pour the sauce into the dish, lay the meat in, and garnish with lemon.

* Force-meat – a stuffing, with either meat or bread as a base.

Scotch collops* larded.

Prepare a fillet of veal, cut into thin slices, cut off the skin and fat, lard them with bacon, fry them brown, then take them out, and lay them in a dish, pour out all the butter, take a quarter of a pound of butter and met it in the pan, then strew in a handful of flour; stir it till it is brown, and pour in three pints of good gravy, a bundle of sweet-herbs, and an onion, which you must take out soon; let it boil a little, then put in the collops, let them stew half a quarter of an hour, put in some force-meat** balls fried, the yolks of two eggs, a piece of butter, and a few pickled mushrooms; stir all together, for a minute or two till it is thick; and then dish it up.  Garnish with lemon.

* collops – a small piece of meat, either thin slices or minced meat of either beef, lamb or venison.

** Force-meat – a stuffing, with either meat or bread as a base.

To do them white.

After you have cut your veal in thin slices, lard it with bacon; season it with cloves, mace, nutmeg, pepper and salt, some grated bread, and sweet-herbs.  Stew the knuckle in as little liquor as you can, a bunch of sweet-herbs, some whole pepper, a blade of mace, and four cloves; then take a pint of the broth, stew the cutlets in it, and add to it a quarter of a pint of white wine, some mushrooms, a piece of butter rolled in flour, and the yolks of two eggs; stir all together till it is thick, and then dish it up.  Garnish with lemon.

Veal blanquets.

Roast a piece of veal, cut off the skin and nervous parts, cut it into little thin bits, put some butter into a stew-pan over the fire with some chopped onions, fry them a little, then add a dust of flour, stir it together, and put in some good broth, or gravy, and a bundle of sweet-herbs:  season it with spice, make it of a good taste, and then put in your veal, the yolks of two eggs beat up with cream and grated nutmeg, some chopped parsley, a shallot, some lemon-peel grated, and a little juice of lemon.  Keep it stirring one way; when enough, dish it up.

A shoulder of veal à la Piemontoise.

Take a shoulder of veal, cut off the skin that it may hang at one end, then lard the meat with bacon and ham, and season it with pepper, salt, mact, sweet-herbs, parsley and lemon-peel; cover it again with the skin, stew it with gravy, and when it is just tender take it up; then take sorrel, some lettuce chopped small, and stew them in some butter with parsley, onions and mushrooms:  the herbs being tender put to them some of the liquor, some sweetbreads* and some bits of ham.  Let all stew together a little while, then lift up the skin, lay the stewed herbs over and under, cover it with the skin again, wet it with melted butter, strew it over with crumbs of bread, and send it to the oven to brown; serve it hot, with some good gravy in the dish.  The French stew it over with parmesan before it goes to the oven.

*Culinary names for the thymus (throat, gullet, or neck) or the pancreas (also heart, stomach, or belly) especially of the calf (ris de veau) and lamb (ris d’agneau) (although beef and pork sweetbreads are also eaten).

A calf’s head surprise.

You must bone it, but not split it, cleanse it well, fill it with a ragoo (in the form it was before) made thus:  take two sweetbreads*, each sweetbread being cut into eight pieces, an ox’s palate boiled tender and cut into little pieces, some cocks-combs, half an ounce of truffles and morels, some mushrooms, some artichoke bottoms, and asparagus tops; stew all these in half a pint of good gravy, season it with two or three blades of mace, four cloves, half a nutmeg, a very little pepper, and some salt, pound all these together, and put them into the raggo:  when it has stewed about half an hour, take the yolks of three eggs beat up with two spoonfuls of cream and two of white wine, put it to the ragoo, keep it stirring one way for fear of turning, and stir in a piece of butter rolled in flour; when it is very thick and smooth fill the head, make a force-meat** with half a pound of veal, half a pound of beef-suet, as much crumbs of bread, a few sweet-herbs, a little lemon-peel, and some pepper, salt and mace, all beat fine together in a marble mortar; mix it up with two eggs, make a few balls, (about twenty) put them into the ragoo in the head, then fasten the head with fine wooden skewers, lay the force-meat over the head, do it over with the solks of two eggs, and send it to the oven to bake.  It will take about two hours baking.  You must lay pieces of butter all over the head, and then flour it.  When it is baked enough, lay it in your dish, and have a pint of good fried gravy.  If there is any gravy in the dish the head was baked in, put it to the other gravy, and boil it up; pour it into your dish, and garnish with lemon.  You may throw some mushrooms over the head.

*Culinary names for the thymus (throat, gullet, or neck) or the pancreas (also heart, stomach, or belly) especially of the calf (ris de veau) and lamb (ris d’agneau) (although beef and pork sweetbreads are also eaten).

** Force-meat – a stuffing, with either meat or bread as a base.

Sweetbreads* of veal à la Dauphine.

Take the largest sweetbreads you can get, open them in such a manner as you can stuff in force-meat**, three will make a fine dish; make your force-meat with a large fowl or young cock, skin it, and pick off all the flesh, take half a pound of fat and lean bacon, cut these very fine and beat them in a mortar; season it with an anchovy, some nutmeg, a little lemon-peel, a very little thyme, and some parsley:  mix these up with the yolk of an egg, fill your sweetbreads and fasten them with fine wooden skewers; take the stew-pan, lay layers of bacon at the bottom of the pan, season them with pepper, salt, mace, cloves, sweet-herbs, and a large onion sliced, upon that lay thin slices of veal, and then lay on your sweetbreads; cover it close, let it stand eight or ten minutes over a slow fire, and then pour in a quart of boiling water or broth; cover it close, and let it stew two hours very softly, then take out the sweetbreads, keep them hot, strain the gravy, skim all the fat off, boil it up till there is about half a pint, put in the sweetbreads, and give them two or three minutes stew in the gravy, then lay them in the dish, and pour the gravy over them.  Garnish with lemon.

*Culinary names for the thymus (throat, gullet, or neck) or the pancreas (also heart, stomach, or belly) especially of the calf (ris de veau) and lamb (ris d’agneau) (although beef and pork sweetbreads are also eaten).

** Force-meat – a stuffing, with either meat or bread as a base.

Another way to dress sweetbreads.

Do not put any water or gravy into the stew-pan, but put the same veal and bacon over the sweetbreads*, and season as under directed; cover them close, put fire over as well as under, and when they are enough, take out the sweetbreads, put in a ladleful of gravy, boil it, and strain it, skim off all the fat, let it boil till it jellies, and then put in the sweetbreads to glaze:  lay essence of ham in the dish, and lay the sweetbreads upon it; or make a very rich gravy with mushrooms, truffles and morels, a glass of white wine, and two spoonfuls of catchup.  Garnish with cocks-combs forced and stewed in the gravy.

Note, You may add to the first, truffles, morels, mushrooms, cocks-combs, palates, artichoke bottoms, two spoonfuls of white wine, two of catchup, or just as you please.

N.B. There are many ways of dressing sweetbreads: you may lard them with thin slips of bacon, and roast them with what sauce you please; or you may marinate them, but them into thin slices, flour them and fry them.  Serve them up with fried parsley, and either butter or gravy.  Garnish with lemon.

*Culinary names for the thymus (throat, gullet, or neck) or the pancreas (also heart, stomach, or belly) especially of the calf (ris de veau) and lamb (ris d’agneau) (although beef and pork sweetbreads are also eaten).

Calf’s chitterlings or àndouilles.

Take some of the largest calf’s guts, cleanse them, cut them in pieces proportionable to the length of the puddings you design to make, and tie one end to these pieces; then take some bacon, with a calf’s udder and chaldron blanched, and cut into dice or slices, put them into a stew-pan and season with fine spice pounded, a bay-leaf, some salt, pepper, and shallot cut small, and about half a pint of cream; toss it up, take off the pan, and thicken your mixture with four or five yolks of eggs and some crumbs of bread, then fill up your chitterlings* with the stuffing, keep it warm, tie the other end with packthread, blanch and boil them like hog’s chitterlings, let them grow cold in their own liquor before you serve them up; boil them over a moderate fire, and serve them up pretty hot.  These sort of andouilles, or puddings, must be made in summer, when hogs are seldom killed.

* Chitterling:  Guts, bowls, tripe, entrails

To dress calf’s chitterlings curiously.

Cut a calf’s nut in slices of its length, and the thickness of a finger, together with some ham, bacon, and the white of chickens, cut after the same manner; put the whole into a stew-pan, seasoned with salt, pepper, sweet-herbs, and spice, then take the guts cleansed, cut and divide them in parcels, and fill them with your slices; then lay in the bottom of a kettle or pan some slices of bacon and veal, season them with some pepper, salt, a bay leaf, and an onion, and lay some bacon and veal over them; then put in a pint of white wine, and let it stew softly, close covered with fire over and under it, if the pot or pan will allow it; then broil the puddings on a sheet of white paper, well buttered on the inside.

To dress a ham à la Braise.

Clear the knuckle, take off the swerd*, and lay it in water to freshen; then tie it about with a string, take slices of bacon and beef, beat and season them well with spice and sweet-herbs; then lay them in the bottom of a kettle with onions, parsnips and carrots sliced, with some chives and parsley; lay in your ham the fat side uppermost, and cover it with slices of beef and over that slices of bacon, then lay on some sliced roots and herbs, the same as under it:  cover it close, and stop it close with paste, but fire both over and under it, and let it stew with a very slow fire twelve hours; put it in a pan, drudge it well with grated bread, and brown it with a hot iron; then serve it upon a clean napkin:  garnish with raw parsley.

Note, If you eat it hot, make a ragoo thus:  take a veal sweetbread**, some livers of fowls, cocks-combs, mushrooms, and truffles; toss them up in a pint of good gravy, seasoned with spice as you like, thicken it with a piece of butter rolled in flour, and a glass of red wine; then brown your ham as above, and let it stand a quarter of an hour to drain the fat out; take the liquor it was stewed in, strain it, skim all the fat off, put it to the gravy, and boil it up.  It will do as well as the essence of ham.  Sometimes you may serve it up with a ragoo of crawfish, and sometimes with carp sauce.

* Swerd = skin

*Culinary names for the thymus (throat, gullet, or neck) or the pancreas (also heart, stomach, or belly) especially of the calf (ris de veau) and lamb (ris d’agneau) (although beef and pork sweetbreads are also eaten).

