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Monthly Archives: May 2013

Plumbago vs. Graphite

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Pencil, Carpenter'sMy husband and I had a discussion tonight (as one does) about which came first – Plumbago, or Graphite.  Being the curious types, I had to find out before he went to bed (me, being the night owl).  Here’s the low-down:

The English term Plumbago came into the language via Latin for a type of black lead ore.  In the 1500s, a large deposit of this ore was found in Cumbria, England; this particular vein was so compact and pure that it could be sawn into sticks, and it holds the record to this day of being the only large-scale solid ore deposit.  It wasn’t long before its value was recognized, and subsequently monopolised by the Crown.  Long live the king and all that.  When the Crown had enough to last them awhile, they would flood the mines to prevent theft.  How clever is that?  Right.  The English folk have long been resourceful blokes, and they smuggled lead out for pencil production and a bit of dosh on the side.  I wonder how they drained the flooded mine shafts?

It was used as a strategic secret by the British to make smoother cannon balls:  They would take the native ore, in its powdery form, and smooth it to the insides of their cannon ball moulds, allowing them to slip the molten hot ball out of the form intact.  It gave them a great advantage over conventional (enemy) artillery as it was more aerodynamic, and could inflict more damage more accurately.  During the Battle of Trafalgar, so many French bodies were stacked on their decks that, when seen by the British officers boarding the conquered ships, it shocked even war-hardened military men.  But I digress.

In 1789 a German mineralogist, Abraham Gottlob Werner, coined the term Graphit, from the Greek word graphein, meaning “write”, because it was at length used in pencils.  The first sticks of lead were wrapped in strips of leather to support the soft lead.  England held the monopoly on that until a way was found to reconstitute powdered lead (by the Germans, as early as the mid-1660s).  The German word made it into English around 1796.

So there you have it:  Plumbago wins by a long shot over (the bow of) Graphite.

The Art of Cookery Continued: Chapter II: Made Dishes, Part 1

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Houmas House, rvfoodies-com

From, Houmas House, Lousianna – an 18th century kitchen

The next chapter of Hannah Glasse’s cook book is one of the longest; with most having no oven to bake in, it is little wonder that most cooked meats were either boiled, spitted and roasted, or booked in a stew-pan or sauteed.  They served every part of the animal, from entrails neatly presented to split skulls (with specific directions for how to lay the tongue most becomingly…).  I doubt many modern westerners would be able to stomach a large portion of the English haute cuisine (excuse the pun).  Here’s the first part of Chapter 2, “Made Dishes”:

To dress Scotch collops*.

Take veal, cut it thin, beat it well with the back of a knife or rolling pin, and grate some nutmeg over them ; dip them in the yolk of an egg, and fry them in a little butter till they are of a fine brown; then pour the butter from them, and have ready half a pint of gravy, a little piece of butter rolled in flour, a few mushrooms, a glass of white wine, the yolk of an egg, and a little cream mixed together.  If it wants a little salt, put it in.  Stir it together, and when it is of a fine thickness dish it up.  It does very well without the cream, if you have none; and very well without gravy, only put in just as much warm water, and either red or white wine.

[* collops – a small piece of meat, either thin slices or minced meat of either beef, lamb or venison.]

To dress white Scotch collops.

Do not dip them in egg, but fry them till they are tender, but not brown.  Take your meat out of the pan, and pour all out, then put in your meat again, as above, only you must put in some cream.

[* collops – a small piece of meat, either thin slices or minced meat of either beef, lamb or venison.]

To dress a fillet of veal with collops.

For an alteration, take a small fillet of veal, cut what collops you want, then take the udder and fill it with force-meat, roll it round, tie it with a pack thread across, and roast it; lay your collops in the dish, nd lay your udder in the middle.  Garnish your dishes with lemon.

[* collops – a small piece of meat, either thin slices or minced meat of either beef, lamb or venison.]

To make force-meat balls.

Now you are to observe, that force-meat balls are a great addition to all made dishes; made thus:  take half a pound of veal, and half a pound of suet, cut fine, and beat in a marble mortar or wooden bowl; have a few suet-herbs shred fine, a little mace dried and beat find, a small nutmeg grated, or half a large one, a little lemon peel cut very fine, a little pepper and salt, and the yolks of two eggs; mix all this well together, then roll them in little round balls, and some in little long balls; roll them in flour, and fry them brown.  If they are for anything of white sauce, put a little water on in a saucepan, and when the water boils put them in, and let them boil for a few minutes, but never fry them for white sauce.

Truffles and morels good in sauces and soups.

Take half an ounce of truffles and morels, simmer them in two or three spoonfuls of water for a few minutes, then put them with the liquor into the sauce.  They thicken both sauce and soup, and give it a fine flavour.

To stew ox-palates.

Stew them very tender; which must be done by putting them into cold water, and let them stew very softly over a slow fire till they are tender, then cut them into pieces and put them either into your made-dish or soup; and cocks-combs and artichoke-bottoms, cut small, and put into the made dish.  Garnish your dishes with lemon, sweetbreads* stewed or white dishes, and fried for brown ones, and cut in little pieces.

[*Culinary names for the thymus (throat, gullet, or neck) or the pancreas (also heart, stomach, or belly) especially of the calf (ris de veau) and lamb (ris d’agneau) (although beef and pork sweetbreads are also eaten).]

To ragoo a leg of mutton.

Take all the skin and fat off, cut it very thin the right way of the grain, then butter your stew-pan, and shake some flour into it; slice half a lemon and half an onion, cut them very small, a little bundle of sweet herbs, and a blade of mace.  Put all together with your meat into the pan, stir it a minute or two, and then put in six spoonfuls of gravy, and have ready an anchovy minced small; mix it with some butter and flour, stir it altogether for six minutes, and then dish it up.

To make a brown fricasey.

You must take your rabbits or chickens and skin them, then cut them into small pieces, and rub them over with yolks of eggs.  Have ready some grated bread, a little beaten mace, and a little grated nutmeg mixt together, and then roll them in it: put a little butter into your stew-pan, and when it is melted put in your meat.  Fry it of a fine brown, and take care they don’t stick to the bottom of the pan, then pour the butter from them, and pour in half a pint of gravy, a glass of red wine, a few mushrooms, or two spoonfuls of the pickle, a little salt (if wanted) and a piece of butter rolled in flour.  When it is of a fine thickness dish it up, and sent it to table.

To make a white fricasey.

You may take two chickens or rabbits, skin them and cut them into little pieces.  Lay them into warm water to draw out all the blood, and then lay them in a clean cloth to dry:  put them into a stew-pan with milk and water, stew them till they are tender, and then take a clean pan, put in half a pint of cream, and a quarter of a pound of butter; stir it together till the butter is melted, but you must be sure to keep it stirring all the time r it will be greasy, and then with a fork take the chickens or rabbits out of the stew-pan and put into the sauce-pan to the butter and cream.  Have ready a little mace dried and beat fine, a very little nutmeg, a few mushrooms, shake all together for a minute or two, and dish it up.  If you have no mushrooms a spoonful of the pickle does full as well, and gives it a pretty tartness.  This is a very pretty sauce for a breast of veal roasted.

To fricasey chickens, rabbits, lamb, veal, &c.

Do them the same way.

A second way to make a white fricasey.

You must take two or three rabbits or chickens, skin them, and lay them in warm water, and dry them with a clean cloth.  Put them into a stew-pan with a blade or two of mace, a little black and white pepper, an onions, a little bundle of sweet-herbs, and do but just cover them with water:  stew them till they are tender, then with a fork take them out, strain the liquor, and put them into the pan again with half a pint of the liquor and half a pint of cream, the yolk of two eggs beat well, half a nutmeg grated, a glass of white wine, a little piece of butter rolled in flour, and a gill* of mushrooms; keep stirring all together, all the while one way, till it is smooth and of a fine thickness, and then dish it up.  Add what you please.

[*liquid measure (commonly a half-pint)]

A third way of making a white fricasey.

Take three chickens, skin them, cut them into small pieces; that is, every joint asunder; lay them in warm water, for a quarter of an hour, take them out and dry them with a cloth, then put them into a stew-pan with milk and water, and boil them tender:  take a pint of good cream, a quarter of a pound of butter, and stir it till it is thick, then let it stand till it is cool, and put to it a little beaten mace, half a nutmeg grated, a little salt, a gill* of white wine, and a few mushrooms; stir all together, then take the chickens out of the stew-pan, throw away what they are boiled in, clean the pan and put in the chickens and sauce together:  keep the pan shaking round till they are quite hot, and dish them up.  Garnish with lemon.  They will be very good without wine.

[*liquid measure (commonly a half-pint)]

To fricasey rabbits, lamb, sweetbreads, or tripe.

Do the same way.

Another way to fricasey tripe.

Take a piece of double tripe, cut it into slices two inches long, and half an inch broad, put them into your stew-pan, and sprinkle a little salt over them; then put in a bunch of sweet-herbs, a little lemon-peel, an onion, a little anchovy pickle, and a bay-leaf; put all these to the tripe, then put in just water enough to cover them, and let them stew till the trip is very tender:  then take out the tripe and strain the liquor out, shred a spoonful of capers, and put to them a glass of white wine, and half a pint of the liquor they are stewed in.  Let it boil a little while, then put in your tripe, and beat the yolks of three eggs; put into your eggs a little mace, two cloves, a little nutmeg dried and beat fine, a small handful of parsley picked and shred fine, a piece of butter rolled in flour, and a quarter of a pint of cream:  mix all these well together, and put them into your stew-pan, keep them stirring one way all the while, and when it is of a fine thickness and smooth, dish it up, and garnish the dish with lemon.  You are to observe that all sauces which have eggs or cream in, you must keep stirring one way all the while they are on the fire, or they would turn to curds.  You may add white walnut pickle, or mushrooms, in the room of capers, just to make your sauce a little tart.

To ragoo hogs feet and ears.

Take your feet and ears out of the pickle they are soused in, or boil them till they are tender, then cut them into little long thin bits about two inches long, and about a quarter of an inch thick:  put them into your stew-pan with half a pint of good gravy, a glass of white wine, a good deal of mustard, a good piece of butter rolled in flour, and a little pepper and salt:  stir all together till it is of a fine thickness, and then dish it up.

Note, they make a very pretty dish fried with butter and mustard, and a little good gravy, if you like it.  Then only cut the feet and ears in two.  You may add half an onions, cut small.

To fry tripe.

Cut your tripe into pieces about three inches long, dip them in the yolk of an egg and a few crums of bread, fry them of a fine brown, and then take them out of the pan and lay them in a dish to drain.  Have ready a arm dish to put them in, and send them to table, with butter and mustard in a cup.

To stew tripe.

Cut it just as you do for frying, and set on some water in a sauce-pan, with two or three onions cut into slices, and some salt.  When it boils, put in your tripe.  Ten minutes will boil it.  Send it to table with the liquor in the dish, and the onions.  Have butter and mustard in a cup, and dish it up.  You may put in as many onions as you like to mix with your sauce, or leave them quite out, just as you please.  Put a little bundle of sweet-herbs, and a piece of lemon-peel into the water, when you put in your tripe.

A fricasey of pigeons.

Take eight pigeons, new killed, cut them into small pieces, and put them into a stew-pan with a pint of claret and a pint of water.  Season your pigeons with salt and pepper, a blade or two of mace, an onion, a bundle of sweet-herbs, a good piece of butter just rolled in a very little flour:  cover it close, and let them stew till there is just enough for sauce, and then take out the onions and sweet-herbs, beat up the yolks of three eggs, grate half a nutmeg in, and with your spoon push the meat all to one side of the pan and the gravy to the other side, and stir in the eggs; keep them stirring for fear of turning to curds, and when the sauce is fine and thick shake all together, put in half a spoonful of vinegar, and give them a shake; then put the meat into the dish, pour the sauce over it, and have ready some slices of bacon toasted, and fried oysters; throw the oysters all over, and lay the bacon round.  Garnish with lemon.

A fricasey of lamb-stones and sweetbreads.

Have ready some lamb-stones blanched, parboiled and sliced, and flour two or three sweetbreads*; if very thick, cut them in two, the yolks of six hard eggs whole; a few pistachio-nut kernels, and a few large oysters:  fry these all of a fine brown, then pour out all the butter, and add a pint of drawn gravy, the lamb-stones, some asparagus tops about an inch long, some grated nutmeg, a little pepper and salt, two shallots shred small, and a glass of white wine.  Stew all these together for ten minutes, then add the yolks of six eggs beat very fine, with a little white wine, and a little beaten mace; stir altogether till it is of a fine thickness, and then dish it up.  Garnish with lemon.