To roast a ham or gammon.

Take off the swerd, or what we call the skin, or rhind, and lay it in lukewarm water for two or three hours; then lay it in a pan, pour upon it a quart of canary*, and let it steep in it for ten or twelve hours.  When you have spitted it, put some sheets of white paper over the fat side, pour the canary in which it was soaked in the dripping-pan, and baste with it all the time it is roasting; when it is roasted enough, pull off the paper, and drudge it well with crumbled bread and parsley shred fine; make the fire brisk, and brown it well.  If you eat it hot, garnish it with rasping of bread; if cold, serve it on a clean napkin, and garnish it with green parsley for a second course.

* Canary:  She is most likely referring to a type of white wine from the Canary Islands; it was made from the Malvasia wine grape, and grown historically in the Mediterranean regions, Balearic islands, and Madeira.

To stuff a chine* of pork.

Make a stuffing of the fat leaf of pork, parsley, thyme, sage, eggs, crumbs of bread; season it with pepper, salt, shallot, and nutmeg, and stuff it thick; then roast it gently, and when it is about a quarter roasted, cut the skin in slips, and make your sauce with apples, lemon-peel, two or three cloves, and a blade of mace; sweeten it with sugar, put some butter in, and have mustard in a cup.

Chine:  A cut of meat including at least part of the backbone.

Various ways of dressing a pig.

First skin your pig up to the ears whole, then make a good plumb-pudding batter, with good beef fat, fruit, eggs, milk, and flour, fill the skin, and sew it up; it will look like a pig; but you must bake it, flour it very well, and rub it all over with butter, and when it is near enough, draw it to the oven’s mouth, rub it dry, and put it in again for a few minute; lay it in the dish, and let the sauce be small gravy and butter in the dish:  cut the other part of the pig into four quarters, roast them as you do lamb, throw mint and parsley on it as it roasts; then lay them on water-cresses, and have mint-sauce in a bason.

Any one of these quarters will make a pretty side-dish:  or take one quarter and roast, cut the other in steaks, and fry them fine and brown.  Have stewed spinach in the dish, and lay the roast upon it, and the fried in the middle.  Garnish with hard eggs and Seville oranges cut into quarters, and have some butter in a cup:  or for a change, you may have good gravy in the dish, and garnish with fried parsley and lemon; or you may make a ragoo of sweetbreads*, artichoke-bottoms, truffles, morels, and good gravy, and pour over them.  Garnish with lemon.  Either of these will do for a top dish of a first course, or bottom dishes at a second course.  You may fricasey it white for a second course at top, or a side-dish.

You may take a pig, skin him, and fill him with force-meat** made thus:  take two pounds of young pork, fat and all, two pounds of veal the same, some sage, thyme, parsley, a little lemon-peel, pepper, salt, mace, cloves, and a nutmeg;: mix them, and beat them fine in a mortar, then fill the pig, and sew it up.  You may either roast or bake it.  Have nothing but good gravy in the dish.  Or you may cut it into slices, and lay the head in the middle.  Save the head whole with the skin on, and roast it by itself:  when it is enough cut it in two, and lay it in your dish:  have ready some good gravy and dried sage rubbed in it, thicken it with a piece of butter rolled in flour, take out the brains, beat them up with the gravy, and pour them into the dish.  You may add a hard egg chopped, and put into the sauce.

Note, You may make a very good pie of it, as you may see in the directions for pies, which you may either make a bottom or side-dish.

You must observe in your white fricasey that you take off the fat; or you may make a very good dish thus:  take a quarter of pig skinned, cut it into chops, season them with spice, and wash them with the yolks of eggs, butter the bottom of a dish, lay these steaks on the dish, and upon every steak lay some force-meat the thickness of half a crown, made thus:  take half a pound of veal, and of fat pork the same quantity, chop them very well together, and beat them in a mortar fine; add some sweet-herbs and sage, a little lemon-peel, nutmeg, pepper and salt, and a little beaten mace; upon this lay a layer of bacon or ham, and then a bay-leaf; take a little fine skewer and stick just in about two inches long, to hold them together, then pour a little melted butter over them, and send them to the oven to bake; when they are enough lay them in your dish, and pour good gravy over them, with mushrooms, and garnish with lemon.

*Culinary names for the thymus (throat, gullet, or neck) or the pancreas (also heart, stomach, or belly) especially of the calf (ris de veau) and lamb (ris d’agneau) (although beef and pork sweetbreads are also eaten).

** Force-meat – a stuffing, with either meat or bread as a base.

A pig in jelly.

Cut it into quarters, and lay it into your stew-pan, put in one calf’s foot and the pig’s feet, a pint of Rhenish wine*, the juice of four lemons, and one quart of water, three or four blades of mace, two or three cloves, some salt, and a very little piece of lemon-peel; stove it, or do it over a slow fire two hours; then take it up, lay the pig into the dish you intended it for, then strain the liquor, and when the jelly is cold, skim off the fat, and leave the settling at the bottom.  Warm the jelly again, and pour over the pig; then serve it up cold in the jelly.

* Rhenish wine:  Wine from the Rhine valley in Germany; it could refer to either red or white.

T dress a pig the French way.

Spit your pig, lay it down to the fire, let it roast till it is thoroughly warm, then cut it off the spit, and divide it in twenty pieces.  Set them to stew in half a pint of white wine, and a pint of strong broth, seasoned with grated nutmeg, pepper, two onions cut small, and some stripped thyme.  Let it stew an hour, then put to it half a pint of strong gravy, a piece of butter rolled in flour, some anchovies, and a spoonful of vinegar, or mushroom pickle:  when it is enough, lay it in your dish, and pour the gravy over it, then garnish with orange and lemon.

To dress a pig au pere duillet .

Cut off the head, and divide it into quarters, lard them with bacon, season them well with mace, cloves, pepper, nutmeg, and salt.  Lay a layer of fat bacon at the bottom of a kettle, lay the head in the middle, and the quarters round; then put in a bay-leaf, one racambole*, an onion sliced, lemon, carrots, parsnips, parsley, and chives; cover it again with bacon, put in a quart of broth, stew it over the fire for an hour, and then take it up, put your pig into a stew-pan or kettle, pour in a bottle of white wine, cover it close, and let it stew for an hour very softly.  If you would serve it cold, let it stand till it is cold; then drain it well, and wipe it, that it may look white, and lay it in a dish with the head in the middle, and the quarters round, then throw some green parsley all over:  or any one of the quarters is a very pretty little dish, laid on water-cresses.  If you would have it hot, whilst your pig is stewing in the wine, take the first gravy it was stewed in, and strain it, skim off all the fat, then take a sweetbread** cut into five or six slices, some truffles, morels, and mushrooms; stew all together till they are enough, thicken it with the yolks of two eggs, or a piece of butter rolled in flour, and when your pig is enough take it out, and lay it in your dish; and put the wine it was stewed in to the ragoo; then pour all over the pig, and garnish with lemon.

*Racambole:  Rocambole is an alternative name for the shallot, or sand-leek, a type of wild onion.

*Culinary names for the thymus (throat, gullet, or neck) or the pancreas (also heart, stomach, or belly) especially of the calf (ris de veau) and lamb (ris d’agneau) (although beef and pork sweetbreads are also eaten).

A pig matelote.

Gut and scald your pig, cut off the head and pettytoes, then cut your pig in four quarters, put them with the head and toes into cold water; cover the bottom of a stew-pan with slices of bacon, and place over them the said quarters, with the pettytoes and the head cut in two.  Season the whole with pepper, salt, thyme, bay-leaf, an onion, and a bottle of white wine; lay over more slices of bacon, put over it a quart of water, and let it boil.  Take two large eels, skin and gut them, anc cut them about five or six inches long; when your pig is half done, put in your eels, then boil a dozen large craw-fish, cut off the claws, and take off the shells of the tails; and when your pig and eels are enough, lay first your pig and the pettytoes round it, but don’t put in the head (it will be a pretty dish cold), then lay your eels and craw-fish over them, and take the liquor they were stewed in, skim off all the fat, then add to it half a pint of strong gravy thickened with a little piece of burnt butter, and pour over it, then garnish with craw-fish and lemon.  This will do for a first course, or remove.  Fry the brains and lay round, and all over the dish.

To dress a pig like a fat lamb.

Take a fat pig, cut off his head, slit and truss him up like a lamb; when he is slit through the middle and skinned, parboil him a little, then throw some parsley over him, and roast it and drudge it.  Let your sauce be half a pound of butter and a pint of cream, stirred all together till it is smooth; then pour it over and send it to table.

To roast a pig with the hair on.

Draw your pig very clean at vent, then take out the guts liver, and lights; cut off his feet, and truss him, prick up his belly, spit him, lay him down to the fire, but take care not to scorch him:  when the skin begins to rise up in blisters, pull off the skin, hair and all:  when you have cleared the pig of both, scorch him down to the bones, and baste him with butter and cream or half a pound of butter, and a pint of milk, put it into the dripping-pan, and keep basting it well; then throw some salt over it, and drudge it with crumbs of bread till it is half an inch or an inch thick.  When it is enough, and of a fine brown, but not scorched, take it up, lay it in your dish, and let your sauce be good gravy, thickened with butter rolled in a little flour; or else make the following sauce:  take half a pound of butter and a pint of cream, put them on the fire, and keep them stirring one way all the time; when the butter is melted, and the sauce thickened, pour it into your dish.  Don’t garnish with any thing, unless some rasping of bread; and then with your fingers figure it as you fancy.

To roast a pig with the skin on.

Let your pig be newly killed, draw him, flay him, and wipe him very dry with a cloth; then make a hard meat with a pint of cream, the yolks of six eggs, grated bread, and beef-suet, seasoned with salt, pepper, mace, nutmeg, thyme and lemon-peel:  make of this a pretty stiff pudding, stuff the belly of the pig, and sew it up; then spit it, and lay it down to roast.  Let your dripping-pan be very clean, then pour into it a pint of red wine, grate some nutmeg all over it, then throw a little salt over, a little thyme, and some lemon-peel minced; when it is enough shake a little flour over it, and baste it with butter, to have a fine froth.  Take it up and lay it in a dish, cut off the head, take the sauce which is in your dripping-pan, and thicken it with a piece of butter; then take the brains, bruise them, mix them with the sauce, rub in a little dried sage, pour it into your dish, serve it up.  Garnish with hard eggs cut into quarters, and if you have not sauce enough, add half a pint of good gravy.

Note, You must take great care no ashes fall into the dripping-pan, which may be prevented by having a good fire, which will not want any stirring.

To make a pretty dish of a breast of venison.

Take half a pound of butter, flour your venison, and fry it of a fine brown on both sides; then take it up and keep it hot covered in the dish:  take some flour, and stir it into the butter till it is quite thick and brown (but take care it don’t burn) stir in half a pound of lump-sugar beat fine, and pour in as much red wine as will make it of the thickness of a ragoo; squeeze in the juice of a lemon, give it a boil up, and pour it over the venison.  Don’t garnish the dish, but send it to table.

To boil a haunch or neck of venison.

Lay it in salt for a week, then boil it in a cloth well floured; for every pound of venison allow a quarter of an hour for the boiling.  For sauce you must boil some cauliflowers, pulled into little sprigs in milk and water, some fine white cabbage, some turnips cut into dice, with some beetroot cut into long narrow pieces, about an inch and a half long, and half an inch thick:  lay a sprig of cauliflower, and some of the turnips mashed with some cream and a little butter; let your cabbage be boiled, and then beat in a saucepan with a piece of butter and salt, lay that next the cauliflower, then the turnips, then cabbage, and so on, till the dish is full; place the beetroot here and there, just as you fancy; it looks very pretty, and is a fine dish.  Have a little butter in a cup, if wanted.

Note, A leg of mutton cut venison fashion, and dressed the same way, is a pretty dish:  or a fine neck, with the scraig* cut off.  This eats well boiled or hashed, with gravy and sweet sauce the next day.

* Scraig:  Scrag, the lean end of a neck of veal

To boil a leg of mutton like venison.

Take a leg of mutton cut venison fashion, boil it in a cloth well floured; and have three or four cauliflowers boiled, pulled into sprigs, stewed in a saucepan with butter, and a little pepper and salt; then have some spinach picked and washed clean, put it into a saucepan with a little salt, covered close, and stewed a little while; then drain the liquor, and pour in a quarter of a pint of good gravy, and good piece of butter rolled in flour, and a little pepper and salt; when stewed enough lay the spinach in the dish, the mutton in the middle, and the cauliflower over it, then pour the butter the cauliflower was stewing in over it all:  but you are to observe in stewing the cauliflower, to melt your butter nicely, as for the sauce, before the cauliflower goes in.  This is a genteel dish for a first course at bottom.

To roast tripe.

Cut your trip in two square pieces, somewhat long, have a force-meat* made of crumbs of bread, pepper, salt, nutmeg, sweet-herbs, lemon-peel, and the yolks of eggs mixt all together; spread it on the fat side of the trip, and lay the other fat side next it; then roll it as light as you can, and tie it with a packthread; spit it, roast it, and baste it with butter; when roasted lay it in your dish, and for sauce melt some butter, and add what drops from the tripe.  Boil it together, and garnish with rasping**.

* Force-meat – a stuffing, with either meat or bread as a base.

**Raspings = dried bread crumbs, scraped or “rasped” from toasted bread.

To dress poultry

To roast a turkey.

The best way to roast a turkey is to loosen the skin on the breast of the turkey, and fill it with force-meat* thus:  take a quarter of a pound of beef-suet, as many crumbs of bread, a little lemon-peel, an anchovy, some nutmeg, pepper, parsley, and a little thyme.  Chop and beat them all together, mix them with the yolk of an egg, and stuff up the breast; when you have no suet, butter will do:  or you may make your force-meat thus:  spread bread and butter thin, and grate some nutmeg over it:  when you have enough roll it up, and stuff the breast of the turkey; then roast it of a fine brown, but be sure to pin some white paper on the breast till it is near enough.  You must have good gravy in the dish, and bread sauce made thus:  take a good piece of crumb, put it into a pint of water, with a blade or two of mace, two or three cloves, and some whole pepper.  Boil it up five or six times, then with a spoon take out the spice you had before put in, and then you must pour off the water (you may boil an onion in it if you please); then beat up the bread with a good piece of butter and a little salt; or onion-sauce, made thus:  take some onions, peel them and cut them into thin slices, and boil them half an hour in milk and water; then drain the water from them and beat them up with a good piece of butter; shake a little flour in, and stir it together with a little cream, if you have it, (or milk will do); put the sauce into boats, and garnish with lemon.

Another way to make sauce:  Take half a pint of oysters, strain the liquor, and put the oysters with the liquor into a sauce-pan, with a blade or two of mace; let them just lump, then pour in a glass of white wine, let it boil once, and thicken it with a piece of butter rolled in flour.  Serve this up in a bason by itself, with good gravy in the dish, for every body don’t love oyster-sauce. This makes a pretty side-dish for supper, or a corner-dish of a table for dinner.  If you chafe it in the dish, add half a pint of gravy to it, and boil it up together.  This sauce is good either with boiled or roasted turkies or fowls; but you may leave the gravy out, adding as much butter as will do for sauce, and garnishing with lemon.

* Force-meat – a stuffing, with either meat or bread as a base.

To make mock oyster sauce, either for turkies or fowls boiled.

Force the turkies or fowls as above, and make your sauce thus:  take a quarter of a pint of water, an anchovy, a blade or two of mace, a piece of lemon-peel, and five or six whole peppercorns.  Boil these together, then strain them, add as much butter with a little flour as will do for sauce; let it boil, and lay sausages round the fowl or turkey.  Garnish with lemon.

To make mushroom sauce for white fowls of all sorts.

Take a pint of mushrooms, wash and pick them very clean, and put them into a saucepan, with a little salt, some nutmeg, a blade of mace, a pint of cream, and a good piece of butter rolled in flour.  Boil these all together, and keep stirring them; then pour your sauce into your dish, and garnish with lemon.

Mushroom sauce for white fowls boiled.

Take half a pint of cream, and a quarter of a pound of butter, stir them together one way till it is thick; then add a spoonful of mushrooms pickle, pickled mushrooms, or fresh if you have them.  Garnish only with lemon.

To make celery-sauce, either for roasted or boiled fowls, turkies, partridges, or any other game.

Take a large bunch of celery, wash and pare it very clean, cut it into little thin bits, and boil it softly in a little water till it is tender; then add a little beaten mace, some nutmeg, pepper, and salt, thickened with a good piece of butter rolled in flour; then boil it up, and pour in your dish.  You may make it with cream thus:  boil your celery as above, and add some mace, nutmeg, a piece of butter as big as a walnut rolled in flour, and half a pint of cream; boil them all together, and you may add, if you will, a glass of white wine, and a spoonful of catchup.

To make brown celery-sauce.

Stew the celery as above, then add mace, nutmeg, pepper, salt, a piece of butter rolled in flour, with a glass of red wine, a spoonful of catchup, and half a pint of good gravy; boil all these together, and pour into the dish.  Garnish with lemon.

To stew a turkey or fowl in celery-sauce.

You must judge according to the largeness of your turkey or fowl, what celery or sauce you want.  Take a large fowl, put it into a saucepan or pot, and put to it one quart of good broth or gravy, a bunch of celery washed clean and cut small, with some mace, cloves, pepper, and allspice tied loose in a muslin rag; put in an onions and a sprig of thyme; let these stew softly till they are enough, then add a piece of butter rolled in flour; take up your fowl, and pour the sauce over it.  An hour will do for a large fowl, or a small turkey; but a very large turkey will take two hours to do it softly.  If it is overdone or dry it is spoiled; but you may be a judge of that, if you look at it now and then.  Mind to take out the onion, thyme, and spice, before you send it to table.

Note, A neck of veal done this way is very good, and will take two hours doing.

To make egg sauce, proper for roasted chickens.

Melt your butter thick and fine, chop two or three hard-boiled eggs fine, put them into a bason, pour the butter over them, and have good gravy in the dish.

Shalot-sauce for roasted fowls.

Take five or six shallots peeled and cut small, put them into a saucepan, with two spoonfuls of white wine, two or water, and two of vinegar; give them a boil up, and pour them into your dish, with a little pepper and salt.  Fowls roasted and laid on watercresses is very good, without any other sauce.

Shalot-sauce for a scrag of mutton boiled.

Take two spoonfuls of the liquor the mutton is boiled in, two spoonfuls of vinegar, two or three shallots cut fine, with a little salt; put it into a saucepan, with a piece of butter as big as a walnut rolled in a little flour; stir it together, and give it a boil.  For those who love shallot, it is the prettiest sauce that can be made to a scraig* of mutton.

* Scraig:  Scrag, the lean end of a neck of veal

To dress livers with mushroom-sauce.

Take some pickled or fresh mushrooms, cut small; both if you have them; and let the livers be bruised fine, with a good deal of parsley chopped small, a spoonful or two of catchup, a glass of white wine; and as much good gravy as will make sauce enough; thicken it with a piece of butter rolled in flour.  This does either for roasted or boiled.

A pretty little sauce.

Take the liver of a fowl, bruise it with a little of the liquor, cut a little lemon-peel fine, melt some good butter, and mix the liver by degrees; give it a boil, and pour it into the dish.

To make lemon-sauce for boiled fowls.

Take a lemon, pare off the rind, then cut it into slices, and cut it small; take all the kernels out, bruise the liver with two or three spoonfuls of gravy, then melt some butter, mix it all together, give them a boil, and cut in a little lemon-peel very small.

A German way of dressing fowls.

Take a turkey or fowl, stuff the breast with what force-meat* you like, and fill the body with roasted chestnuts peeled.  Roast it, and have some more roasted chestnuts, peeled, put them in half a pint of good gravy, with a little piece of butter rolled in flour; boil these together, with some small turnips and sausages cut in slices, and fried or boiled.  Garnish with chestnuts.

Note, you may dress ducks the same way.

* Force-meat – a stuffing, with either meat or bread as a base.

To dress a turkey or fowl, to perfection.

Bone them, and make a force-meat* thus:  take the flesh of a fowl, cut it small, then take a pound of veal, beat it in a mortar, with half a pound of beef-suet, as much crumbs of bread, some mushrooms, truffles and morels cut small, a few sweet-herbs and parsley, with some nutmeg, pepper, and salt, a little mace beaten, some lemon-peel cut fine; mix all these together, with the yolks of two eggs, then fill your turkey, and roast it.  This will do for a large turkey, and so in proportion for a fowl.  Let your sauce be a good gravy, with mushrooms, truffles and morels in it: then garnish with lemon, and for variety sake you may lard your fowl or turkey.