[*Culinary names for the thymus (throat, gullet, or neck) or the pancreas (also heart, stomach, or belly) especially of the calf (ris de veau) and lamb (ris d’agneau) (although beef and pork sweetbreads are also eaten).]

To hash a calf’s head.

Boil the head almost enough, then take the best half and with a sharp knife take it nicely from the bone, with the two eyes.  Lay it in a little deep dish before a good fire, and take great care no ashes fall into it, and then hack it with a knife cross and cross:  grate some nutmeg all over, a very little pepper and salt, a few sweet herbs, some crumbs of bread, and a little lemon-peel chopped very fine, baste it with a little butter, then baste it again, and pour over it the yolks of two eggs; keep the dish turning that it may be all brown alike:  cut the other half and tongue into little thin bits, and set on a pint of drawn gravy in a sauce-pan, a little bundle of sweet-herbs, an onions, a little pepper and salt, a glass of red wine, and two shallots; boil all these together, a few minutes, then strain it through a sieve, and put it into a clean stew-pan with the hash.  Flour the meat before you put it in, and put in a few mushrooms, a spoonful of the pickle, two spoonfuls of catchup, and a few truffles and morels; stir all these together for a few minutes, then beat up half the brains, and stir into the stew-pan, and a little piece of butter rolled in flour.  Take the other half of the brains and beat them up with a little lemon-peel cut fine, a little nutmeg grated, a little beaten mace, a little thyme shred small, a little parsley, the yolk of an egg, and have some good dripping boiling in a stew-pan; then fry the brains in little cakes, about as big as a crown-piece.  Fry about twenty oysters dipped in the yolk of an egg, toast some slices of bacon, fry a few force-meat balls, and have ready a hot dish; if pewter, over a few clear coals; if china, over a pan of hot water.  Pour in your hash, then lay in your toasted head, throw the force-meat-balls over the hash, and garnish the dish with fried oysters, the fried brains, and lemon; throw the rest over the hash, lay the bacon round the dish, and send it to table.

To hash a calf’s head white.

Take half a pint of gravy, a large wine-glass of white wine, a little beaten mace, a little nutmeg, and a little salt; throw into your hash a few mushrooms, a few truffles and morels first parboiled, a few artichoke bottoms, and asparagus tops, if you have them, a good piece of butter rolled in flour, the yolks of two eggs, half a pint of cream, and one spoonful of mushroom catchup; stir it all together very carefully till it is of a fine thickness; then pour it into sour dish, and lay the other half of the head as before-mentioned, in the middle, and garnish it as before directed, with fried oysters, brains, lemon, and force-meat balls fried.

To bake a calf’s head.

Take the head, pick it and wash it very clean; take an earthen dish large enough to lay the head on, rub a little piece of butter all over the dish, then lay some long iron skewers across the top of the dish, and lay the head atop them; skewer up the meat in the middle that it don’t lie on the dish, then grate some nutmeg all over it, a few sweet herbs shred small, some crumbs of bread, a little lemon-peel cut fine, and then flour it all over:  stick pieces of butter in the eyes and all over the head, and flour it again.  Let it be well baked, and of a fine brown; you may throw a little pepper and salt over it, and put into the dish a piece of beef cut small, a bundle of sweet-herbs, an onion, some whole pepper, a blade of mace, two cloves, a pint of water, and boil the brains with some sage.  When the head is enough, lay it on a dish, and set it to the fire to keep warm, then stir all together in the dish, and boil it in a sauce-pan; strain it off, put it into the sauce-pan again, add a piece of butter rolled in flour, and the sage in the brains chopped fine, a spoonful of catchup, and two spoonfuls of red wine; boil them together, take the brains, beat them well, and mix then with the sauce:  pour it into the dish, and send it to table.  You must bake the tongue with the head, and don’t cut it out.  It will lie the handsomer in the dish.

To bake a sheep’s head.

Do it the same way, and it eats very well.

To dress a lamb’s head.

Boil the head and pluck tender but don’t let the liver be too much done.  Take the head up, hack it cross and cross with a knife, grate some nutmeg over it, and lay it in a dish, before a good fire; then grate some crumbs of bread, some sweet-herbs rubbed, a little lemon-peel chopped fine, a very little pepper and salt, and baste it with a little butter:  then throw a little flour over it, and just as it is done do the same, baste it and drudge it.  Take half the liver, the lights*, the heart and tongue, chop them very small, with six or eight spoonfuls of gravy or water; first shake some flour over the meat, and stir it together, then put in the gravy or water, a good piece of butter rolled in a little flour, a little pepper and salt, and what runs from the head in the dish; simmer all together a few minutes, and add half a spoonful of vinegar, pour it into your dish, lay the head in the middle of the mince-meat,  have ready the other half of the liver cut thin, with some slices of bacon broiled, and lay round the head.  Garnish the dish with lemon, and send it to table.

[*lights = lungs]

To ragoo a neck of veal.

Cut a neck of veal into steaks, flatten them with a rolling-pin, season them with salt, pepper, cloves and mace, lard them with bacon, lemon-peel and thyme, dip them in the yolks of eggs, make a sheet of strong cap-paper up at the four corners in the form of a dripping-pan; pin up the corners, butter the paper and also the gridiron, and set it over a fire of charcoal; put in your meat, let it do leisurely, keep it basting and turning to keep in the gravy; and when it is enough have ready half a pint of strong gravy, season it high, put in mushrooms and pickles, force-meat balls dipped in the yolks of eggs, oysters stewed and fried, to lay round and at the top of your dish, and then serve it up.  If for a brown ragoo, put in red wine.  If for a white one, put in white wine, with the yolks of eggs beat up with two or three spoonfuls of cream.

To ragoo a breast of veal.

Take your breast of veal, put it into a large stew-pan, put in a bundle of sweet-herbs, an onions, some black and white pepper, a blade or two of mace, two or three cloves, a very little piece of lemon peel, and just cover it with water:  when it is tender take it up, bone it, put in the bones, boil it up till the gravy is very good, then strain it off, and if you have a little rich beef gravy add a quarter of a pint, put in half an ounce of truffles and morels, a spoonful or two of catchup, two or three spoonfuls of white wine, and let them all boil together:  in the mean time flour the veal, and fry it in butter till it is of a fine brown, then drain out all the butter and pour the gravy you are boiling to the veal, with a few mushrooms:  boil all together till the sauce is rich and thick, and cut the sweetbread* into four.  A few force-meat balls is proper in it.  Lay the veal in the dish, and pour the sauce all over it.  Garnish with lemon.

[*Culinary names for the thymus (throat, gullet, or neck) or the pancreas (also heart, stomach, or belly) especially of the calf (ris de veau) and lamb (ris d’agneau) (although beef and pork sweetbreads are also eaten).]

Another way to ragoo a breast of veal.

You may bone it nicely, flour it, and fry it of a fine brown, then pour the fat out of the pan, and the ingredients as above, with the bones; when enough, take it out, and strain the liquor, then put in your meat again, with the ingredients, as before directed.

A breast of veal in hodge-podge.

Take a breast of veal, cut the briscuit into little pieces, and every bone asunder, then flour it, and put half a pound of good butter into a stew-pan; when it is hot, throw in the veal, fry it all over of a fine light brown, and then have ready a tea-kettle of water boiling; pour it in the stew-pan, fill it up and stir it round, throw in a pint of green peas, a fine lettuce whole, clean washed, two or three blades of mace, a little whole pepper tied in a muffin rag, a little bundle of sweet herbs, a small onion stuck with a few cloves, and a little salt.  Cover it close, and let it stew an hour, or till it is boiled to your palate, if you would have soup made of it; if you would only have sauce to eat with the veal, you must stew it till there is just as much as you would have for sauce, and season it with salt to your palate; take out the onions, sweet-herbs and spice, and pour it altogether into your dish.  It is a fine dish.  If you have no pease, pare three or four cucumbers, scoop out the pulp, and cut it into little pieces, and take four or five heads of celery, clean washed, and cut the white part small; when you have no lettuces, take the little hearts of savoys, or the little young sprouts that grow on the old cabbage-stalks about as big as the top of your thumb.

Note, if you would make a very fine dish of it, fill the inside of your lettuce with force-meat, and tie the top close with a thread; stew it till there is but just enough for sauce, set the lettuce in the middle, and the veal round, and pour the sauce all over it.  Garnish your dish with rasped bread, made into figures with your fingers.  This is the cheapest way of dressing a breast of veal to be good, and serve a number of people.

To collar a breast of veal.

Take a very sharp knife, and nicely take out all the bones, but take great care you do not cut the meat through; pick all the fat and meat off the bones, then grate some nutmeg all over the inside of the veal, a very little beaten mace, a little pepper and salt, a few sweet-herbs shred small, some parsley, a little lemon-peel shred small, a few crumbs of bread and the bits of fat picked off the bones; roll it up tight, stick one skewer in to hold it together, but do it clever, that it stands upright in the dish: tie a packthread across it to hold it together, spit it, then roll the caul* all round it, and roast it.  An hour and a quarter will do it.  When it has been about an hour at the fire take off the caul, dredge it with flour, baste it well with fresh butter, and let it be of a fine brown.  Four sauce take two penny-worth of gravy beef, cut it and hack it well, then flour it, fry it a little brown, then pour into your stew pan some boiling water, stir it well together, then fill your pan two parts full of water, put in an onion, a bundle of sweet herbs, a little crust of bread toasted, two or three blades of mace, four cloves, some whole pepper, and the bones of the veal.  Cover it close, and let it stew till it is quite rich and thick; then strain it, boil it up with some truffles and morels, a few mushrooms, a spoonful of catchup, two or three bottoms of artichokes, if you have them; add a little salt, just enough to season the gravy, take the packthread off the veal, and set it upright in the dish; cut the sweetbread* into four, and broil it of a fine brown, with a few force-meat-balls fried; lay these round the dish, and pour in the sauce.  Garnish the dish with lemon, and send it to table.

[*Caul :  The membrane.

*Culinary names for the thymus (throat, gullet, or neck) or the pancreas (also heart, stomach, or belly) especially of the calf (ris de veau) and lamb (ris d’agneau) (although beef and pork sweetbreads are also eaten).]

The Art of Cookery Continued: Chapter I: Of Roasting, Boiling, &c.

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Cook with a spit

Below is the entire chapter I of Hannah’s definitive work.  Her tone comes through loud and clear – she was writing to the “lower” servants – there was a clear hierarchy even within those ranks of society, and she makes it clear which position she sees herself in.  Some of the things that landed on the 18th century plates of England would turn our stomachs today, such as whole woodchucks and snipes with nothing removed.  Parts of animals that we today view with either disgust, or relegate to the “sausage material” category were served with flair and a side dish of gravy.  I would suggest that you avoid eating while reading these directions…

Chapter I:  Of Roasting, Boiling, &c.


That professed cooks will find fault with touching upon a branch of cookery which they never thought worth their notice, is what I expect:  however, this I know, it is the most necessary part of it; and few servants there are, that know how to roast and boil to perfection.

I do not pretend to teach professed cooks, but my design is to instruct the ignorant and unlearned (which will likewise be of great use in all private families) and in so plain and full a manner, that the most illiterate and ignorant person, who can but read, will know how to do everything in cookery well.

I shall first begin with roast and boiled of all sorts, and must desire the cook to order her fire according to what she is to dress; if anything very little or thin, then a pretty little brisk fire, that it may be done quick and nice; if a very large joint, then be sure a good fire be laid to cake.  Let it be clear at the bottom; and when your meat is half done, move the dripping pan and spit a little from the fire, and stir up a good brisk fire; for according to the goodness of your fire, your meat will be done sooner or later.


If beef, be sure to paper the top, and baste it well all the time it is roasting, and throw a handful of salt on it.  When you see the smoke draw to the fire, it is near enough; then take off the paper, baste it well, and drudge it with a little flour to make a fine froth.  Never salt your roast meat before you lay it to the fire, for that draws out all the gravy.  If you would keep it a few days before you dress it, dry it very well with a clean cloth, then flour it all over, and hang it where the air will come to it; but be sure always to mind that there is no damp place about it, if there is you must dry it well with a cloth.  Take up your meat, and garnish your dish with nothing but horseradish.


As to roasting mutton; the loin, the saddle of mutton (which is the two loins) and the chine (which is the two necks) must be done as the beef above.  But all other sorts of mutton and lamb must be roasted with a quick clear fire, and without paper; baste it when you lay it down, and just before you take it up, drudge it with a little flour; but be sure not to use too much, for that takes away all the fine taste of the meat.  Some chuse to skin a loin of mutton, and roast it brown without paper: but that you may do just as you please, but be sure always to take the skin off a breast of mutton.