* Force-meat – a stuffing, with either meat or bread as a base.

To stew a turkey brown.

Take your turkey, after it is nicely picked and drawn, fill the skin of the breast with force-meat*, and put an anchovy, a shallot, and a little thyme in the belly, lard the breast with bacon, then put a good piece of butter in the stew-pan, flour the turkey, and fry it just of a fine brown; then take it out, and put it into a deep stew-pan, or little pot, that will just hold it, and put in as much gravy as will barely cover it, a glass of red wine, some whole pepper, mace, two or three cloves, and a little bundle of sweet-herbs; cover it close, and stew it for an hour, then take up the turkey, and keep it hot covered by the fire, and boil the sauce to about a pint, strain it off, add the yolks of two eggs, and a piece of butter rolled in flour; stir it till it is thick, and then lay your turkey in the dish, and pour your sauce over it.  You may have ready some little French loaves, about the bigness of an egg, cut off the tops, and take out the crumb; then fry them of a fine brown, fill them with stewed oysters, lay them round the dish, and garnish with lemon.

* Force-meat – a stuffing, with either meat or bread as a base.

To stew a turkey brown the nice way.

Bone it, and fill it with a force-meat* made thus:  take the flesh of a fowl, half a pound of veal, and the flesh of two pigeons, with a well-pickled or dry tongue, peel it, and chop it all together, then beat in a mortar, with the marrow of a beef bone, or a pound of the fat of a loin of veal; season it with two or three blades of mace, two or three cloves, and half a nutmeg dried at a good distance from the fire, and pounded, with a little pepper and salt:  mix all these together, fill your turkey, fry them of a fine brown, and put it into a little pot that will just hold it; lay four or five skewers at the bottom of the pot, to keep the turkey from sticking; put in a quart of good beef and veal gravy, wherein was boiled spice and sweet-herbs, cover it close, and let it stew half an hour; then put in a glass of red wine, one spoonful of catchup, a large spoonful of pickled mushrooms, and a few fresh ones, if you have them, a few truffles and morels, a piece of
butter as big as a walnut rolled in flour; cover it close, and let it stew half an hour longer; get the little French rolls ready fried, take some oysters, and strain the liquor from them, then put the oysters and liquor into a saucepan, with a blade of mace, a little white wine, and a piece of butter rolled in flour; let them stew till it is thick, then fill the loaves, lay the turkey in the dish, and pour the sauce over it.  If there is any fat on the gravy take it off, and lay the loaves on each side of the turkey.  Garnish with lemon when you have no loaves, and take oysters dipped in batter and fried.

Note, The same will do for any white fowl.

* Force-meat – a stuffing, with either meat or bread as a base.

A fowl à la braise.

Truss your fowl, with the leg turned into the belly, season it both inside and out, with beaten mace, nutmeg, pepper, and salt, lay a layer of bacon at the bottom of a deep stew-pan, then a layer of veal, and afterwards the fowl, then put in an onion, two or three cloves stuck in a little bundle of sweet-herbs, with a piece of carrot, then put at the top a layer of bacon, another of veal, and a third of beef, cover it close, and let it stand over the fire for two or three minutes, then pour in a pint of broth, or hot water; cover it close, and let it stew an hour, afterwards take up your fowl, strain the sauce, and after you have skimmed off the fat, thicken it with a little piece of butter.  You may add just what you please to the sauce.  A ragoo of sweet-herbs, cocks-combs, truffles and morels, or mushrooms, with force-meat* balls, looks very pretty, or any of the sauces above.

* Force-meat – a stuffing, with either meat or bread as a base.

To force a fowl.

Take a good fowl, pick and draw it, slit the skin down the back, and take the flesh from the bones, mince it very small, and mix it with one pound of beef-suet shred, a pint of large oysters chopped, two anchovies, a shallot, a little grated bread, and some sweet-herbs; shred all this very well, mix them together, and make it up with the yolks of eggs, then turn all these ingredients on the bones again, and draw the skin over again, then sew up the back, and either boil the fowl in a bladder an hour and a quarter, or roast it, then stew some more oysters in gravy, bruise in a little of your force-meat*, mix it up with a little fresh butter, and a very little flour; then give it a boil, lay your fowl in the dish, and pour the sauce over it, garnishing with lemon.

* Force-meat – a stuffing, with either meat or bread as a base.

To roast a fowl with chestnuts.

First take some chestnuts, roast them very carefully, so as not to burn them, take off the skin, and peel them, take about a dozen of them cut small, and bruise them in a mortar; parboil the liver of the fowl, bruise it, cut about a quarter of a pound of ham or bacon, and pound it; then mix them all together, with a good deal of parsley chopped small, a little sweet-herbs, some mace, pepper, salt, and nutmeg; mix these together and put into your fowl, and roast it.  The best way of doing it is to tie the neck, and hang it up by the legs to roast with a string, and baste it with butter.  For sauce take the rest of the chestnuts peeled and skinned, put them into some good gravy, with a little white wine, and thicken it with a piece of butter rolled in flour; then take up your fowl, lay it in the dish, and pour in the sauce.  Garnish with lemon.

Pullets à la Saint Menehout.

After having trussed the legs in the body, slit them along the back, spread them open on a table, take out the thigh bone, and beat them with a rolling pin; then season them with pepper, salt, mace, nutmeg, and sweet-herbs; after that take a pound and a half of veal, cut it into thin slices, and lay it in a stew-pan of a convenient size to stew the pullets in:  cover it and set it over a stove or slow fire, and when it begins to cleave to the pan, stir in a little flour, shake the pan about till it be a little brown, then pour in as much broth as will stew the fowls, stir in together, put in a little whole pepper, an onions, and a little piece of bacon or ham; then lay in your fowls, cover them close, and let the stew half an hour; then take them out, lay them on the gridiron to brown on the inside, then lay them before the fire to do on the outside; strew them over with the yolk of an egg, some crumbs of bread, and baste them with a little butter:  let them be of a fine brown, and boil the gravy till there is about enough for sauce, strain it, and put a few mushrooms in, and a little piece of butter rolled in flour; lay the pullets in the dish, and pour in the sauce.  Garnish with lemon.

Note, You may brown them in the oven, or fry them, which you please.

Chicken surprize.

If a small dish, one large fowl will do; roast it, and take the lean from the bone, cut it in thin slices, about an inch long, toss it up with six or seven spoonfuls of cream, and a piece of butter rolled in flour, as big as a walnut.  Boil it up and set it to cool; then cut six or seven thin slices of bacon round, place them in a petty-pan, and put some force-meat* on each side, work them up in the form of a French-roll, with a raw egg in your hand, leaving a hollow place in the middle; put in your fowl, and cover them with some of the same force-meat, rubbing them smooth with your hand and raw egg; make them of the height and bigness of a French-roll, and throw a little fine grated bread over them.  Bake them three quarters or an hour in a gentle oven, or under a baking cover, till they come to a fine brown, and place them on your mazarine, that they may not touch one another, but place them so that they may not fall flat in the baking; or you may form them on your table with a broad kitchen knife, and place them on the thing you intend to bake them on.  You may put the leg of a chicken into one of the loaves your intend for the middle.  Let your sauce be gravy thickened with butter and a little juice of lemon.  This is a pretty side-dish for a first course, summer or winter, if you can get them.

* Force-meat – a stuffing, with either meat or bread as a base.

Mutton chops in disguise.

Take as many mutton chops as you want, rub them with pepper, salt, nutmeg, and a little parsley; roll each chop in half a sheet of white paper, well buttered on the inside, and rolled on each end close.  Have some hog’s lard, or beef-dripping boiling in a stew-pan, put in the steaks, fry them of a fine brown, lay them in your dish, and garnish with fried parsley; throw some all over, have a little good gravy in a cup, but take great care you do not break the paper, nor have any fat in the dish, but let them be well drained.

Chickens roasts with force-meat* and cucumbers.

Take two chickens, dress them very neatly, bread the breast-bone, and make force-meat thus:  take the flesh of a fowl, and of two pigeons, with some slices of ham or bacon, chop them all well together, take the crumb of a penny loaf soaked in milk and boiled, then set to cool; when it is cool mix it all together, season it with beaten mace, nutmeg, pepper, and a little salt, a very little thyme, some parsley, and a little lemon-peel, with the yolks of two eggs; then fill your fowls, spit them, and tie them at both ends; after you have papered the breast, take four cucumbers, cut them in two, and lay them in salt and water two or three hours before; then dry them, and fill them with some of the force-meat (which you must take care to save) and tie them with a packthread, flour them and fry them of a fine brown; when your chickens are enough, lay them in the dish and untie your cucumbers, but take care the meat do not come out; then lay them round the chicken with the fat side downwards, and the narrow end upwards.  You must have some rich fried gravy, and pour into the dish; then garnish with lemon.

Note, One large fowl done this way, with the cucumbers laid round it, looks very pretty, and is a very good dish.

* Force-meat – a stuffing, with either meat or bread as a base.

Chickens à la braise.

You must take a couple of fine chicken, lard them, and season them with pepper, salt, and mace; then lay a layer of veal in the bottom of a deep stew-pan, with a slice or two of bacon, an onion cut to pieces, a piece of carrot and a layer of beef; then lay in the chickens with the breast downward, and a bundle of sweet-herbs:  after that lay a layer of beef, and put in a quart of broth or water; cover it close, let it stew very softly for an hour after it begins to simmer.  In the mean time, get ready a ragoo thus:  take a good veal sweetbread*, or two, cut them small, set them on the fire, with a very little broth or water, a few cocks-combs, truffles and morels, cut small with an ox-palate, if you have it; stew them all together till they are enough; and when your chickens are done, take them up, and keep them hot; then strain the liquor they were stewed in, skim the fat off, and pour into your ragoo, add a glass of red wine, a spoonful of catchup, and a few mushrooms; then boil all together, with a few artichoke bottoms cut in four, and asparagus-tops.  If your sauce is not thick enough, take a little piece of butter rolled in flour, and when enough lay your chickens in the dish, and pour the ragoo over them.  Garnish with lemon.

Or you may make your sauce thus:  take the gravy the fowls were stewed in, strain it, skim off the fat, have ready half a pint of oysters, with the liquor strained, put them to your gravy with a glass of white wine, a good piece of butter rolled in flour; then boil them all together, and pour over your fowls.  Garnish with lemon.