As to veal, you must be careful to roast it of a fine brown; if a large joint, a very good fire; if a small joint, a pretty little brisk fire; if a fillet or loin, be sure to paper the fat, that you lose as little of that as possible.  Lay it some distance from the fire till it is soaked, then lay it near the fire.  When you way it down, baste it well with good butter; and when it is near enough, baste it again, and drudge it with a little flour.  The breast you must roast with the caul on till it is enough; and skewer the sweetbread on the backside of the breast.  When it is high enough, take off the caul, baste it, and drudge it with a little flour.


Pork must be well done, or it is apt to surfeit.  When you roast a loin, take a sharp penknife and cut the skin across, to make the crackling eat the better.  The chine you must not cut at all.  The best way to roast a leg, is first to parboil it, then skin it and roast it; baste it with butter, then take a little sage, shred it fine, a little pepper and salt, a little nutmeg, and a few crumbs of bread; throw these over it all the time it is roasting, then have a little drawn gravy to put in the dish with the crumbs that drop from it.  Some love the knuckle fluffed with onion and sage shred small, with a little pepper and salt, gravy and apple-sauce to it.  This they call a mock goose.  The spring, or hand of pork, if very young, roasted like a pig, eats very well, otherwise it is better boiled.  The sparerib should be basted with a little bit of butter, a very little dust of flour, and some sage shred small:  but we never make any sauce to it but apple-sauce.  The best way to dress pork grifkins is to roast them, baste them with a little butter and crumbs of bread, sage, and a little pepper and salt.  Few eat anything with these but mustard.

To roast a pig.

Spit your pig and lay it to the fire, which must be a very good one at each end, or hang a flat iron in the middle of the grate.  Before you lay your pig down, take a little sage shred small, a piece of butter as big as a walnut, and a little pepper and salt; put them into the pig and sew it up with coarse thread, then flour it all over well, and keep flouring it till the eyes drop out, or you find the crackling hard.  Be sure to save all the gravy that comes out of it, which you must do by setting basons or pans under the pig in the dripping pan, as soon as you find the gravy begins to run.  When the pig is enough, stir the fire up brisk; take a coarse cloth, with about a quarter of a pound of butter in it, and rub the pig all over till the crackling is quite crisp, and then take it up.  Lay it in your dish, and with a sharp knife cut off the head, and then cut the pig in two, before you draw out the spit.  Cut the ears off the head and lay at each end, and cut the under-jaw in two and lay on each side; melt some good butter, take the gravy you saved and put into it, boil it, and pour it into the dish with the brains bruised fine, and the sage mixed all together, and then send it to table.

Different sorts of sauce for a pig.

Now you are to observe there are several ways of making sauce for a pig.  Some don’t love any sage in the pig, only a crust of bread; but then you should have a little dried sage rubbed and mixed with the gravy and butter.  Some love bread-sauce in a bason; made thus:  take a pint of water, put in a good piece of crumb of bread, a blade of mace, and a little whole pepper; boil it for about five or six minutes, and then pour the water off:  take out the spice, and beat up the bread with a good piece of butter.  Some love a few currants boiled in it, a glass of wine, and a little sugar:  but that you must do just as you like it.  Others take half a pint of good beef gravy, and the gravy which comes out of the pig, with a piece of butter rolled in flour, two spoonfuls of catchup, and boil them all together; then take the brains of the pig and bruise them fine, with two eggs boiled hard and chopped; put all these together, with the sage in the pig, and pour into your dish.  It is a very good sauce.  When you have not gravy enough comes out of your pig with the butter for sauce, take about half a pint of veal gravy and add to it:  or stew the petty-toes, and take as much of that liquor as will do for the sauce, mixed with the other.

To roast the hind quarter of pig, lamb-fashion.

At the time of the year when house-lamb is very dear, take the hind quarter of a large pig; take off the skin and roast it, and it will eat like lamb with mint-sauce, or with a salad, or Seville-orange.  Half an hour will roast it.

To bake a pig.

If you should be in a place where you cannot roast a pig, lay it in a dish, flour it all over well, and rub it over with butter, butter the dish you lay it in, and put it into an oven.  When it is enough draw it out of the oven’s mouth, and rub it over with a buttery cloth; then put it into the over again till it is dry, take it out, and lay it in a dish:  cut it up, take a little veal gravy, and take off the fat in a dish it was baked in, and there will be some good gravy at the bottom; put that to it, with a little piece of butter rolled in flour; boil it up, and put it into the dish with the brains and sage in the belly.  Some love a pig brought whole to the table, then you are only to put what sauce you like into the dish.

To melt butter.

In melting of butter you must be very careful; let your saucepan be well tinned, take a spoonful of cold water, a little dust of flour, and your butter cut into pieces:  be sure to keep shaking your pan one way, for fear it should oil; when it is all melted, let it boil, and it will be smooth and fine.  A silver pan is best, if you have one.

To roast geese, turkies, &c.

When you roast a goose, turkey, or fowls of any sort, take care to singe them with a piece of what paper, and baste them with a piece of butter; drudge them with a little flour, and when the smoke begins to draw to the fire, and the look plump, base them again, and drudge them with a little flour, and take them up.

Sauce for a goose.

For a goose make a little good gravy, and put it into a bason by itself, and some apple-sauce in another.

Sauce for a turkey.

For a turkey good gravy in the dish, and either bread or onion-sauce in a bason.

Sauce for fowls.

To fowls you should put good gravy in the dish, and either bread or egg-sauce in a bason.

Sauce for ducks.

For ducks a little gravy in the dish, and onion in a cup, if liked.

Sauce for pheasants and partridges.

Pheasants and partridges should have gravy in the dish, and bread-sauce in a cup.

Sauce for larks.

Larks, roast them, and for sauce have crumbs of bread done thus:  take a saucepan or stew pan and some butter; when melted, have a good piece of crumb of bread, and rub it in a clean cloth to crumbs, then throw it into your pan; keep stirring them about till they are brown, then throw them into a sieve to drain, and lay them round your larks.

To roast woodcocks and snipes.

Put them on a little spit; take a round of a three-penny loaf and toast it brown, then lay it in a dish under the birds, baste them with a little butter, and let the trale drop on the toast.  When they are roasted put the toast in the dish, lay the woodcocks on it, and have about a quarter of a pine of gravy; pour it into the dish, and set it over a lamp or chafing dish for three minutes, and send them to table.  You are to observe we never take anything out of a woodcock or snipe.

To roast a pigeon.

Take some parsley shred fine, a piece of butter as big as a walnut, a little pepper and salt; tie the neck-end tight; tie a string round the legs and rump, and fasten the other end to the top of the chimney-piece.  Baste them with butter, and when they are enough lay them in the dish, and they will swim with gravy.  You may put them on a little spit, and then tie both ends close.

To broil a pigeon.

When you broil them, do them in the same manner, and take care your fire is very clear, and set your gridiron high, that they may not burn, and have a little melted butter in a cup.  You may split them, and broil them with a little pepper and salt:  and you may roast them only with a little parsley and butter in a dish.

Directions for geese and ducks.

As to geese and ducks, you should have some sage shred fine, and a little pepper and salt, and put them into the belly; but never put anything into wild ducks.

To roast a hare.

Take your hare when it is cased, and make a pudding; take a quarter of a pound of sewet (suet), and as much crumbs of bread, a little parsley shred find, and about as much thyme as will like on a sixpence, when shred; an anchovy shred small, a very little pepper and salt, some nutmeg, two eggs, and a little lemon-peel.  Mix all these together, and put it into the hare.  Sew up the belly, spit it, and lay it to the fire, which must be a good one.  Your dripping-pan must be very clean and nice.  Put in two quarts of milk and half a pound of butter into the pan:  keep basting it all the while it is roasting, with the butter and milk, till the whole is used, and your hare will be enough.  You may mix the liver in the pudding, if you like it.  You must first parboil it, and then chop it fine.

Different sorts of sauce for a hare.

Take for sauce, a pint of cream and half a pound of fresh butter; put them in a saucepan, and keep stirring it with a spoon till the butter is melted, and the sauce is thick; then take up the hare, and pour the sauce into the dish.  Another way to make sauce for a hare, is to make good gravy, thickened with a little piece of butter rolled in flour, and pour it into your dish.  You may leave the butter out, if you don’t like it, and have some currant jelly warmed in a cup, or red wine and sugar boiled to a syrup; done thus:  take half a pint of red wine, a quarter of a pound of sugar, and set over a slow fire to simmer for about a quarter of an hour.  You may do half the quantity, and put it into your sauce boat or bason.

To broil steaks.

First have a very clear brisk fire:  let your gridiron be very clean; put it on the fire, and take a chafing-dish with a few hot coals out of the fire.  Put the dish on it which is to lay your steaks on, then take fine rump steaks about half an inch thick; put a little pepper and salt on them, lay them on the gridiron, and (if you like it) take a shallot or two, or a fine onion and cut it fine; put it into your dish.  Don’t turn your steaks till one side is done, then when you turn the other side there will soon be fine gravy lie on the stop of the steak, which you must be careful not to lose.  When the steaks are enough, take them carefully off into your dish, that none of the gravy be lost; then have ready a hot dish and cover, and carry them hot to table, with the cover on.

Directions concerning the sauce for steaks.

If you love pickles or horse-raddish (horseradish) with steaks, never garnish your dish, because both the garnishing will be dry, and the steaks will be cold, but lay those things on little places, and carry to table.  The great nicety is to have them hot and full of gravy.

General directions concerning broiling.

As to mutton and pork steaks, you must keep them turning quick on the gridiron, and have your dish ready over a chafing-dish of hot coals, and carry them to table covered hot.  When you broil fowls or pigeons, always take care your fire is clear; and never baste anything on the gridiron, for it only make it smoked and burnt.

General directions concerning boiling.

As to all sorts of boiled meats, allow a quarter of an hour to every pound; be sure the pot is very clean, and skim it well, for everything will have a scum rise, and if that boils down it makes the meat black.  All sorts of fresh meat you are to put in when the water boils, but salt meat when the water is cold.

To boil a ham.

When you boil a ham, put it into a copper, if you have one; let it be about three or four hours before it boils, and keep it well skimmed all the time; then if it is a small one, one hour and a half will boil it, after the copper begins to boil; and if a large one, two hours will do; for you are to consider the time it has been heating in the water, which softens the ham, and makes it boil the sooner.

To boil a tongue.

A Tongue, if salt, put it in the pot overnight, and don’t let it boil till about three hours before dinner, and then boil all that three hours; if fresh out of the pickle, two hours, and put it in when the water boils.

To boil fowls and house-lamb.

Fowls and house lamb boil in a pot by themselves, in a good deal of water, and if any scum arises take it off.  They will be both sweeter and whiter than if boiled in a cloth.  A little chicken will be done in fifteen minutes, a large chicken in twenty minutes, a good fowl in half an hour, a little turkey or goose in an hour, and a large turkey in an hour and a half.

Sauce for a boiled turkey.

The best sauce to a boiled turkey is this:  take a little water or mutton gravy, if you have it, a blade of mace, an onion, a little bit of thyme, a little bit of lemon-peel, and an anchovy;  boil all these together, strain them through a sieve, melt some butter and add to them, fry a few sausages and lay round the dish.  Garnish your dish with lemon.

Sauce for a boiled goose.

Sauce for a boiled goose must be either onions or cabbage, first boiled, and then stewed in butter for five minutes.

Sauce for boiled ducks or rabbits.

To boiled ducks or rabbits, you must pour boiled onions over them, which do thus:  take the onions, peel them, and boil them in a great deal of water; shift your water, then let them boil about two hours, take them up and throw them into a cullender to drain, then with a knife chop them on a board; put them into a sauce pan, just shake a little flour over them, put in a little milk or cream, with a good piece of butter; set them over the fire, and when the butter is melted they are enough.  But if you would have onions sauce in half an hour, take your onions, peel them, and cut them into this slices, put them into milk and water, and when the water boils they will be done in twenty minutes, then throw them into a cullender to drain, and chop them and put them into a saucepan; shake in a little flour, with a little cream if you have it, and a good piece of butter; stir all together over the fire till the butter is melted, and they will be very fine.  This sauce is very good with roast mutton, and it is the best way of boiling onions.

To roast venison.

Take a haunch of venison, and spit it.  Take four sheets of white paper, butter them well, and roll about your venison, then tie your paper on with a small string, and baste it very well all the time it is roasting.  If your fire is very good and brisk, two hours will do it; and, if a small haunch, an hour and a half.  The neck and shoulder must be done in the same manner, which will take an hour and a half, and when it is enough to take off the paper, and drudge it with a little flour just to make a froth; but you must be very quick, for fear the fat should melt.  You must not put any sauce in the dish but what comes out of the meat, but have some very good gravy and put into your sauce-boat or bason.  You must always have sweet sauce with your venison in another bason.  If it is a large haunch, it will take two hours and a half.

Different sorts of sauce for venison.

You may take either of these sauces for venison.  Currant jelly warmed; or half a pint of red wine, with a quarter of a pound of sugar, simmered over a clear fire for five or six minutes; or half a pint of vinegar, and a quarter of a pound of sugar, simmered till it is a syrup.

To roast mutton, venison fashion.

Take a hind-quarter of fat mutton, and cut the leg like a haunch; lay it in a pan with the backside of it down, pour a bottle of red wine over it, and let it lie twenty-four hours, then spit it, and baste it with the same liquor and butter all the time it is roasting at a good quick fire, and an hour and a half will do it.  Have a little good gravy in a cup, and sweet sauce in another.  A good fat neck of mutton eats finely done thus.

To keep venison or hares sweet, or to make them fresh when they stink.

If your venison is very sweet, only dry it with a cloth, and hang it where the air comes.  If you would keep it any time, dry it very well with clean cloths, rub it all over with beaten ginger, and hang it in any airy place, and it will keep a great while.  If it stinks, or is musty, take some lukewarm water, and wash it clean:  then take fresh milk and water lukewarm, and wash it again; then dry it in clean cloths very well, and rub it all over with beaten ginger, and hang it in an airy place.  When you roast it, you need only wipe it with a clean cloth, and paper it, as before-mentioned.  Never do anything else to venison, for all other things spoil your venison, and take away the fine flavour, and this preserved it better than anything you can do.  A hare you may manage just the same way.

To roast a tongue or udder.

Parboil it first, then roast it, stick eight or ten cloves about it; baste it with butter, and have some gravy and sweet sauce.  An udder eats very well done the same way.

To roast rabbits.

Baste them with good butter, and drudge them with a little flour.  Half an hour will do them, at a very quick clear fire, and, if they are very small, twenty minutes will do them.  Take the liver, with a little bunch of parsley, and boil them, and then chop them very fine together.  Melt some good butter, and put half the liver and parsley into the butter; pour it into the dish, and garnish the dish with the other half.  Let your rabbits be done of a fine light brown.

To roast a rabbit hare fashion.

Lard a rabbit with bacon; roast it as you do a hare, and it eats very well.  But then you must make gravy-sauce; but if you don’t lard it, white sauce.

Turkies, pheasants, &c. may be larded.

You may lard a turkey or pheasant, or any thing, just as you like it.

To roast a fowl pheasant fashion.

If you should have but one pheasant, and want two in a dish, take a large full-grown fowl, keep the head on, and truss it just as you do a pheasant; lard it with bacon, but don’t lard the pheasant, and nobody will know it.

The Art of Cookery: Rules to be Observed in Roasting

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18th century model for a pastillage piece montee - sugar paste mobile

18th century model for a pastillage piece montee – sugar paste mobile

Below is Hannah Glasse’s instructions to cooks, the hows and whys of the kitchen in the technique of roasting.  It is a fascinating look into the 18th century cooking pot, as it were; not all homes had ovens, and in one recipe it is worded “send it to the oven… when it comes home” – this would imply that it was sent to the village bakery, and brought home to finish off once it had been sent away to be baked.  Because of that limitation, many recipes are for boiling; they seemed to boil the living daylights out of meat, vegetables, or anything else that they could put in a pot.  With a limited variety of spices, space, and kitchen utensils, it’s amazing that they managed to turn out concoctions that modern chefs only dream about (see photo; for more information, please go to


Rules to be observed in Roasting

In the first place, take great care the spit be very clean; and be sure to clean it with nothing but sand and water.  Wash it clean, and wipe it with a dry cloth; for oil, brick-dust, and such things will spoil your meat.


To roast a good piece of beef about ten pounds will take an hour and a half, at a good fire.  Twenty pounds weight will take three hours, if it be a thick piece; but if it be a thin piece of twenty pounds weight, two hours and a half will do it; and so on according to the weight of your meat, more or less.  Observe, in frosty weather your beef will take half an hour longer.



A leg of mutton of six pounds will take an hour at a quick fire; if frosty weather an hour and a quarter; nine pounds an hour and a half, a leg of twelve pounds will take two hours; if frosty two hours and a half; a large saddle of mutton will take three house, because of papering it; a small saddle will take an hour and a half, and so on, according to the size; a breast will take half an hour at a quick fire; a neck, if large, an hour; if very small, little better than half an hour; a shoulder much about the same time as a leg.


Pork must be well done.  To every pound allow a quarter of an hour:  for example, a joint of twelve pounds weight three hours, and so on; if it be a thick piece of that weight, two hours will roast it.

Directions concerning beef, mutton, and pork.

These three you may baste with fine nice dripping.  Be sure your fire be very good and brisk; but don’t lay your meat too near the fire, for fear of burning or scorching.


Veal takes much the same time roasting as pork; but be sure to paper the fat of a loin or fillet, and baste your veal with good butter.


If a large fore-quarter, an hour and a half; if a small one, an hour.  The outside must be papered, basted with good butter, and you must have a very quick fire.  If a leg, about three quarters of an hour; a neck, a breast or shoulder, three quarters of an hour; if very small, half an hour will do.


If just killed, an hour; if killed the day before, an hour and a quarter; if a very large one, an hour and a half.  But the best way to judge, is when the eyes drop out, and the skin is grown very hard; then you must rub it with a coarse cloth, with a good piece of butter rolled in it, till the crackling is crisp and of a fine light brown.


You must have a quick fire.  If it be a small hare, put three pints of milk and half a pound of fresh butter in the dripping-pan, which must be very clean and nice; if a large one, two quarts of milk and half a pound of fresh butter.  You must baste your hare well with this all the time it is roasting; and when the hare has soaked up all the butter and milk it will be enough.


A middling turky will take an hour; a very large one, an hour and a quarter; a small one, three quarters of an hour.  You must paper the breast till it is near done enough, then take the paper off and froth it up.  Your fire must be very good.


Observe the same rules.


A large fowl, three quarters of an hour; a middling one, half an hour; very small chickens, twenty minutes.  Your fire must be very quick and clear when you lay them down.


Observe the same rules.


Ten minutes at a very quick fire will do them; but if you love them well done, a quarter of an hour.


Observe the same rules.


They will take twenty minutes.


They will take fifteen minutes.

Directions concerning poultry.

If your fire is not very quick and clear when you lay your poultry down to roast, it will not eat near so sweet, or look so beautiful to the eye.

To keep meat hot.

The best way to keep meat hot, if it be done before your company is ready, is to set the dish over a pan of boiling water; cover the dish with a deep cover so as not to touch the meat, and throw a cloth over all.  Thus you may keep your meat hot a long time, and it is better than over-roasting and spoiling the meat.  The steam of the water keeps the meat hot, and don’t draw the gravy out, or dry it up; whereas if you set a dish of any meat any time over a chaffing-dish of coals, it will dry up all the gravy, and spoil the meat.

To dress Greens, Roots, &c.

Always be careful that your greens be nicely picked and washed.  You should lay them in a clean pan, for fear of sand or dust, which is apt to hand round the wooden vessels.  Boil all your greens in a copper sauce-pan by themselves, with a great quantity of water.  Boil no meat with them, for that discolours them.  Use no iron pans, &c. for they are not proper; but let them be copper, brass, or silver.

To dress spinach.

Pick it very clean, and wash it in five or six waters; put it in a sauce-pan that will just hold it, throw a little salt over it, and cover the pan close.  Don’t put any water in, but shake the pan often.  You must put your sauce-pan on a clear quick fire.  As soon as you find the greens are shrunk and fallen to the bottom, and that the liquor which comes out of them boils up, they are enough.  Throw them into a clean sieve to drain, and just give them a little squeeze.  Lay them in a plate, but never put any butter on it, but put it in a cup.

To dress cabbages, &c.

Cabbage, and all sorts of young sprouts, must be boiled in a great deal of water.  When the stalks are tender, or fall to the bottom, they are enough; then take them off, before they lose their colour.  Always throw salt in your water before you put your greens in.  Young sprouts you send to table just as they are, but cabbage is best chopped and put into a sauce-pan with a good piece of butter, stirring it for about five or six minutes, till the butter is all melted, and then send it to table.

To dress carrots.

Let them be scraped very clean, and when they are enough rub them in a clean cloth, then slice them into a plate, and pour some melted butter over them.  If they are young spring carrots, half an hour will boil them; if large, an hour; but old Sandwich carrots will take two hours.

To dress turnips.

They eat best boiled in the pot, and when enough take them out and put them in a pan and mash them with butter and a little salt, and send them to table.  But you may do them thus:  pare your turnips, and cut them into dice, as big as the top of one’s finger; put them into a clean saucepan, and just cover them with water.  When enough, throw them into a sieve to drain, and put them into a saucepan with a good piece of butter; stir them over the fire for five or six minutes, and send them to table.

To dress parsnips.

They should be boiled in a great deal of water, and when you find they are soft (which you will know by running a fork into them) take them up, and carefully scrape all the dirt off them, and then with a knife scrape them all fine, throwing away all the sticky parts; then put them into a saucepan with some milk, and stir them over the fire till they are thick.  Take great care they don’t burn, and add a good piece of butter and a little salt, and when the butter is melted send them to table.

To dress brockala (broccoli).

Strip all the little branches off till you come to the top one, then with a knife peel off all the hard outside skin, which is on the stalks and little branches, and throw them into water.  Have a stew-pan of water with some salt in it:  when it boils put in the brockala, and when the stalks are tender it is enough, then send it to table with butter in a cup.  The French eat oil and vinegar with it.

To dress potatoes.

You must boil them in as little water as you can, without burning the sauce-pan.  Cover the saucepan close, and when the skin begins to crack they are enough.  Drain all the water out, and let them stand covered for a minute or two; then peel them, lay them in your plate, and pour some melted butter over them.  The best ways to do them is, when they are peeled to lay them on a gridiron till they are of a fine brown, and send them to table.  Another way is to put them into a saucepan with some good beef dripping, cover them close, and shake the saucepan often for fear of burning to the bottom.  When they are of a fine brown and crisp, take them up in a plate, then put them into another for fear of the fat, and put butter in a cup.

To dress cauliflowers.

Take your flowers, cut off all the green part, and then cut the flowers into four, and lay them into water for an hour:  then have some milk and water boiling, put in the cauliflowers, and be sure to skim the sauce-pan well.  When the stalks are tender, take them carefully up, and put them into a cullender to drain:  then put a spoonful of water into a clean stew-pan with a little dust of flour, about a quarter of a pound of butter, and shake it round till it is all finely melted, with a little pepper and salt; then take half the cauliflower and cut it as you would for pickling, lay it into the stew-pan, turn it, and shake the pan round.  Ten minutes will do it.  Lay the stewed in the middle of your plate, and the boiled round it.  Pour the butter you did it in over it, and send it to table.

To dress French beans.

First string them, then cut them in two, and afterwards across:  but if you would do them nice, cut the bean into four, and then across, which is eight pieces.  Lay them into water and salt, and when your pan boils put in some salt and the beans:  when they are tender they are enough; they will be soon done.  Take care they do not lose their fine green.  Lay them in a plate, and have butter in a cup.

To dress artichokes.

Wring off the stalks, and put them into the water cold, with the tops downwards, so that all the dust and sand may boil out.  When the water boils, an hour and a half will do them.

To dress asparagus.

Scrape all the stalks very carefully till they look white, then cut all the stalks even alike, throw them into water, and have ready a stew-pan boiling.  Put in some salt, and tie the asparagus in little bundles.  Let the water keep boiling, and when they are a little tender take them up.  If you boil them too much you lose both colour and taste.  Cut the round of a small loaf about half an inch thick, toast it brown on both sides, dip it in the asparagus liquor, and lay it in your dish:  pour a little butter over the toast, then lay your asparagus on the toast all round the dish, with the white tops outward.  Don’t pour butter over the asparagus, for that makes them greasy to the fingers, but have your butter in a bason, and send it to table.

Directions concerning garden things.

Most people spoil garden things by over-boiling them.  All things that are green should have a little crispness, for if they are over-boiled they neither have any sweetness or beauty.

To dress beans and bacon.

When you dress beans and bacon, boil the bacon by itself, and the beans by themselves, for the bacon will spoil the colour of the beans.  Always throw some salt into the water, and some parsley nicely picked.  When the beans are enough (which you will know by their being tender) throw them into a cullender to drain.  Take up the bacon and skin it; throw some raspings of bread over the top, and if you have an iron make it red-hot and hold over it, to brown the top of the bacon:  if you have not one, set it before the fire to brown.  Lay the beans in the dish, and the bacon in the middle of the top, and send them to table with butter in a bason.