*Culinary names for the thymus (throat, gullet, or neck) or the pancreas (also heart, stomach, or belly) especially of the calf (ris de veau) and lamb (ris d’agneau) (although beef and pork sweetbreads are also eaten).

To marinate fowls.

Take a fine large fowl or turkey, raise the skin from the breast-bone with your finger, then take a veal sweetbread* and cut it small, a few oysters, a few mushrooms, an anchovy, some pepper, a little nutmeg, some lemon-peel, and a little thyme; chop all together small, and mixt with the yolk of an egg, stuff it in between the skin and the flesh, but take great care you do not break the skin, and then stuff what oysters you please into the body of the fowl.  You may lard the breast of the fowl with bacon, if you chuse it.  Paper the breast, and roast it.  Make good gravy, and garnish with lemon.  You may add a few mushrooms to the sauce.

*Culinary names for the thymus (throat, gullet, or neck) or the pancreas (also heart, stomach, or belly) especially of the calf (ris de veau) and lamb (ris d’agneau) (although beef and pork sweetbreads are also eaten).

To broil chickens.

Slit them down the back, and season them with pepper and salt, lay them on a very clear fire, and at a great distance.  Let the inside lie next the fire till it is above half done:  then turn them, and take great care the fleshy side do not burn, throw some fine raspings of bread over it, and let them be of a fine brown, but not burnt.  Let your sauce be good gravy, with mushrooms, and garnish with lemon and the livers broiled, the gizzards cut, slashed, and broiled with pepper and salt.

Or this sauce; take a handful of sorrel, dipped in boiling water, drain it, and have ready half a pint of good gravy, a shallot shred small, and some parsley boiled very green; thicken it with a piece of butter rolled in flour, and add a glass of red wine, then lay your sorrel in heaps round the fowls, and pour the sauce over them.  Garnish with lemon.

Note, You may make just what sauce you fancy.

Pulled chickens.

Take three chickens, boil them just fit for eating, but not too much; when they are boiled enough, flay all the skin off, and take the white flesh off the bones, pull it into pieces about as thick as a large quill, and half as long as your finger.  Have ready a quarter of a pint of good cream and a piece of fresh butter about as big as an egg, stir them together till the butter is all melted, and then put in your chickens with the gravy that came from them, give them two or three tosses round on the fire, put them into a dish, and send them up hot.

Note, The leg makes a very pretty dish by itself, broiled very nicely with some pepper and salt; the livers being broiled and the gizzards broiled, cut, and slashed, and lay round the legs, with good gravy-sauce in the dish.  Garnish with lemon.

A pretty way of stewing chickens.

Take two fine chickens, half boil them, then take them up in a pewter, or silver dish, if you have one; cut up your fowls, and separate all the joint-bones one from another, and then take out the breast-bones.  If there is not liquor enough from the fowls, add a few spoonfuls of water they were boiled in, put in a blade of mace, and a little salt; cover it close with another dish, set it over a stove or chaffing-dish of coals, let it stew till the chickens are enough, and then send them hot to the tale in the same dish they were stewed in.

Note, This is a very pretty dish for any sick person, or for a lying-in lady.  For change it is better than butter, and the sauce is very agreeable and pretty.

N.B. You may do rabbits, partridges, or moor-game this way.

Chickens chiringrate.

Cut off their feet, break the breast-bone flat with a rolling pin, but take care you don’t break the skin; flour them, fry them of a fine brown in butter, then drain all the fat out of the pan, but leave the chickens in.  Lay a pound of gravy-beef cut very thin over your chickens, and a piece of veal cut very thin, a little mace, two or three cloves, some whole pepper, an onion, a little bundle of sweet-herbs, and a piece of carrot, and then pour in a quart of boiling water; cover it close, let it stew for a quarter of an hour, then take out the chickens and keep them hot:  let the gravy boil till it is quite rich and good, then strain it off and put it into your pan again, with two spoonfuls of red wine and a few mushrooms; put in your chickens to heat, then take them up, lay them into your dish, and pour your sauce over them.  Garnish with lemon, and a few slices of cold ham warmed in the gravy.

Note, You may fill your chickens with force-meat*, and lard them with bacon, and add truffles, morels, and sweetbreads** cut small, but then it will be a very high dish.

* Force-meat – a stuffing, with either meat or bread as a base.

**Culinary names for the thymus (throat, gullet, or neck) or the pancreas (also heart, stomach, or belly) especially of the calf (ris de veau) and lamb (ris d’agneau) (although beef and pork sweetbreads are also eaten).

Chickens boiled with bacon and celery.

Boil two chickens very white in a pot by themselves, and a piece of ham, or good thick bacon; boil two bunches of celery tender, then cut them about two inches long, all the white part, put it into a saucepan with half a pint of cream, a piece of butter rolled in flour, and some pepper and salt; set it on the fire, and shake it often:  when it is thick and fine, lay your chickens in the dish and pour your sauce in the middle, that the celery may lie between the fowls, and garnish the dish all round with slices of ham or bacon.

Note, if you have cold ham in the house, that, cut into slices and broiled, does full as well, or better, to lay round the dish.

Chickens with tongues.  A good dish for a great deal of company.

Take six small chickens boiled very white, six hogs tongues, boiled and peeled, a cauliflower boiled very white in milk and water whole, and a good deal of spinach boiled green; then lay your cauliflower in the middle, the chickens close all round, and the tongues round them with the roots outward, and the spinach in little heaps between the tongues.  Garnish with little pieces of bacon toasted, and lay a little piece on each of the tongues.

Scotch chickens.

First wash your chickens, dry them in a clean cloth, and singe them, then cut them into quarters; put them into a stew-pan or saucepan, and just cover them with water, put in a blade or two of mace and a little bundle of parsley; cover them close, and let them stew half an hour, then chop half a handful of clean washed parsley, and throw in, and have ready six eggs, whites and all, beat fine.  Let your liquor boiled up, and pour the egg all over them as it boils; then send all together hot in a deep dish, but take out the bundle of parsley first.  You must be sure to skim them well before you put in your mace, and the broth will be fine and clear.

Note, This is also a very pretty dish for sick people, but the Scotch gentlemen are very fond of it.

To marinate chickens.

Cut two chickens into quarters, lay them in vinegar for three or four hours, with pepper, salt, a bay-leaf, and a few cloves, make a very thick batter, first with half a pint of wine and flour, then the yolks of two eggs, a little melted butter, some grated nutmeg and chopped parsley; beat all very well together, dip your fowls in the batter, and fry them in a good deal of hog’s lard, which must first boil before you put your chickens in.  Let them be of a fine brown, and lay them in your dish like a pyramid, with fried parsley all round them.  Garnish with lemon, and have some good gravy in boats or basons.

To stew chickens.

Take two chickens, cut them into quarters, wash them clean, and then put them into a saucepan; put to them a quarter of a pint of water, half a pint of red wine, some mace, pepper, a bundle of sweet-herbs, an onions, and a few raspings; cover them close, let them stew half an hour, then take a piece of butter about as big as an egg rolled in flour, put in, and cover it close for five or six minutes, shake the saucepan about, then take out the sweet-herbs and onion.  You may take the yolks of two eggs, beat and mixed with them; if you don’t like it, leave them out.  Garnish with lemon.

Ducks à la mode.

Take two fine ducks, cut them into quarters, fry them in butter a little brown, then pour out all the fat, and throw a little flour over them; and half a pint of good gravy, a quarter of a pint of red wine, two shallots, an anchovy, and a bundle of sweet-herbs; cover them close, and let them stew a quarter of an hour; take out the herbs, skim off the fat, and let your sauce be as thick as cream; send it to table, and garnish with lemon.

To dress a wild duck the best way.

First half roast it, then lay it in a dish, carve it, but leave the joints hanging together, throw a little pepper and salt, and squeeze the juice of a lemon over it, turn it on the breast, and press it hard with a plate, and add to its own gravy, two or three spoonfuls of gravy, cover it close with another dish, and set over a stove ten minutes, then send it to table hot in the dish it was done in, and garnish with lemon.  You may add a little red wine, and a shallot cut small, if you like, but it is apt to make the duck eat hard, unless you first heat the wine and pour it in just as it is done.

To boil a duck or rabbit with onions.

Boil your duck or rabbit in a good deal of water; be sure to skim your water, for there will always rise a scum, which if it boils down will discolour your fowls, &c.  They will take about half an hour boiling; for sauce, your onions must be peeled, and throw them into water as you peel them, then cut them into thin slices, boil them in milk and water, and skim the liquor.  Half an hour will boil them.  Throw them into a clean sieve to drain them, put them into a saucepan and chop them small, shake in a little flour, put to them two or three spoonfuls of cream, a good piece of butter, stew all together over the fire till they are thick and fine, lay the duck or rabbit in the dish, and pour the sauce all over; if a rabbit, you must cut off the head, cut it in two, and lay it on each side of the dish.

Or you may make this sauce for a change:  take one large onion, cut it small, half a handful of parsley clean washed and picked, chop it small, a lettuce cut small, a quarter of a pint of good gravy, a good piece of butter rolled in a little flour; add a little juice of lemon, a little pepper and salt, let all stew together for half an hour, then add two spoonfuls of red wine.  This sauce is most proper for a duck; lay your duck in the dish, and pour your sauce over it.

To dress a duck with green pease.

Put a deep stew-pan over the fire, with a piece of fresh butter; singe your duck and flour it, turn it in the pan two or three minutes, then pour out all the fat, but let the duck remain in the pan; put to it half a pint of good gravy, a pint of pease, two lettuces cut small, a small bundle of sweet-herbs, a little pepper and salt, cover them close, and let them stew for half an hour, now and then give the pan a shake; when they are just done, grate in a little nutmeg, and put in a very little beaten mace, and thicken it either with a piece of butter rolled in flour, or the yolk of an egg bet up with two or three spoonfuls of cream; shake it all together for three or four minutes, take out the sweet-herbs, lay the duck in the dish, and pour the sauce over it.  You may garnish with boiled mint chopped, or let it alone.

To dress a duck with cucumbers.