To make gravy for a turkey, or any sort of fowls.

Take a pound of the lean part of the beef, hack it with a knife, flour it well, have ready a stew-pan with a piece of fresh butter.  When the butter is melted put in the beef, fry it till it is brown, and then pour in a little boiling water.  Stir it altogether, and put in two or three blades of mace, four or five cloves, some whole pepper, an onion, a bundle of sweet herbs, a little crust of bread baked brown, and a little piece of carrot.  Cover it close, and let it stew till it is as good as you would have it.  This will make a pint of rich gravy.

To draw mutton, beef, or veal gravy.

Take a pound of meat, cut it very thin, lay a piece of bacon about two inches long, at the bottom of the stew-pan or sauce-pan, and lay the meat on it.  Lay in some carrot, and cover it close for two or three minutes, then pour in a quart of boiling water, some spice, onion, sweet herbs, and a little crust of bread toasted.  Let it do over a slow fire, and thicken it with a little piece of butter rolled in flour.  When the gravy is as good as you would have it, season it with salt, and then strain it off.  You may omit the bacon, if you dislike it.

To burn butter for thickening of sauce.

Set your butter on the fire, and let it boil till it is brown, then shake in some flour, and stir it all the time it is on the fire till it is thick.  Put it by, and keep it for use.  A little piece is what the cooks use to thicken and brown their sauce:  but there are few stomachs it agrees with, therefore seldom make use of it.

To make gravy.

If you live in the country, where you cannot always have gravy-meat, when your meat comes from the butcher’s take a piece of beef, a piece of veal, and a piece of mutton:  cut them into as small pieces as you can, and take a large deep sauce-pan with a cover, lay your beef at bottom, then your mutton, then a very little piece of bacon, a slice or two of carrot, some mace, cloves, whole pepper black and white, a large onions cut in slices, a bundle of sweet herbs, and then lay in your veal.  Cover it close over a slow fire for six or seven minutes, shaking the sauce-pan now and then; then shake some flour in, and have ready some boiling water; pour it in till you cover the meat and something more.  Cover it close, and let it stew till it is quite rich and good; then season it to your taste with salt, and then strain it off.  This will do for most things.

To make gravy for soups, &c.

Take a leg of beef, cut and hack it, put it into a large earthen pan; put to it a bundle of sweet herbs, two onions stuck with a few cloves, a blade or two of mace, a piece of carrot, a spoonful of whole pepper black and white, and a quart of stale beer.  Cover it with water, tie the pot down close with a brown paper rubbed with butter, send it to the oven, and let it be well baked.  When it comes home, strain it through a course sieve; lay the meat into a clean dish as you strain it, and keep it for use.  It is a fine thing in a house, and will serve for gravy, thickened with a piece of butter, red wine, catchup, or whatever you have a mind to put in, and is always ready for soups of most sorts.  If you have peas ready boiled, your soup will soon be made:  or take some of the broth and some vermicelli, boil it together, fry a French roll and put in the middle, and you have a good soup.  You may add a few truffles and morels, or celery stewed tender, and then you are always ready.

To bake a leg of beef.

Do it just in the same manner as before directed in the making gravy for soups, &c. and when it is baked, strain it through a coarse sieve.  Pick out all the sinews and fat, and put them into a sauce-pan with a few spoonfuls of the gravy, a little red wine, a little piece of butter rolled in flour, and some mustard, shake your sauce-pan often, and when the sauce is hot and thick, dish it up, and send it to table.  It is a pretty dish.

To bake an ox’s head.

Do just the same manner as the leg of beef is directed to be done in making the gravy for soups, &c. and it does full as well for the same uses.  If it should be too strong for any thing you want it for, it is only putting some hot water to it.  Cold water will spoil it.

To boil pickled pork.

Be sure you put it in when the water boils.  If a middling piece, an hour will boil it; if a very large piece, an hour and a half, or two hours.  If you boil pickled pork too long, it will go to a jelly.

The Art of Cookery: Receipts for the Sick, Part 2/2

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Hannah Glasse BookHere’s the second part of the chapter on “Receipts for the Sick.”  There are some suprising ingredients in this section below; surprising in the sense that it seems that the “average” household (which could afford servants and cooks) would have had access to things like China root, balsam of Tolu, and liquorice.  Next up will be chapter 1, “Of Roasting, Boiling &c.”


Receipts for the Sick Part 2/2

To make panada*.

You must take a quart of water in a nice clean sauce-pan, a blade of mace, a large piece of crumb of bread; let it boil two minutes, then take out the bread, and bruise it in a bason very fine.  Mix as much water as well make it as thick as you would have; the rest pour away, and sweeten it to your palate.  Put in a piece of butter as big as a walnut, don’t put in any wine, it spoils it; you may grate in a little nutmeg.  This is hearty and good diet for sick people.

[*Panada is a thick paste made with flour, breadcrumbs, etc.  with milk, water, stock, butter or sometimes egg yolks.  It is also the name of several kinds of soup using this paste as a base.]

To boil sago*.

Put a large spoonful of sago into three quarters of a pint of water, stir it, and boil it softly till it is as thick as you would have it; then put in wine and sugar, with a little nutmeg to your palate.

[*Sago is a thickener made from palm starch, in a powdered form.]

To boil salup*.

It is a hard stone ground to powder, and generally sold for one shilling an ounce:  take a large tea spoonful of the powder and put it into a pint of boiling water, keep stirring it till it is like a fine jelly; then put wine and sugar to your palate, and lemon, if it will agree.

[*Salup, or also spelled saloop, salob, saleb, or any other variant of the phonetics, was a popular hot beverage in the 17th & 18th centuries; it is still sold in eastern Mediterranean lands as salep.  It is made from the powdered roots of a particular orchid which is then added to boiling milk and sugar, then sprinkled with cinnamon just before serving.  The salup thickens much like arrowroot, and it’s ready to drink when it is as thick as runny mashed potatoes.  It’s basically tasteless, so arrowroot or cornstarch could be substituted.]

To make isinglass* jelly.

Take a quart of water, one ounce of isinglass, half an ounce of cloves; boil them to a pint, then strain it upon a pound of sugar, and when cold sweeten your tea with it.  You may make the jelly as above, and leave out the cloves.  Sweeten to your palate, and add a little wine.  All other jellies you have in another chapter.

[*Isinglass is a form of gelatine made from the air bladders of fish such as the sturgeon; it was used as a glue, as well as a clarifying agent for beer and wine.]

To make the pectoral* drink.

Take a gallon of water, and half a pound of pearl barley, boil it with a quarter of a pound of figs split, a pennyworth of liquorice sliced to pieces, a quarter of a pound of raisins of the sun stoned (seeds removed); boil all together till half is wasted, then strain it off.  This is ordered in the measles, and several other disorders, for a drink.

[*In this context, it is referring to a remedy that is good for diseases of the chest or lungs.]

To make buttered water, or what the Germans call egg-soop (Eiersuppe), who are very fond of it for supper.  You have it in the chapter for Lent.

Take a pint of water, beat up the yolk of an egg with the water, put in a piece of butter as big as a small walnut, two or three knobs of sugar, and keep stirring it all the time it is on the fire.  When it begins to boil, bruise it between the sauce-pan and a mug till it is smooth, and has a great froth; then it is fit to drink.  This is ordered in a cold, or where egg will agree with the stomach.

To make seed water.

Take a spoonful of coriander seed, half a spoonful of caraway seed bruised* and boiled in a pint of water; then strain it and bruise it with the yolk of an egg.  Mix it with sack and double-refined sugar, according to your palate.

[*Bruise:  Often used in this book, it refers to crushing, grinding, or mashing to one degree or another.]

To make bread soop (soup) for the sick.

Take a quart of water, set it on the fire in a clean sauce-pan, and as much dry crust of bread cut to pieces as the top of a penny loaf, the drier the better, a bit of butter as big as a walnut; let it boil, then beat it with a spoon, and keep boiling it till the bread and water is well mixed:  then season it with a very little salt, and it is a pretty thing for a weak stomach.

To make artificial asses-milk.

Take two ounces of pearl-barley, two large spoonfuls of hartshorn shavings, one ounce of eringo root, one ounce of China root, one ounce of preserved ginger, eighteen snails bruised with the shells, to be boiled in three quarts of water, till it comes to three pints, then boil a pint of new milk, mix it with the rest, and put in two ounces of balsam of Tolu.  Take half a pint in the morning, half a pint at night.

[Ass: Yep, the animal.

Hartshorn:  the powder ground from the antlers of a hart; it was once used as a source of ammonia, and a precursor to baking soda and baking powder; it’s a leavening ingredient.  Interestingly, it breaks down into a gas when heated, which causes the leavening, but if it is not allowed to escape will leave the taste and odour or ammonia; it was mainly used in light batters, where it wouldn’t have far to reach the surface to escape.

Eringo root:  Also spelled Eryngo, it is the Eryngium campestre.  It was used medicinally for treating coughs and urinary infections; the roots were sometimes candied, or boiled and roasted to serve as a vegetable.  There are warnings attached to the usage and dosage of this herb, as it is still used.

China root:  This is a bit vague; it could refer to anything from Angelica roots, to dry lily bulbs; there are many roots from China that are still used in medicines today.

Balsam of Tolu:  This is a resin used in some cough syrups.  It is also used in perfumes, as it has a mellow but spicy aroma.  It is used on skin rashes, though it is also known to cause some skin allergies.  Its flavour notes are similar to cinnamon and vanilla.]

Cows milk, next to asses milk, done thus.

Take a quart of milk, set it in a pan overnight, the next morning take off all the cream, then boil it, and set it in the pan again till night, then skim it again, boil it, set it in the pan again, and the next morning skim it, warm it blood-warm, and drink it as you do asses milk.  It is very near as good, and with some consumptive people it is better.

To make a good drink.

Boil a quart of milk, and a quart of water, with the top-crust of a penny-loaf and one blade of mace, a quarter of an hour very softly, then pour it off, and when you drink it let it be warm.

To make barley water.

Put a quarter of a pound of pearl-barley into two quarts of water, let it boil, skim it very clean, boil half away, and strain it off.  Sweeten to your palate, but not too sweet, and put in two spoonfuls of white wine.  Drink it lukewarm.

To make sage tea.

Take a little sage, a little baum*, put it into a pan, slice a lemon, peel and all, a few knobs of sugar, one glass of white wine, pour on these two or three quarts of boiling water, cover it and drink when dry.  When you think it strong enough of the herbs, take them out, otherwise it will make it bitter.

[*Baum:  This is vague; Baum is the German word for tree; she could be referring to a ground bark, or it could be a misspelling or phonetic spelling of “Berme”, which was a yeast used in leavening, similar to that which is found in fermenting malt liquor froth.]

To make it for a child.

A little sage, baum, rue*, mint and penny-royal**, pour boiling water on, and sweeten to your palate.  Syrup of cloves, &c. and black-cherry water, you have in the Chapter of Preservatives.

[*Rue is a medicinal herb that has been used in cuisines since at least ancient Rome.  It is quite bitter, so needs to be used sparingly; too much can cause gastric pain.

** Pennyroyal:  Even though its oil is extremely poisonous, this herb from the mint family has been used as a culinary herb since ancient Rome.]

Liquor for a child that has the thrush.

Take half a pint of spring water, a knob of double-refined sugar, a very little bit of alum, beat it well together with the yolk of an egg, then beat it in a large spoonful of the juice of sage, tie a rag to the end of the stick, dip it in this liquor, and often clean the mouth.  Give the child overnight one drop of laudanum, and the next day proper physic, washing the mouth often with the liquor.

To boil comfrey roots.

Take a pound of comfrey-roots, scrape them clean, cut them into little pieces, and put them into three pints of water.  Let them boil till there is about a pint, then strain it, and when it is cold, put it into a sauce-pan.  If there is any settling at the bottom, throw it away; mix it with sugar to your palate, half a pint of mountain wine, and the juice of a lemon.  Let it boil, then pour it into a clean earthen pot, and set it by for use.  Some boil it in milk, and it is very good where it will agree and is reckoned a great strengthener.

The Art of Cookery: Receipts for the Sick, Part 1/2

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Following on from last weeks’ post, Hannah Glasse wrote a note to the reader, which in and of itself is entertaining, informative and historical.  She minces no words on her disdain for the French, so to my French readers I ask that they please take it on the chin with a pinch of salt and a wink!  I’ll post the note first, and then add a portion of section X, “Directions to prepare proper Food for the Sick.”  Without further ado:


Hannah Glasse Book

Here’s a sample of the original text; I’m gradually reading / typing my way through to a cleaner, searchable document…

Mace is the lacy casing around the seed known as nutmeg; the ones I’ve seen are white, but they can also be reddish brown.  If you can’t buy mace as such, nutmeg will substitute just as well.   By bruising, I’m assuming that it would be beating it to either soften it, or draw out the blood to the surface (bruising is a common term in this book, for various meats).  Beating the cock (rooster) would probably fall under the same category as bruising – to soften the meat (I can imagine that their basic meat products were quite a bit stringier / tougher / leaner than what we know today…).

Hannah Glasse’s “To the Reader.”

I Believe I have attempted a branch of Cookery, which nobody has yet thought worth their while to write upon:  but as I have both seen, and found, by experienced, that the generality of servants are greatly wanting in that point, therefore I have taken upon me to instruct them in the best manner I am capable; and, I dare say, that every servant who can but read will be capable of making a tolerable good cook, and those who have the least notion of Cookery cannot miss of being very good ones.

If I have not wrote in the high polite style, I hope I shall be forgiven; for my intention is to instruct the lower sort, and therefore must treat them in their own way.  For example:  when I bid them lard a fowl, if I should bid them lard with large lardoons, they would not know what I meant; but when I say they must lard with little pieces of bacon, they know what I mean.  So, in many other things in Cookery, the great cooks have such a high way of expressing themselves, that the poor girls are at a loss to know what they mean:  and in all Receipt Books yet printed, there are such an odd jumble of things as would quite spoil a good dish; and indeed some things so extravagant, that it would be almost a shame to make use of them, when a dish can be made full as good, or better, without them.  For example:  when you entertain ten or twelve people, you shall use for a cullis, a leg of veal and a ham, which, with the other ingredients, makes it very expensive, and all this only to mix with other sauce.  And again, the essence of ham for sauce to on dish; when I will prove it, for about three shillings I will make as rich and high a sauce as all that will be, when done.  For example:

Take a large deep stew-pan, half a pound of bacon, fat and lean together, cut the fat and lay it over the bottom of the pan; then take a pound of veal, cut it into thin slices, beat it well with the back of a knife, lay it all over the bacon; then have six-penny worth of the coarse lean part of the beef cut thin and well beat, lay a layer of it all over, with some carrot, then the lean of the bacon cut thin and laid over that:  then cut two onions and strew over, a bundle of sweet-herbs, four or five blades of mace, six or seven cloves, a spoonful of whole pepper, black and white together, half a nutmeg beat, a pigeon beat all to pieces, lay that all over, half an ounce of truffles and morels, then the rest of your beef, a good crust of bread toasted very brown and dry on both sides:  you may add an old cock beat to pieces; cover it close, and let it stand over a slow fire two or three minutes, then pour on boiling water enough to fill the pan, cover it close, and let it stew till it is as rich as you would have it, and then strain off all that sauce.  Put all your ingredients together again, fill the pan with boiling water, put in a fresh onions, a blade of mace, and a piece of carrot; cover it close, and let it stew till it is as strong as you want it.  This will be full as good as the essence of ham for all sorts of fowls, or indeed most made-dishes, mixed with a glass of wine, and two or three spoonfuls of catchup.  When your first gravy is cool, skim off all the fat, and keep it for use. – This falls far short of the expense of a leg of veal and ham, and answers every purpose you want.

If you go to market, the ingredients will not come to above half a crown, or for about eighteen-pence you may make as much good gravy as will serve twenty people.

Take twelve-penny worth of coarse lean beef, which will be six or seven pounds, cut it all to pieces, flour it well, take a quarter of a pound of good butter, put it into a little pot or large deep stew-pan, and put in your beef:  keep stirring it, and when it begins to look a little brown, pour in a pint of boiling water; stir it all together, put in a large onion, a bundle of sweet herbs, two or three blades of made, five or six cloves, a spoonful of whole pepper, a crust of bread toasted, and a piece of carrot; then pour in four or five quarts of water, stir all together, cover close, and let it stew till it is as rich as you would have it; when enough, strain it off, mix it with two or three spoonfuls of catchup, and half a pint of white wine; then put all the ingredients together again, and put in two quarts of boiling water, cover it close, and let it boil till there is about a pint; strain it off well, add it to the first, and give it a boil together.  This will make a great deal of rich good gravy.

You may leave out the wine, according to what use you want it for; so that really one might have a genteel entertainment, for the price the sauce of one dish comes to:  but if gentlemen will have French cooks, they must pay for French tricks.

A Frenchman in his own country will dress a fine dinner of twenty dishes, and all genteel and pretty, for the expense he will put an English lord to for dressing one dish.  But then there is the little petty profit.  I have heard of a cook that used six pounds of butter to fry twelve eggs; when everybody knows (that understands cooking) that half a pound is full enough, or more than need be used; but then it would not be French.  So much is the blind folly of this age, that they would rather be imposed on by a French booby, than give encouragement to a good English cook!

I doubt I shall not gain the esteem of those gentlemen; however, let that be as it will, it little concerns me; but should I be so happy as to gain the good opinion of my own sex, I desire no more; that will be a full recompence for all my trouble; and I only beg the favour of every lade to read my Book throughout before they censure me, and then I flatter myself I shall have their approbation.

I shall not take upon me to meddle in the physical way farther than two receipts, which will be of use to the public in general: one is for the bit of a mad dog: and the other, if a man would be near where the plague is, he shall be in no danger; which, if made use of, would be found of very great service to those who go abroad.

Nor shall I take upon me to direct a lady in the economy of her family, for every mistress does, or at least ought to know, what is most proper to be done there; therefore I shall not fill my Book with a deal of nonsense of that kind, which I am very well assured none will have regard to.

I have indeed given some of my dishes French names to distinguish them, because they are known by those names:  and where there is a great variety of dishes and a large table to cover, so there must be a variety of names for them; and it matters not whether they be called by a French, Dutch or English name, so they are good, and done with as little expence as the dish will allow of.

I shall say no more, only hope my Book will answer the ends I intend it for; which is to improve the servants, and save the ladies a great deal of trouble.

Chapter X:  Directions for the Sick (Part 1/2)

I don’t pretend to meddle here in the physical way; but a few directions for the cook, or nurse, I presume, will not be improper, to make such a diet, &c. as the doctor shall order.

To make mutton broth.

Take a pound of a loin of mutton, take off the fat, put to it one quart of water, let it boil and skim it well; then put in a good piece of upper-crust of bread, and one large blade of mace.  Cover it close, and let it boil slowly an hour; don’t stir it, but pour the broth clear off.  Season it with a little salt, and the mutton will be fit to eat.  If you boil turnips, don’t boil them in the broth, but by themselves in another sauce-pan.

To boil a scrag* of veal.

Set on the scrag a clean sauce-pan: to each pound of veal put a quart of water, skim it very clean, then put in a good piece of upper-crust, a blade of mace to each pound, and a little parsley tied with a thread.  Cover it close; then let it boil very softly two hours, and both broth and meat will be fit to eat.

[*Scrag:  the lean end of the neck of mutton or lamb.  Most likely a remnant of Old Norse in English, as skragg in Norwegian means a lean person, and skrog in Danish means skull, or carcass.]

To make beef or mutton broth for very weak people, who take but little nourishment.

Take a pound of beef, or mutton, or both together: to a pound put two quarts of water, first skin the meat and take off all the fat; then cut it into little pieces, and boil it till it comes to a quarter of a pint.  Season it with a very little corn of salt.  Skim off all the fat, and give a spoonful of this broth at a time.  To very weak people, half a spoonful is enough; to some a teaspoonful at a time; and to others a tea-cup full.  There is greater nourishment from this than anything else.

To make beef drink, which is ordered for weak people.

Take a pound of lean beef; then take off all the fat and skin, cut it into pieces, and put it into a gallon of water, with the under-crust of a penny-loaf, and a very little salt.  Let it boil till it comes to two quarts; then strain it off, and it is a very hearty drink.

To make pork broth.

Take two pounds of young pork; then take off the skin and fat, boil it in a gallon of water, with a turnip and a very little corn of salt.  Let it boil till it comes to two quarts, then strain it off, and let it stand till cold.  Take off the fat, then leave the settling at the bottom of the pan, and drink half a pint in the morning fasting, and hour before breakfast, and at noon, if the stomach will bear it.

To boil a chicken.

Let your sauce-pan be very clean and nice; when the water boils put in your chicken, which must be very nicely picked and clean, and laid in cold water a quarter of an hour before it is boiled; then take it out of the water boiling, and lay it in a pewter-dish.  Save all the liquor that runs from it in the dish, cut up your chicken all in joints in the dish; then bruise the liver very fine, add a little boiled parsley chopped very fine, a very little salt, and a very little grated nutmeg:  mix it all well together with two spoonfuls of the liquor of the fowl, and pour it into the dish with the rest of the liquor in the dish.  If there is not liquor enough, take two or three spoonfuls of the liquor it was boiled in, clap another dish over it; then set it over a chafing dish of hot coals five or six minutes, and carry it to table hot with the cover on.  This is better than butter, and lighter for the stomach, though some chuse it only with the liquor, and no parsley, nor liver, or any thing else, and that is according to different palates.  If it is for a very weak person, take off the skin of the chicken before you set it on the chaffing-dish.  If you roast it, make nothing but bread-sauce, and that is lighter than any sauce you can make for a weak stomach.

Thus you may dress a rabbit, only bruise but a little piece of the liver.

To boil pigeons.

Let your pigeons be cleaned, washed, drawn, and skinned.  Boil them in milk and water ten minutes, and pour over them sauce made thus:  take the livers parboiled, and bruise them find with as much parsley boiled and chopped fine.  Melt some butter, mix a little with the liver and parsley first, then mix all together, and pour over the pigeons.

To boil a partridge, or any other wild fowl.

When your water boils, put in your partridge, let it boil ten minutes; then take it up into a pewter-plate, and cut it in two, laying the insides next the plate, and have ready some bread-sauce made thus:  take the crumb of a halfpenny-roll, or thereabouts, and boil it in a half a pint of water, with a blade of mace.  Let it boil two or three minutes, pour away most of the water; then beat it up with a little piece of nice butter, a little salt, and pour it over the partridge.  Clap a cover over it; the set it over a chaffing-dish of coals four or five minutes, and send it away hot, covered close.

Thus you may dress any sort of wild fowl, only boiling it more or less, according to the bigness.  Ducks, take off the skins before you pour the bread-sauce over them; and if you roast them, lay bread-sauce under them.  It is lighter than gravy for weak stomachs.

To boil a plaice or flounder.

Let your water boil, throw some salt in; then put in your fish, boil it till you think it is enough, and take it out of the water in a slice to drain.  Take two spoonfuls of the liquor, with a little salt, a little grated nutmeg; then beat up the yolk of an eggs very well with the liquor, and stir in the egg; beat it well together, with a knife carefully slice away all the little bones round the fish, pour the sauce over it:  then set it over a chaffing-dish of coals for a minute, and sent it hot away.  Or in the room of this sauce, add melted butter in a cup.

To mince veal or chicken for the sick, or weak people.

Mince a chicken or some veal very fine, taking off the skin; just boil as much water as will moisten it, and no more, with a very little salt, grate a very little nutmeg; then throw a little flour over it, and when the water boils put in the meat.  Keep shaking it about over the fire a minute; then have ready two or three very thin sippets* toasted nice and brown, laid in the plate, and pour the mince-meat over it.

[*Sippet is the diminutive of sop, which was usually a small piece of bread to dip into a soup or broth.]

To pull a chicken for the sick.

You must take as much cold chicken as you think proper, take off the skin, and pull the meat into little bits as thick as a quill; then take the bones, boil them with a little salt till they are good, strain it; then take a spoonful of the liquor, a spoonful of milk, a little bit of butter, as big as a large nutmeg, rolled in flour, a little chopped parsley as much as will lie on a sixpence, and a little salt if wanted.  This will be enough for half a small chicken.  Put all together into the sauce-pan: then keep shaking it till it is thick, and pour it into a hot plate.

To make chicken broth.

You must take an old cock or large fowl, flay it; then pick off all the fat, and break it all to pieces with a rolling-pin:  put it into two quarts of water, with a good crust of bread, and a blade of mace.  Let it boil softly till it is as good as you would have it.  If you do it as it should be done, it will take five or six hours doing; pour it off, then put a quart more of boiling water, and cover it close.  Let it boil softly till it is good, and strain if off.  Season with a very little salt.  When you boil a chicken save the liquor, and when the meat is eat, take the bones, then break them and put to the liquor you boiled the chicken in, with a blade of mace and a crust of bread.  Let it boil till it is good, and strain it off.

To make chicken water.

Take a cock, or large fowl, flat it, then bruise it with a hammer, and put it into a gallon of water, with a crust of bread.  Let it boil half away, and strain it off.