Take three or four cucumbers, pare them, take out the seeds, cut them into little pieces, lay them in vinegar for two or three hours before, with two large onions peeled and sliced, then do your duck as above; then take the duck out, and put in the cucumbers and onions, first drain them in a cloth, let them be a little brown, shake a little flour over them; in the mean time let your duck be stewing in the saucepan with half a pint of gravy for a quarter of an hour, then add to it the cucumbers and onions, with pepper and salt to your palate, a good piece of butter rolled in flour, and two or three spoonfuls of red wine; shake all together, and let it stew together for eight or ten minutes, then take up your duck and pour the sauce over it.

Or you may roast your duck, and make this sauce and pour over it, but then a quarter or a pint of gravy will be enough.

To dress a duck à la braise.

Take a duck, lard it with little pieces of bacon, season it inside and out with pepper and salt, lay a layer of bacon cut thin, in the bottom of a stew-pan, and then a layer of lean beef cut thin, then lay your duck with some carrot, an onions, a little bundle of sweet-herbs, a blade or two or mace, and lay a thin layer of beef over the duck; cover it close, and set it over a slow fire for eight or ten minutes, then take off the cover and shake in a little flour, give the pan a shake, pour in a pint of small broth, or boiling water; give the pan a shake or two, cover it close again, and let it stew half an hour, then take off the cover, take out the duck and keep it hot, let the sauce boil till there is about a quarter of a pint or little better, then strain it and put it into the stew-pan again, with a glass of red wine; put in your duck, shake the pan, and let it stew four or five minutes; then lay your duck in the dish and pour the sauce over it, and garnish with lemon.  If you love your duck very high, you may fill it with the following ingredients:  take a veal sweetbread* cut in eight or ten pieces, a few truffles, some oysters, a little sweet-herbs and parsley chopped fine, a little pepper, salt, and beaten mace; fill your duck with the above ingredients, tie both ends tights, and dress as above; or you may fill it with force-meat** made thus:  take a little piece of veal, take all the skin and fat off, beat in a mortar, with as much suet, and an equal quantity of crumbs of bread, a few sweet-herbs, some parsley chopped, a little lemon-peel, pepper, salt, beaten mace, and nutmeg, and mix it up with the yolk of an egg.

You may stew an ox’s palate tender, and cut it into pieces, with some artichoke bottoms cut into four, and tossed up in the sauce.  You may lard your duck or let it alone, just as you please; for my part I think it best without.

*Culinary names for the thymus (throat, gullet, or neck) or the pancreas (also heart, stomach, or belly) especially of the calf (ris de veau) and lamb (ris d’agneau) (although beef and pork sweetbreads are also eaten).

** Force-meat – a stuffing, with either meat or bread as a base.

To boil ducks the French way.

Let your ducks be larded, and half roasted, then take them off the spit, put them into a large earthen pipkin, with half a pint of red wine, and a pint of good gravy, some chestnuts, first roasted and peeled, half a pint of large oysters, the liquor strained, and the beards taken off, two or three little onions minced small, a very little stripped thyme, mace, pepper and a little ginger beat fine; cover it close, and let them stew half an hour over a slow fire, and the crust of a French roll grated when you put in your gravy and wine; when they are enough take them up, and pour the sauce over them.

To dress a goose with onions or cabbage.

Salt the goose for a week, then boil it.  It will take an hour.  You may either make onion-sauce as we do for ducks, or cabbage boiled, chopped and stewed in butter, with a little pepper and salt; lay the goose in the dish, and pour the sauce over it.  It eats very good with either.

Directions for roasting a goose.

Take sage, wash it, pick it clean, chop it small, with pepper and salt; roll them with butter, and put them into the belly; never put onion into any thing, unless you are sure every body loves it; take care that your goose be clean picked and washed.  I think the best way is to scald a goose, and then you are sure it is clean, and not so strong:  let your water be scalding hot, dip in your goose for a minute, then all the feathers will come off clean:  when it is quite clean wash it with cold water, and dry it with a cloth; roast it and baste it with butter, and when it is half done throw some flour over it, that it may have a fine brown.  Three quarters of an hour will do it at a quick fire, if it is not too large, otherwise it will require an hour.  Always have good gravy in a bason, and apple-sauce in another.

A green goose.

Never put any seasoning into it, unless desired.  You must either put good gravy, or green-sauce in the dish, made thus:  Take a handful of sorrel, beat it in a mortar, and squeeze the juice out, add to it the juice of an orange or lemon, and a little sugar, heat it in a pipkin, and pour it into your dish; but the best way is to put gravy in the dish, and green-sauce in a cup or boat.  Or made thus:  take half a pint of the juice of sorrel, a spoonful of white wine, a little grated nutmeg, a little grated bread; boil these a quarter of an hour softly, then strain it, and put it into the saucepan again, and sweeten it with a little sugar, give it a boil, and pour it into a dish or bason; some like a little piece of butter rolled in flour, and put into it.

A dry a goose.

Get a fat goose, take a handful of common salt, a quarter of an ounce of salt-petre*, a quarter of a pound of coarse sugar, mix all together, and rub your goose very well:  let it lie in this pickle a fortnight, turning and rubbing it every day, then roll it in bran, and hang it up in a chimney where wood-smoke is for a week.  If you have not that conveniency, send it to the baker’s the smoke of the over will dry it; or you may hang it in your own chimney, not too near the fire, but make a fire under it, and lay horse-dung and saw dust on it, and that will smother and smoke-dry it; when it is well dried keep it in a dry place, you may keep it two or three months or more; when you boil it put in a good deal of water, and be sure to skim it well.

Note, You may boil turnips, or cabbage boiled and stewed in butter or onion-sauce.

* Saltpeter is a nitrate compound used as a food preservative.

To dress a goose in ragoo.

Flat the breast down with a cleaver, then press it down with your hand, skin it, dip it into scalding water, let it be cold, lard it with bacon, season it well with pepper, salt, and a little beaten mace, then flour it all over, take a pound of good beef-suet cut small, put it into a deep stew-pan, let it be melted, then put in your goose, let it be brown on both sides; when it is brown put in a pint of boiling water, an onion or two, a bundle of sweet-herbs, a bay-leaf, some whole pepper, and a few cloves; cover it close, and let it stew softly till it is tender.  About half an hour will do it, if small; if a large one, three quarters of an hour.  In the mean time make a ragoo, boil some turnips almost enough, some carrots and onions quite enough; cut them all into little pieces, put them into a sauce-pan with half a pint of good beef gravy, a little pepper and salt, a piece of butter rolled in flour, and let this stew altogether a quarter of an hour.  Take the goose and drain it well, then lay it in the dish, and pour the ragoo over it.

Where the onion is disliked, leave it out.  You may add cabbage boiled and chopped small.

A goose à la mode.

Take a large fine goose, pick it clean, skin it, and cut it down the back, bone it nicely, take the fat off, then take a dried tongue, boil it and peel it:  take a fowl, and do it in the same manner as the goose, season it with pepper, salt, and beaten mace, roll it round the tongue, season the goose with the same, put the tongue and fowl in the goose, and sew the goose up again in the same form it was before; put it into a little pot that will just hold it, put to it two quarts of beef-gravy, a bundle of sweet-herbs and an onion; put some slices of ham, or good bacon, between the fowl and goose; cover it close, and let it stew an hour over a good fire:  when it begins to boil let it do very softly, then take up your goose and skim off all the fat, strain it, put in a glass of red wine, two spoonfuls of catchup, a veal sweetbread* cut small, some truffles, morels, and mushrooms, a piece of butter rolled in flour, and some pepper and salt, if wanted; put in the goose again, cover it close, and let it stew half an hour longer, then take it up and pour the ragoo over it.  Garnish with lemon.

Note, This is a very fine dish.  You must mind to save the bones of the goose and fowl, and put them into the gravy when it is first set on, and it will be better if you roll some beef-marrow between the tongue and the fowl, and between the fowl and goose, it will make them mellow and eat fine.  You may add six or seven yolks of hard eggs whole in the dish, they are a pretty addition.  Take care to skim off the fat.

*Culinary names for the thymus (throat, gullet, or neck) or the pancreas (also heart, stomach, or belly) especially of the calf (ris de veau) and lamb (ris d’agneau) (although beef and pork sweetbreads are also eaten).

To stew giblets.

Let them be nicely scalded and picked, break the two pinion bones in two, cut the head in two, and cut off the nostrils; cut the liver in two, the gizzard in four, and the neck in two; slip off the skin of the neck, and make a pudding with two hard eggs chopped fine, the crumbs of a French roll steeped in hot milk two or three hours, then mix it with the hard egg, a little nutmeg, pepper, salt, and a little sage chopped fine, a very little melted butter, and stir it together; tie one end of the skin, and fill it with ingredients, tie the other end tight, and put all together in the sauce-pan, with a quart of good mutton broth, a bundle of sweet-herbs, an onion, some whole pepper, mace, two or three cloves tied up loose in a muslin rag, and a very little piece of lemon-peel; cover them close, and let them stew till quite tender, then take a small French roll toasted brown on all sides, and put it into the sauce-pan, give it a shake, and let it stew till there is just gravy enough to eat with them, then take out the onion, sweet-herbs, and spice, lay the roll in the middle, the giblets round, the pudding cut into slices and laid round, and then pour the sauce over all.

Another way.

Take the giblets clean picked and washed, the feet skinned and bill cut off, the head cut in two, the pinion bones broke into two, the liver cut in two, the gizzard cut into four, the pipe pulled out of the neck, the neck cut in two:  put them into a pipkin with half a pint of water, some whole pepper, black and white, a blade of mace, a little sprig of thyme, a small onion, a little crust of bread, then cover them close, and set them on a very slow fire.  Wood-embers is best.  Let them stew till they are quite tender, then take out the herbs and onions, and pour them into a little dish.  Season them with salt.

To roast pigeons.

Fill them with parsley clean washed and chopped, and some pepper and salt rolled in butter; fill the bellies, tie the neck-end close, so that nothing can run out, put a skewer through the legs, and have a little iron on purpose, with six hooks to it, and on each hook hang a pigeon; fasten one end of the string to the chimney, and the other end to the iron (this is what we call the poor man’s spit) flour them, baste them with butter, and turn them gently for fear of hitting the bars.  They will roast nicely, and be full of gravy.  Take care how you take them off, not to lose any of the liquor.  You may melt a very little butter, and put into the dish.  Your pigeons ought to be quite fresh, and not too much done.  This is by much the best way of doing them, for then they will swim in their own gravy, and a very little melted butter will do.

When you roast them on a spit all the gravy runs out, or if you stuff them and broil them whole you cannot save the gravy so well, though they will be very good with parsley and butter in the dish, or split and broiled with pepper and salt.

To boil pigeons.

Boil them by themselves, for fifteen minutes, then boil a handsome square piece of bacon and lay in the middle; stew some spinach to lay round, and lay the pigeons on the spinach.  Garnish your dish with parsley laid in a plate before the fire to crisp.  Or you may lay one pigeon in the middle, and the rest round, and the spinach between each pigeon, and a slice of bacon on each pigeon.  Garnish with slices of bacon and melted butter in a cup.

To à la daube pigeons.

Take a large sauce-pan, lay a layer of bacon, then a layer of veal, a layer of coarse beef, and another little layer of veal, about a pound of veal and a pound of beef cut very thin, a piece of carrot, a bundle of sweet-herbs, on onion, some black and white pepper, a blade or two of mace, four or five cloves, a little crust of bread toasted very brown.  Cover the sauce-pan close, set it over a slow fire for five or six minutes, shake in a little flour, then pour in a quart of boiling water, shake it round, cover it close, and let it stew till the gravy is quite rich and good, then strain it off and skim off all the fat.  In the mean time stuff the bellies of the pigeons with force-meat*, made thus:  take a pound of veal, a pound of beef-suet, beat both in a mortar fine, an equal quantity of crumbs of bread, some pepper, salt, nutmeg, beaten mace, a little lemon-peel cut small, some parsley cut small, and a very little thyme stripped; mix all together with the yolk of an egg, fill the pigeons, and flat the breast down, flour them and fry them in fresh butter a little brown:  then pour the fat clean out of the pan, and put to the pigeons the gravy, cover them close, and let them stew a quarter of an hour, or till you think they are quite enough; then take them up, lay them in a dish, and pour in your sauce:  on each pigeon lay a bay-leaf, and on the leaf a slice of bacon.  You may garnish with a lemon notched, or let it alone.

Note, You may leave out the stuffing, they will be very rich and good without it, and it is the best way of dressing them for a fine made dish.

* Force-meat – a stuffing, with either meat or bread as a base.

Pigeons au poir.

Make a good force-meat* as above, cut off the feet quite, stuff them in the shape of a pear, roll them in the yolk of an egg, and then in crumbs of bread, stick the leg at the top, and butter a dish to lay them in; then send them to an oven to bake, but do not let them touch each other.  When they are enough, lay them in a dish, and pour in good gravy thickened with the yolk of an egg, or butter rolled in flour:  do not pour your gravy over the pigeon.  You may garnish with lemon.  It is a pretty genteel dish:  or, for change, lay one pigeon in the middle, the rest round, and stewed spinach between; poached eggs on the spinach.  Garnish with notched lemon and orange cut into quarters, and have melted butter in boats.

* Force-meat – a stuffing, with either meat or bread as a base.

Pigeons stoved.

Take a small cabbage lettuce, just cut out the heart and make a force-meat* as before, only chop the heart of the cabbage and mix with it; then you must fill up the place, and tie it across with a packthread; fry it of a light brown in fresh butter, pour out all the fat, lay the pigeons round, flat them with your hand, season them a little with pepper, salt, and beaten mace (take great care not to put too much salt), pour in half a pint of Rhennish** wine, cover it close, and let it stew about five or six minutes; then put in half a pint of good gravy, cover them close, and let them stew half an hour.  Take a good piece of butter rolled in flour, shake it in:  when it is fine and thick take it up, untie it, lay the lettuce in the middle, and the pigeons round:  squeeze in a little lemon juice, and pour the sauce all over them.  Stew a little lettuce, and cut it into pieces for garnish with pickled red cabbage.

Note, Or for change, you may stuff your pigeons with the same force-meat, and cut two cabbage lettuces into quarters, and stew as above:  so lay the lettuce between each pigeon, and one in the middle, with the lettuce round it, and pour the sauce all over them.

* Force-meat – a stuffing, with either meat or bread as a base.

** Rhenish wine:  Wine from the Rhine valley in Germany; it could refer to either red or white.

Pigeons surtout.

Force your pigeons as above, then lay a slice of bacon on the breast, and a slice of veal beat with the back of a knife, and seasoned with mace, pepper, and salt, tie it on with a small packthread, or two little fine skewers is better; spit them on a fine bird spit, roast them and baste with a piece of butter, then with the yolk of an egg, and then baste them again with crumbs of bread, a little nutmeg and sweet-herbs; when enough lay them in your dish, have good gravy ready, with truffles, morels, and mushrooms, to pour into your dish.  Garnish with lemon.

The Art of Cookery Continued: Chapter II: Made Dishes, Part 2

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One cooking technique that is described a few times in this chapter is touched on briefly in Hannah’s recipe for roasting a turkey “the genteel way”:  It was to gut the bird, or animal part (sometimes even the skull), cook the removed bits in some form, and then re-stuff the carcass to make it appear as if it were whole.  It was about presentation of the final dish on the dining table, and eighteenth century dining presentations were elaborate, to say the least.  The American holidays use the same idea, in stuffing a turkey; it’s just that our modern sensibilities find it more tasteful to serve it without feet and head!  In that time and age, however, every part of the animal was used; you’ll even find quite a few recipes calling for cox-combs…

To collar a breast of mutton.

Do it the same way, and it eats very well.  But you must take off the skin.

Another way to dress a breast of mutton.

Collar it as before, roast it, and baste it with half a pint of red wine, and when that is all soaked in, baste it well with butter, have a little good gravy, set the mutton upright in the dish, pour in the gravy, have a sweet sauce as for venison, and send it to table.  Don’t garnish the dish, but be sure to take the skin off the mutton.

The inside of a sirloin of beef is very good done this way.  If you don’t like the wine, a quart of milk, and a quarter of a pound of butter, put into the dripping-pan, does full as well to baste it.

To force a leg of lamb.

With a sharp knife carefully take out all the meat, and leave the skin whole and the fat on it, make the lean you cut out into the force-meat thus:  to two pounds of meat, add three pounds of beef-suet cut fine, and beat in a marble mortar till it is very fine, and take away all the skin of the meat and suet, when mix with it four spoonfuls of grated bread, eight or ten cloves, five or six large blades of mace dried and beat find, half a large nutmeg grated, a little pepper and salt, a little lemon-peel cut fine, a very little thyme, some parsley and four eggs; mix all together, put into the skin again just as it was, in the same shape, sew it up, roast it, baste it with butter, cut the loin into steaks and fry it nicely, lay the leg in the dish and the loin round it, with stewed cauliflower (see “to dress cauliflowers”) all round upon the loin; pour a pint of good gravy into the dish, and send it to table.  If you don’t like the cauliflower, it may be omitted.

To boil a leg of lamb.

Let the leg be boiled very white.  An hour will do it.  Cut the loin into steaks, dip them into a few crumbs of bread and egg, fry them nice and brown, boil a good deal of spinach and lay in the dish; put the leg in the middle, lay the loin round it, cut an orange in four and garnish the dish, and have butter in a cup.  Some love the spinach boiled, then drained, put into a sauce-pan with a good piece of butter, and stewed.

To force a large fowl.

Cut the skin down the back, and carefully flip it up so as to make out all the meat, mix it with one pound of beef-suet, cut it small, and beat them together in a marble mortar:  take a pint of large oysters cut small, two anchovies cut small, one shallot cut fine, a few sweet-herbs, a little pepper, a little nutmeg grated, and the yolks of four eggs; mix altogether and lay this on the bones, draw over the skin and sew up the back, pout the fowl into a bladder, boil it an hour and a quarter, stew some oysters in a good gravy thickened with a piece of butter rolled in flour, take the fowl out of the bladder, lay it in your dish and pour the sauce over it.  Garnish with lemon.

It eats much better roasted with the same sauce.

To roast a turkey the genteel way.

First cut it down the back, and with a sharp penknife bone it, then make your force-meat thus:  Take a large fowl, or a pound of veal, as much grated bread, half a pound of suet cut and beat very fine, a little beaten mace, two cloves, half a nutmeg grated, about a large tea-spoonful of lemon-peel, and the yolks of two eggs; mix all together, with a little pepper and salt, fill up the places where the bones came out, and fill the body, that it may look just as it did before, sew up the back, and roast it.  You may have oyster-sauce, celery sauce, or just as you please; but good gravy in the dish, and garnish with lemon, is as good as any thing.  Be sure to leave the pinions* on.

*pinion:  She is either referring to the wings, or to the bindings one might have used in the sewing up and “make it look just as it did before” – process.

To stew a turkey or fowl.

First let your pot be very clean, lay four clean skewers at the bottom, lay your turkey or fowl upon them, put in a quart of gravy, take a bunch of celery, cut it small, and wash it very clean, put it into your pot, with two or three blades of mace, let it stew softly till there is just enough for sauce, then add a good piece of butter rolled in flour, two spoonfuls of red wine, two of catchup, and just as much pepper and salt as will season it, lay your fowl or turkey in the dish, pour the sauce over and sent it to table.  If the fowl or turkey is enough before the sauce, take it up, and keep it up till the sauce is boiled enough, then put it in, let it boil a minute or two, and dish it up.

To stew a knuckle of veal.

Be sure to let the pot or saucepan be very clean, lay at the bottom four clean wooden skewers, wash and clean the knuckle very well, then lay it in the pot with two or three blades of mace, a little whole pepper, a little piece of thyme, a small onion, a crust of bread, and two quarts of water.  Cover it down close, make it boil, then only let it simmer for two hours, and when it is enough take it up; lay it in a dish, and strain the broth over it.

Another way to stew a knuckle of veal.

Clean it as before directed, and boil it till there is just enough for sauce, add one spoonful of catchup, one of red wine, and one of walnut pickle, some truffles and morels, or some dried mushrooms cut small; boil it all together, take up the knuckle, lay it in a dish, pour the sauce over it, and send it to table.

Note, It eats very well done as the turkey, before directed.

To ragoo a piece of beef.