To make a white caudle*.

You must take two quarts of water, mix in four spoonfuls of oatmeal, a blade or two of mace, a piece of lemon-peel, let it boil, and keep stirring it often.  Let it boil about a quarter of an hour, and take care it does not boil over; then strain it through a coarse sieve.  When you use it, sweeten it to your palate, grate in a little nutmeg, and what wine is proper; and if it is not for a sick person, squeeze in the juice of a lemon.

[*A caudle is a hot drink given to the sick, made of wine or ale, eggs, and bread.]

To make a brown caudle.

Boil the gruel as above, with six spoonfuls of oatmeal, and strain it; then add a quart of good ale, not bitter; boil it, then sweeten it to your palate, and add half a pint of white wine.  When you don’t put in white wine, let it be half ale.

To make a water-gruel.

You must take a pint of water, and a large spoonful of oatmeal; then stir it together, and let it boil up three or four times, stirring it often.  Don’t let it boil over, then strain it through a sieve, salt it to your palate, put in a good piece of fresh butter, brew it with a spoon till the butter is all melted, then it will be fine and smooth, and very good.  Some love a little pepper in it.

The Art of Cookery Made Plain and Easy – Introduction

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Art of Cookery Front Piece, Wikipedia

(Source: Wikipedia, public domain image)

The Art of Cookery made Plain and Easy was written in 1747 by Hannah Glasse (1708-1770), and played a dominant role in shaping the practices of domestic cooks in England and the American colonies for over one hundred years.  It can be found in facsimile prints in limited number, but I found a PDF through Google Books.  It is an excellent reference for historical writers, reenactors, and living museums.  Hannah wrote mostly for the “lower sort” as she called them, domestic servants who might not have had much exposure to various cooking techniques or ingredients before entering the service of a larger household.  She wrote it in a simple language, and can come across at times quite condescending; her writing style, spelling variations, and punctuation are in themselves a fascinating look at the standard of printing and editing, and what was most likely “acceptable English” of the times.  I’ve tried to leave it as-is (sometimes the auto-correct sneaks by even the most diligent), with all the capital letters (much like German, with nouns capitalized), spelling oddities and punctuation.

She had a very clear opinion as to what was right and wrong, how a thing was to be prepared and “there is no other way to do it right.”  Many of the receipts (recipes) are still known, such as Hasty Pudding or Yorkshire pudding, while others would be unthinkable – whole Woodcocks or Ortolans, or how to prepare meat when it’s begun to stink.  There were a surprising variety of spices, herbs and ingredients used; she even included a few Indian curry recipes, reflecting the East Indian connections.   She minced no words on what she thought of extravagant (read wasteful) French cooking habits, and her disdain was evident in numerous passages.  Her recipes were by no means all original; many were common sense, but many were also shamelessly plagiarised from other works.  There are recipes of how to certainly avoid the plague, how a ship’s captain could have food prepared for long voyages, and recipes for medicinal purposes.

A fascinating historical document, reference work and recipe source (many purely for the pleasure of grossing out your kids or guests), I’ve decided to post as much of the document as I can decipher.

Here’s the Introduction, and the “pre-index”:


The Art of Cookery, made Plain and Easy

Which far exceeds any Thing of the Kind yet published.


I.  How to Roast and Boil to Perfection every Thing necessary to be sent up to Table.

II.  Of Made-dishes.

III.  How expensive a French Cook’s Sauce is.

IV.  To make a Number of pretty little Dishes for a Supper or Side-dish, and little Corner-dishes for a great Table.

V.  To dress Fish.

VI.  Of Soups and Broths.

VII.  Of Puddings.

VIII.  Of Pies.

IX. For a Lent Dinner; a Number of good Dishes, which you may make use of at any other time.

X.  Directions to prepare proper Food for the Sick.

XI.  For Captains of Ships; how to make all useful Things for a Voyage; and setting out a Table on board a Ship.

XII.  Of Hogs Puddings, Sausages, &c.

XIII.  To pot and make Hams, &c.

XIV.  Of Pickling.

XV.  Of making Cakes, &c.

XVI.  Of Cheese-cakes, Creams, Jellies, Whip-Syllabubs, &c.

XVII.  Of made Wines, Brewing, French Bread, Muffins, &c.

XVIII.  Jarring Cherries and Preserves, &c.

XIX.  To make Anchovies, Vermicelli, Catchup, Vinegar, and to keep Artichokes, French beans, &c.

XX.  Of Distilling.

XXI.  How to market; The Season of the Year for Butchers Meat, Poultry, Fish, Herbs, Roots, and Fruit.

XXII.  A certain Cure for the Bite of a Mad Dog.  By Dr. Mead.

XXIII.  A Receipt to keep clear from Buggs.

To which are added, One hundred and fifty New and useful Receipts, and a Copious Index.

By a LADY.

A New Edition. with The Order of a Modern Bill of Fare, for each Month, in the Manner the Dishes are to be placed upon the Table.

Shipboard Journals during the Second World War: May – June 1945

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1995 - Raymond Dale Kuhns

Raymond Dale Kuhns, 1995

Here’s the final installment of the Shipboard Journal, from May to mid-June.  It is noted at the bottom that he had written more, but the rest was evidently lost – whether while he was still in the military, or in the subsequent years.  Raymond Dale Kuhns passed away 8 February 2004.  I saw him for the last time in October of 2003 when I went back to America for a visit; I told him at the time that I knew it would be the last time I’d see him this side of heaven, and that I would not be able to be there for his funeral (I live in Europe).  His response was typical:  He said, “Well that’s alright, I won’t be there either!”  I loved him dearly, and I miss him; but I did give him one final warning:  God had strict instructions not to allow him anywhere NEAR my mansion until I get there… no booby trapping allowed!

Shipboard Journals, May – June 1945

25 April 1945 (sent mail/received mail)  Received Easter pictures.  Just love the ones of my wife.

26 April 1945 Saw 10 carriers of British Fleet which was a  big encouragement.  Firing practice.

27 April 1945 (mail sent/mail received)  Underway to Okinawa.  More firng practice.  New war cruising watch.  Now at G-2.

30 April 1945.  G.Q. at 0200.  3 planes.  Did not close.  Started dusk and dawn alerts.

Summary:  What a Month!!  Interesting at Manila.  Sailboat incident.  Lost wedding band. Made Rate (grade of official standing of enlisted men). Dry Dock (Whooie).  Headed for Okinawa.  196 days since I have seen my family.  Sure miss them.

1 May 1945 –  Rolled D.C. (damage control?) at good contact. At 1305, called to G-2.  Exploded a mine.  We were headed right for it when lookout sighted it.  Explosion sent water 150 feet in the air.

2 May 1945. Arrived Okinawa.  No suicide raids.  Shelling beaches.

3 May 1945.  1000 left Okinawa in company with BB Tennesee.  Heard of suicide raids 6 hours after we left.  One DD who was stationed 3000 yards from us was hit with 5 suicides.

4 May 1945.  Big suicide raids on Okinawa and Jap reinforcements landed.  Believe God definitely answered prayers of protection on this mission.  It was too rainy all the time we were in Okinawa for raids.  Numerous ones feel we were fortunate and lucky, but as far as I am concerned, God gets the credit.

6 May 1945. (mail sent/mail received)  Arrived back in Leyte after  sinking floating nets earlier in the morning. Received 11 letters – more than I deserved for the ones I wrote this trip.

7 May 1945.  Liberty.  tramped through hills of  Samar.  Rest of day uneventful.  May 8 or 9- V.E. Day!!

9 May 1945  Into Dry Dock again.  Sound dome came loose.  Oh Me!!  Manicani Island.

10 May 1945.  Water hours.

11 May 1945.  Left dry dock.  Reported on ping line between Homonhon Island and Dinagat Island in Surigao Straits.  This is point of big Philippine naval battles.

12 May 1945.  Firing practice.  Shore bombard on Dinagat Island.

13 May 1945.  Firing Practice.  Held Vesper service in accordance with President’s request for prayers. Remembered and offered thanks for V.E. Day.  Mothers’ Day.  Sure miss you, Wanda.   Picked up loose sono buoy.

14 May 1945.  AA (anti-aircraft) Practice.  Knocked down sleeves, which indicates we could hit airplanes. Returned to Leyte.  Movies.  I played checkers.

15 May 1945. (mail sent/mail received).   Received 5 letters.  On liberty in Samar.  Boys couldn’t get over seeing WAC Camp – white women.  First group we have seen.  Played checkers again.

16 May 1945.  Starting on mail run.  Best and safest duty we could have gotten.

17 May 1945.  Arrived Zamboanga, Mindanao.  First stop on mail run.  Natives came out to ship in droves.  Bought large seashell.  Left at 1300.

18 May 1945.  Arrived Panay, second stop mail run.  PT boat came out so we didn’t go into port.  Left 0700.  Arrived Mindoro at 1900.  Showed movie.  Left 1000.

19 May 1945.  Arrived Manila 0600, left 1130.  Arrived Subic Bay 1500, left 0630.

21 May 1945.  Arrived Leyte 0600. Trip very uneventful.  No mail.  I was sort of disappointed.  Attended U.S.O. show on beach.  Oklahoma – very good under conditions.

22 May 1945.  Left 0930 for Guivan Roadstead.  Arrived 11:00.  Got stores, had movie in PM (I played checkers).

23 May 1945.  Left 0600.  Arrived Leyte 0800.  Left Leyte at 1000 for San Bernadine Straits.

24 May 1945.  Arrived on patrol station in straits. Boiler trouble, so we head back to Leyte.

25 May 1945.  (mail sent/mail received).  Saw 2 water spouts.  Arrived back home.  Received 3 letters.

26 May 1945 (mail sent/mail received)   Received 2 more letters today.  Got 2 Cokes off Medusa, Oh Boy!  2 for a nickel.

26 May to 9 June 1945.  Tied up alongside Medusa.  Enjoyed being able to get Cokes, Ice Cream, liberty every third day, and movies every night.  One  fellow went nuts and run off in the woods.  Not such a bad idea.  It got him back to the states.  Good church services on Medusa.

10 June 1945. Underway 1800 for Calicoan to get supplies.

11 June 1945.  Helped get stores on beach.  Missed good turkey dinner.  Left for Leyte about 1800.  Just got outside nets when we discovered 3 men left behind, so we turned around.

12 June 1945.  Headed for Leyte with full crew. Then headed out for patrol halfway between Leyte and  Yap. Firing practice.

15 June 1945. Dropped hedge hogs [A type of depth charge employed against U-Boats which were thrown ahead of the ASW ship. These devices were designed to explode on contact.].  Probably scared fish.  Sub reported sighted in our area, but we didn’t get any good contacts.

17 June 1945.  FATHERS’ DAY.  Oh me!  Here I am way out here. Headed for tropical storm area to investigate storm.  This navy is NUTS at times!!

and he signed off “This is all I have”  – apparently there was more that somehow got lost to us.

Shipboard Journals during the Second World War: March – April 1945

Posted on
1965 - Raymond Kuhns, age 45, DH - on joining State Farm Ins

Raymond Kuhns, age 45, taken in 1965.

Here is a continuation of the first post, journal entries from November 1944 to February 1945.  I will add a comment to the first post with a few pieces of interesting trivia from my mother relating to that post.

Back in the mid-1980s I was in the Philippines for two months, living near the Subic Bay Naval Base just across a bridge from Olongapo.  I saw up close and personal the temptations men in the military face, and for a Christian man such as my grandfather, he had to try and find alternatives to “going out with the boys” on liberty, though often the Red Light District was (and is) where the restaurants were, so it was a Catch 22.  When I was living there I was working with a Christian missions organisation among the prostitutes, drug dealers and pimps, as well as those who worked in street shop/booths (I’m still in touch with one or two!), and our home was a place for the Christian military men to come and hang out when they were off-duty; nearly every day I’d come down to the living room to find strangers there, reading or talking.  I don’t know if he had such a place back then, but fisherman’s missions and military missions are far more common now, because the temptations (the sex industry, drugs, alcohol, etc.) are more rampant than ever.  When I returned to the States he enjoyed talking to me about Subic and the PI as he knew it, and I think it was special for him to talk to his granddaughter who had seen some of the places and things he’d seen so many years before.

Journal Entries, March – April 1945


1 March 1945.  This month started off with a bang.  Dropped D.C. (depth charges)- 5 of them in the middle of the night.  I was on helm.  Boys sleeping really thought we got it. Entered Mindoro.

2-5 March 1945.  (mail sent/mail received) A/S duty Mangatin Bay.  Got mail, which means they transferred us here for duty.