Take a large piece of the flank, which has fat at the top cut square, or any piece that is all meat, and has fat at the top, but no bones.  The rump does well.  Cut all nicely off the bone (which makes fine soup), then take a large stew-pan, and with a good piece of butter fry it a little brown all over, flouring your meat well before you put it into the pan, then pour in as much gravy as will cover it, made thus:  take about a pound of coarse beef, a little piece of veal cut small, a bundle of sweet-herbs, an onion, some whole black pepper and white pepper, two or three large blades of mace, four or five cloves, a piece of carrot, a little piece of bacon steeped in vinegar a little while, a crust of bread toasted brown; put to this a quart water, and let it boil till half is wasted.  While this is making, pour a quart of boiling water into the stew-pan, cover it close, and let it be stewing softly; when the gravy is done strain it, pour into the pan where the beef is, take an ounce of truffles and morels cut small, some fresh or dried mushrooms cut small, two spoonfuls of catchup, and cover it close.  Let all this stew till the sauce is rich and thick; then have ready some artichoke bottoms cut into four, and a few pickled mushrooms, give them a boil or two, and when your meat is tender and your sauce quite rich, lay the meat into a dish and pour the sauce over it.  You may add a sweetbread* cut in six pieces, a palate stewed tender cut into little pieces, some cocks-combs, and a few force meat balls.  These are a great addition, but it will be good without.

Note, For variety, when the beef is ready and the gravy put to it, add a large bunch of celery cut small and washed clean, two spoonfuls of catchup, and a glass of red wine.  Omit all the other ingredients.  When the meat and celery are tender, and the sauce is rich and good, serve it up.  It is also very good this way:  take six large cucumbers, scoop out the seeds, pare them, cut them into slices, and do them just as you do the celery.

 *Culinary names for the thymus (throat, gullet, or neck) or the pancreas (also heart, stomach, or belly) especially of the calf (ris de veau) and lamb (ris d’agneau) (although beef and pork sweetbreads are also eaten).

To force the inside of a sirloin of beef.

Take a sharp knife, and carefully lift up the fat of the inside, take out all the meat close to the bone, chop it small, take a pound of suet, and chop fine, about as many crumbs of bread, a little thyme and lemon peel, a little pepper and salt, half a nutmeg grated, and two shallots chopped fine; mix all together, with a glass of red wine, then put it into the same place, cover it with the skin and fat, skewer it down with fine skewers, and cover it with paper.  Don’t take the paper off till the meat is on the dish.  Take a quarter of a pint of red wine, two shallots shred small, boil them, and pour into the dish, with the gravy which comes out of the meat; it eats well.  Spit your meat before you take out the inside.

Another way to force a sirloin.

When it is quite roasted, take it up, and lay it in the dish with the inside uppermost, with a sharp knife lift up the skin, hack and cut the inside very fine, shake a little pepper and salt over it, with two shallots, cover it with the skin, and send it to table.  You may add red wine or vinegar, just as you like.

To force the inside of a rump of beef.

You may do it just in the same manner, only lift up the outside skin, take the middle of the meat, and do as before directed; put it into the same place, and with fine skewers put it down close.

A rolled rump of beef.

Cut the meat all off the bone whole, slit the inside down from top to bottom, but not through the skin, spread it open, take the flesh of two fowls and beef-suet, an equal quantity, and as much cold boiled ham, if you have it, a little pepper, an anchovy, a nutmeg grated, a little thyme, a good deal of parsley, a few mushrooms, and chop them all together, beat them in a mortar, with a half-pint bason full of crumbs of bread; mix all these together, with four yolks of eggs, lay it into the meat, cover it up, and roll it round, stick one skewer in, and tie it with a packthread cross and cross to hold it together; take a pot or large saucepan that will just hold it, lay a layer of bacon and a layer of beef cut in thin slices, a piece of carrot, some whole pepper, mace, sweet herbs, and a large onion, lay the rolled beef on it, just put water enough to the top of the beef; cover it close, and let it stew very softly on a slow fire for eight or ten house, but not to fast.  When you find the beef tender, which you will know by running a skewer into the meat, then take it up, cover it up hot, boil the gravy till it is good, then strain it off, and add some mushrooms chopped, some truffles and morels cut small, two spoonfuls of red or white wine, the yolks of two eggs and a piece of butter rolled in flour; boil it together, set the meat before the fire, baste it with butter, and throw crumbs of bread all over it:  when the sauce is enough, lay the meat into the dish and pour the sauce over it.  Take care the eggs do not curd.

To boil a rump of beef the French fashion.

Take a rump of beef, boil it half an hour, take it up, lay it into a large deep pewter dish or stew-pan, cut three or four gashes in it all along the side, rub the gashes with pepper and salt, and pour into the dish a pint of red wine, as much hot water, two or three large onions cut small, the hearts of eight or ten lettuces cut small, and a good piece of butter rolled in a little flour; lay the fleshy part of the meat downwards, cover it close, let it stew an hour and a half over a charcoal fire, or a very slow coal fire.  Observe that the butcher chops the bone so close, that the meat may lie as flat as you can in the dish.  When it is enough, take the beef, lay it in the dish, and pour the sauce over it.

Note,  When you do it in a pewter dish, it is best done over a chaffing-dish of hot coals, with a bit or two of charcoal to keep it alive.

Beef escarlot.

Take a briscuit of beef, half a pound of coarse sugar, two ounces of bay salt, a pound of common salt; mix all together, and rub the beef, lay it in an earthen pan, and turn it every day.  It may lie a fortnight in the pickle; then boil it, and serve it up either with savoys or pease pudding.

Note, It eats much finer cold, cut into slices, and sent to table.

Beef à la daub.

You may take a buttock or a rump of beef, lard it, fry it brown in some sweet butter, then put it into a pot that will just hold it; put in some broth or gravy hot, some pepper, cloves, mace, and a bundle of sweet-herbs, stew it four hours till it is tender, and season it with salt; take half a pint of gravy, two sweetbreads* cut into eight pieces, some truffles and morels, palates, artichoke bottoms, and mushrooms, boil all together, lay your beef into the dish; strain the liquor into the sauce, and boil all together.  If it is not thick enough, roll a piece of butter in flour, and boil in it; pour this all over the beef.  Take forcemeat rolled in pieces half as long as one’s finger; dip them into batter made with eggs, and fry them brown; fry some sippets** dipped into batter cut three corner-ways, stick them into the meat, and garnish with the force meat.

** Sippet is the diminutive of sop, which was usually a small piece of bread to dip into a soup or broth.

* Culinary names for the thymus (throat, gullet, or neck) or the pancreas (also heart, stomach, or belly) especially of the calf (ris de veau) and lamb (ris d’agneau) (although beef and pork sweetbreads are also eaten).

Beef à la mode in pieces.

You must take a buttock of beef, cut it into two-pound pieces, lard them with bacon, fry them brown, put them into a pot that will just hold them, put in two quarts of broth or gravy, a few sweet-herbs, an onion, some mace, cloves, nutmeg, pepper and salt; when that is done, cover it close, and stew it till it is tender, skim off all the fat, lay the meat in the dish, and strain the sauce over it.  You may serve it up hot or cold.

Beef à la mode, the French way.

Take a piece of the buttock of beef, and some fat bacon cut into little long bits, then take two tea-spoonfuls of salt, one teaspoonful of beaten pepper, one of beaten mace, and one of nutmeg; mix all together, have your larding pins ready, first dip the bacon in vinegar, then roll it in your spice, and lard your beef very thick and nice; put the meat into a pot with two or three large onions, a good piece of lemon-peel, a bundle of herbs, and three or four spoonfuls of vinegar; cover it down close, and put a wet cloth round the edge of the cover, that no steam can get out, and set it over a very slow fire:  when you think one side is done enough, turn the other, and cover it with the rind of the bacon; cover the pot close again as before, and when it is enough (which it will be when quite tender) take it up and lay it in your dish, take off all the fat from the gravy, and pour the gravy over the meat.  If you chuse your beef to be red, you may rub it with saltpetre overnight.

Note, You must take great care in doing your beef this way that your fire is very slow; it will at least take six hours doing, if the piece be any thing large.  If you would have the sauce very rich, boil half an ounce of truffles and morels in half a pint of good gravy, till they are very tender, and all a gill of pickled mushrooms, but fresh ones are best; mix all together with the gravy of the meat, and pour it over your beef.  You must mind and beat all your spices very fine; and if you have not enough, mix some more, according to the bigness of your beef.

Beef olives.

Take a rump of beef, cut it into steaks half a quarter long, about an inch thick, let them be square; lay on some good forcemeat made with veal, roll them, tie them once round with a hard knot, dip them in egg, crumbs of bread, and grated nutmeg, and a little pepper and salt.  The best way is to roast them, or fry them brown in fresh butter, lay them every one on a bay-leaf, and cover them over one with a piece of bacon toasted, have some good gravy, a few truffles and morels, and mushrooms; boil all together, pour into the dish, and send it to table.

Veal olives.

They are good done the same way, only roll them narrow at one end and broad at the other.  Fry them of a fine brown.  Omit the bay leaf, but lay little pieces of bacon about two inches long on them.  The same sauce.  Garnish with lemon.

Beef collops.

Cut them into thin pieces about two inches long, beat them with the back of a knife very well, grate some nutmeg, flour them a little, lay them in a stew-pan, put in as much water as you think will do for sauce, half an onion cut small, a little piece of lemon-peel cut small, a bundle of sweet-herbs, a little pepper and salt, a piece of butter rolled in a little flour.  Set them on a slow fire:  when they begin to simmer, stir them now and then; when they begin to be hot, ten minutes will do them, but take care they do not boil.  Take out the sweet-herbs, pour it into the dish, and send it to table.

Note, You may do the inside of a sirloin of beef in the same manner, the day after it is roasted, only do not beat them, but cut them thin.

N.B. You may do this dish between two pewter dishes, hang them between two chairs, take six sheets of white brown paper, tear them into slips, and burn them under the dish once piece at a time.

* collops – a small piece of meat, either thin slices or minced meat of either beef, lamb or venison.

To stew beef-steaks.

Take rump steaks, pepper and salt them, lay them in a stew-pan, pour in half a pint of water, a blade or two of mace, two or three cloves, a little bundle of sweet-herbs, an anchovy, a piece of butter rolled in flour, a glass of white wine, and an onion; cover them close, and let them stew softly till they are tender, then take out the steaks, flour them, fry them in fresh butter, and pour away all the fat, strain the sauce they were stewed in, and pour into the pan; toss it all up together till the sauce is quite hot and thick.  If you add a quarter of a pint of oysters, it will make it the better.  Lay the steaks into the dish, and pour the sauce over them.  Garnish with any pickle you like.

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