6 March 1945. Off Manila Bay A/S duty, then returned to Mangatin Bay.

7 March 1945.  Entered Bay for fueling.

8,9,10 March, 1945. Another A/S* sweep to Luzon. (*anti-mine sweep)

11 March 1945.  Back to A/S Mindoro.

12 March 1945.  (mail sent/mail received).  Got mail via ship that had been in Port.  Proceeded into Bay and got more mail.

14 March 1945. Availability cancelled.  A ship on A/S sweep run aground we had to relieve it.  Just our luck.

15-18 March 1945.  A/S sweep and on 18 entered Mangarin for 2 days availablity.

19 March 1945.  Liberty in Mindoro.  Quite a place.  Rode in a jeep with army captain to San Jose.  Saw sugar mill that was hit by P-47 in morning.  Saw unit of paratroopers who made landings on Corrigedor.  Helped sort mail at P.O.  FINALLY got Christmas presents. Included billfold, leather toilet kit, shower shoes, pictures, and wedding band.  Every gift perfect.  One box of candy had to be thrown away.  Really enjoyed it even though it was late.

20-23 March 1945.  A/S sweep off Mindoro.

24-25 March 1945. (mail sent/mail received)  A/S sweep to Luzon and returned.  Fueled and got underway for Leyte.  These two days were roughest I have seen.  Had to strap myself in sack.  Did not get sick.  36 bags Christmas mail.

26-28 March 1945.  Escorting Army tug with barge at 3-1/2 knots.  No wonder it took us 4 days to get here.  Entered San Pedro Bay.

29-31 March 1945. (sent mail/received mail).  Available for maintenance.  We got 11 bags of mail, but most of it was rest of Christmas packages.

Summary:  Most of this month was spent on ping line of A/S duty.  The first was most amusing.  Christmas packages really helped our moral.  Nothing exciting or dangerous.

1-4 April 1945.  (mail sent/mail received)  In San Pedro Bay.  Received one liberty – had interesting conversation with Philippine guerrila.  Scabby sores on natives pathetic sight.  Still getting good mail service.  Red Light District.

(Note: the “scabby sores” were probably secondary syphillis – sailors often given penicillin IM before they let them off the boat!)

5 April 1945. Underway to Manila.  3 escorts with one troop ship.  15 knots – exceptionally fast convoy.

7 April 1945.  Arrived Manila. Passed very close to Corregidor and got a good look at it.  Liberty in Manila.  What a place.  Harbor full of sunken Jap ships.  Every building in business district damaged.  Most of them blown to bits.  Saw Jap mass-burial place.  Cars that looked like strainers.  Eats very high – 75 cents for one scoop ice cream.  Rode in cart affair (horse-drawn) through town cost us $2.50.  Men came back to ship drunk and not virgins.  People dress very American.  Had to wear whites on this liberty.  Really got my first glimpse of war devastation.  Got stamps and money souvenirs.

8-9 April 1945. Anchored in Manila harbor.  No mail service here at all.

10 April 1945.  Left Manila for Leyte

11 April 1945.  All hell broke loose at 1130.  We rammed native sailboat that was carrying 42 persons.  Called to G.Q.  As I was asleep, I really bounced out of my sack when alarm sounded.   Arrived at G.Q. station and heard hysterical screams of survivors and saw them as we illuminated them.  Picked up 37 survivors.  Continued search.  Picked up 2 small babies floating face down.  Dead when rescued, but boys worked feverishly for 3 hours with artificial respiration, but no luck.

12 April 1945.  (sent mail/received mail)  0330 another G.Q. with fire amidships.  I couldn’t imagine us having another G.Q. and just stood and listened to alarm, but when fire was announced, I tore up to station.  I was not in my sack at the time, as survivors had our compartment.  Two small girls had my bunk.  Fire not serious and confined to drying room.  Had 4-8 watch, so was up till 10:30 next night without sleep.  One small baby died from effects of night before.  Transferred the survivors around noon, as we arrived back in Leyte.  There were 36 alive (one expected to die), 3 dead, and 3 we could not find in the wreckage.  The miracle to me was the number that lived through the ordeal.  Saw anguish in mothers’ faces as they looked at dead children.  Saw and sympathized with those who missed their children.  The native craft was supposed to have been 50 feet in length and cost 10,000 pesos.  A very large native boat.  It was taking natives away from Japs on Mindanao.  We were first Americans they had seen since 1941. Doubt very much if they were happy to see us.  Made Y2C (Yeoman 2nd class).  Received authorization from ComSerfor.  Ship was very nice and did not make me wait for first of month.  That means treats for the boys.

13 April 1945.  (mail received)  Learned of President’s death (FDR).  Also got news of being 50 miles from Berlin.  Liberty at Pambujuan, Samar.  Pulled joke on chief regarding censorship regulations – very effective.

14 April 1945. LOST MY WEDDING BAND!  Don’t know how or where.  Did not eat morning chow, I felt so bad.  Hope my darling wife isn’t too mad at me for it.

15 April 1945.  (Mail sent/mail received)  Church on USS Medusa.  Memorial service for Roosevelt.  Very good.  Got our first fresh provisions in approx 3 months.  Received  letters from Wanda. Put 3 coats of paint on bottom of ship in 48 hours.  Not bad while in dry dock. Got us up at 5:30 for special sea details, then didn’t get away before 1100.  Purchased treats on ratings*. (Note:  *Rations?)

Shipboard Journals during the Second World War: November 1944 – February 1945

Posted on
1939 - 1 August, Wanda & Raymond Kuhns

Raymond & Wanda Kuhns, 1 August 1939

My grandfather, Raymond Dale Kuhns, was a clerk aboard the cruiser USS Metevier for 6-9 months during World War 2, based out of San Diego, California.  His typewriter was bolted to the desk, the desk to the floor, but his chair was on rollers; so he’d type a few letters before rolling away, and wait to roll back; ever after he typed with the hunt and peck method, as it apparently didn’t do much good to learn touch typing.

The document below is the on-board journal that he kept during that time, beginning in November 1944, through May 1945.  This first installment is November 1944 through February 1945, with more to follow in the coming weeks.  There are a few notes for clarity interspersed, written by my mother Connie, of stories he told her; she was three at the time.  While the journal entries are very matter-of-fact, without many personal “memoir” elements, it is still a fascinating historical insight to life aboard a ship during the Second World War.  My grandfather was the biggest practical joker I will ever care or dare to come into contact with; any practical jokes that happened aboard were more than likely instigated by him…

Ray Kuhns’ Shipboard Diary: November 1944 – February 1945

[Note of interest:  On board they slept in hammocks; once the guy above him jumped up at the call for general quarters, and knocked himself out on the overhead beam; needless to say he didn’t make it to his station on time…]

3 Nov. 1944 – Underway in heavy fog.

4 Nov 1944 – Loaded ammunition.  Dropped some down hatch!  Whew!

9 Nov. 1944 (mail sent)  Passed through gate to Limon Bay, Canal Zone, Panama.   Moored Coaling Pier, Cristobal.  Left (Nov) 10th, went through Miraflores Lock.

13 Nov. 1944 (mail sent)  Crossed equator at 0756.  Now a “Shellback”.  (Connie’s note- Dad told stories about the hazing men endured first time to cross the equator. – had to run a gauntlet of fire hoses in action,  a “swat-line” between the “old timers” hitting them with paddles,  all kinds of practical jokes, etc.).  Entered Deolian Cave, Baltna Island, Galapagos.  Saw 2 seals, fishing.  Left 14th.

25 Nov. 1944. (mail sent) Entered Bora Bora, Society Island.  Beautiful.  Purchased 2 grass skirts, bracelet, 2 sets beads.  Were they made in U.S.???  Left 26th  (Connie – “We probably still have the grass skirts – and I know there is a picture of AJ and I with them.  Also, the “beads” were small conch shells – probably also a pic somewhere, I’ll try to find it”).

Summary:  Month was uneventful.  Seasick first night out.  Never set my foot on land.  Received no mail.

3 Dec. 1944.    No such date for us.  Crossed the International Date Line.

6 Dec. 1944.  Missed wife on her birthday.  Great gal.  Made landfall on Solomon.  Skirted NW tip of Guadalcanal.  First liberty.  4 Cokes!!  Left 8 Dec.

11 Dec. 1944.  Entered Humbolt Bay, Dutch New Guinea (“Hollandia”)  Left 19th

14 Dec. 1944.  Connie’s birthday.  Miss the rascal.

25 Dec. 1944.  Miss my wife and kiddies especially.  First enemy contact. Dropped bomb.  One plane.  Undamaged or undamaging.

26 Dec. 1944.  Entered Leyte Gulf.  Left 27th.

Summary:  Looks like business is picking up.  I forgot to mention that Dec. 24th, we made our first depth charge attack.  No luck!  Amazed at mass of ships in Leyte.  No attacks while there.

15 Jan. 1945.  Leaving Lingayen Gulf for  Leyte??

16 Jan 1945. Friendly plane came out of clouds. G.Q. called (“general quarters”).  Came near firing.  From angle it approached, we couldn’t hardly of missed.  A real scare.

17 Jan. 1945.  0300 D.Disn. Convoy destroyed Jap barge.  Search light revealed several Japs in it.  Used 5″ and 40 mm.  Did not try to rescue any.

20 Jan. 1945. (mail sent/  mail received)  Entered San Pedro Bay, Leyte, Philippines.  Hope wife receives letter I wrote today.

26 Jan. 1945. Left Leyte for invasion of Luzon, just north of Subic Bay.

29 Jan. 1945.  14 hours minus 1 or 7:30 naval bombardment of beaches to begin.  However, 10 minutes before, Philippine guerillas came out and informed us territory taken.  So this invasion force of 60,000 landed without a shot being fired.  We are sitting 60 miles from Manila.  It is now mid-afternoon, and Japs have not contested invasion at all.  Things look good for us here.  Left 2000 for Leyte without once contacting enemy.

30 Jan 1945.  Ship in convoy was struck by torpedo.  No casualties.  Ship towed in and repaired.

This month really went fast!

1 Feb. 1945.  Arrived back in Leyte.  No action or alerts on return trip from Luzon.  Too late to go after mail!!!  SHUCKS!

2 Feb. 1945.  Liberty in Leyte.  6 Cokes!!  Learned foot soldiers’ view of our enemy.

3 Feb. 1945 (mail received/ mail sent)  Brought 2 monkeys and 2 roosters aboard.  Had to get rid of them.

6 Feb. 1945.  Left Leyte without getting any more mail.

11 Feb. 1945.  Arrived Woendi.  This is a group of coral islands near New Guinea.  Beautiful.  Like a vacation here.

12 Feb. 1945.  Liberty.  Played basketball, then went swimming.

13 Feb. 1945.  Received special liberty to play on baseball (softball) team.  Defeated tug 4 – 3 in 10 innings.  Won 4 cases beer and got 5 cases from ship.  The boys all came back stewed.  I had to drink one for thirst.  No fresh water available.

14 Feb, 1945,  Left this “rest camp” with memories of best time since leaving dear wife and kiddies.  Going back to front in all probability.  Feeling ready now.  Hope to get mail SOON!!

20 Feb. 1945.  (Mail received/ mail sent)  Arrived back on Leyte.  Trip back uneventful.  Received 24 letters. Boy oh Boy!

21 Feb, 1945.  Liberty.  Sold beer for $1,  gave other 3 away.

24 Feb, 1945, (mail sent/mail received).  Received 16 more letters.

25 Feb. 1945.  Attended church USS Wasatch.  Refused liberty. Stayed aboard and wrote letters.

27 Feb. 1945.  Left Leyte for Mindoro.  Glad to get away.  Poor liberty.

Summary:  This month very uneventful.  Enjoyed liberty at Woendi more than anything else.  Got fairly well caught up on mail.


Here are a few extra bits of trivia from my mother:

“4 Nov. ’44 –  the “Whew” was probably praise that the whole load had not exploded when some got dropped!

3 Feb. 1944 – He was probably one of the instigators bringing the monkeys and chickens aboard. ;o)  Knowing him I’d say he was THE instigator…

I only heard your grandpa talk once about the horrors he must have seen. – ships blown out of the water, etc.  He and my uncle Victor talked one Christmas when I was a teen about picking surviving mates off an adjacent ship in the fleet that had been torpedoed – and picking survivors out of the ocean.”

13 Feb ’45.  Your grandpa didn’t drink beer – of course his father (Reverend H.D. Kuhns) wouldn’t have liked it – although before H.D. was saved, he had “owned a dance hall” your grandpa told me after we were grown women.  So I’m sure beer at least was part of your great grandpa’s experience B.C.

25 Feb. ’45 –  Of course “liberty” for most meant finding liquor and women, which were not for your grandpa.  I am so thankful for the Christian heritage we have!!!!!”

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